Caturashra, Catur-ashra, Caturaśra: 18 definitions


Caturashra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Caturaśra can be transliterated into English as Caturasra or Caturashra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaturashra.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Caturaśra (चतुरश्र, “square”).—One of three main types of playhouses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.7-8. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.86-92, “ A plot of land, thirty-two cubits in length and breadth, is to be measured out in an auspicious moment, and on it the playhouse should be erected by experts in dramatic art. Rules, definitions and propitiatory ceremonies mentioned before [in case of a playhouse of the oblong (vikṛṣṭa) type] will also apply in case of that of the square type”

2) Caturasra (चतुरस्र) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘dance hands’ (nṛttahasta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

(Instructions of Caturasra): Two kaṭakāmukha hands held forward eight aṅgulīs away from one’s chest, the two shoulders and elbows on the same level. The dance-hands are to be used in forming karaṇas.

3) Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—The Vaiṣṇava Sthāna with the two hands moving about at the waist, and the navel together with the breast raised, is called the Caturasra of the limbs.

4) Caturasra (चतुरस्र) refers to one of the two limbs (aṅga) belonging to Khañjanātkuṭā type of song (dhruvā) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes”.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-six combined Hands).—Caturaśra (square): Kaṭaka-mukha hands are held before the chest. Patron deity Varāhi. Usage: churning, Jakkiṇī-naṭana, holding, milking, covering with cloths, wearing pearls, dragging ropes, tying the girdle, tying the bodice, holding flowers, etc., plying the fly-whisk.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the 2nd century Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Caturaśra is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 63, where it is listed in the group named Nāgara, containing 20 different prāsādas (temples/buildings).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र) refers to a “square site” (for the construction of houses), according to the Mohacūrottara (verse 4.234-243).—Accordingly, [while describing the construction of the maṭha]—“[...] In front of the maṭha, leaving a distance of the same [size], [houses should be built that are sized according to] the Siṃhāya in the south, the Vṛṣāya in the west, and the Dhvajāya in the east. Or they may be made as large as the patron wishes. They are on a square (caturaśra) site divided into five [parts along each side]. One should leave the intermediate spaces empty. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Caturasra (चतुरस्र) or Caturaśra  refers to “that which is oblongular” [?] and is used to describe certain types of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The comets that resemble clusters of stars are named Gaṇakā Ketus; they are 8 in number and are the sons of Prajāpati. Those that are oblongular [i.e., caturasra] in shape, are 204 in number and are the sons of Brahmā. The comets that resemble clusters of bamboo canes and that are as bright as the moon are named Kaṅkā Ketus; they are the sons of Varuṇa and are 32 in number. When they appear mankind will suffer miseries”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—Quadrilateral square. Note: Caturasra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey

Caturasra (चतुरस्र, “square”) refers to one of the layout designs for gardens and orchards mentioned in the Vṛkṣāyurveda: a Sanskrit text by written by Surapāla that deals with agriculture (kṛṣi).—Surapāla’s text mentions 170 species of plants including trees, shrubs and a few herbs, and deals with the laying out gardens and orchards and growing unusual trees. Layouts included designs such as caturasra (square).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Caturasra (चतुरस्र) (cf. Svādhiṣṭhāna) refers to a “square (a four sided figure)”, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Liṅga in svādhiṣṭhāna consists of six parts. It is, in other words, hexagonal. The pedestal in the centre of the Foundation is triangular with a point in the centre. This is reckoned here to be the square (a four sided figure) (caturasra) that is the geometric shape associated with this centre. This composite Liṅga-Yoni is the form Bhairava assumes. It is presented to the gods so that they can worship it and thereby receive its benefits.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Caturasra (चतुरस्र) refers to a “square (maṇḍalaka)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān said]: “Now I shall teach the offering manual which is auspicious and can bring about any effect. At the time of crop damage the [Nāgas] are agitated. Then the spell-master should prepare a square (caturasra) maṇḍalaka in the middle of the field or forest. Four filled jars should be placed [in the four directions]. Flowers should be scattered. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Caturasra (चतुरस्र) or Caturasrasusaṃsthana refers to “symmetrical bodies” and represents the first spoke (i.e., of the twelve-spoked wheel of time), according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—(cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 155, p. 150. Sthānāṅgasūtra 495, pp. 357-8.)

Caturasra-susaṃsthana is the first and best kind of body—of which there are 6 varieties.

  1. sama—(the more usual form) is a perfectly symmetrical body.
  2. nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala—the body is like a banyan-tree; the upper part is symmetrical but the lower does not correspond.
  3. sādi—the reverse of the second. The lower part is properly formed, but the upper part is not.
  4. kubja—hunchback. The neck, hands, and feet are property proportioned, but the torso is contracted and misshapen.
  5. vāmana—usually translated ‘dwarfish’—the reverse of kubja.
  6. huṇḍa—in which every part of the body is misshapen.
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र).—a. (for aśri-sri)

1) four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11.

2) symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः (babhūva tasyāścaturasraśobhi vapuḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.32. (-śraḥ, sraḥ) 1 a square.

2) a quardrangular figure.

3) (in astr.) Name of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions.

Caturaśra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and aśra (अश्र). See also (synonyms): caturasra.

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Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—a. (for aśri-sri)

1) four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11.

2) symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः (babhūva tasyāścaturasraśobhi vapuḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.32. (-śraḥ, sraḥ) 1 a square.

2) a quardrangular figure.

3) (in astr.) Name of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions.

Caturasra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and asra (अस्र). See also (synonyms): caturaśra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—mfn.

(-sraḥ-srā-sraṃ) Four cornered, quadrangular. n.

(-sraṃ) A square. E. catur four, and asra a corner.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र).—[adjective] four-cornered, regular, harmonious; [abstract] [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caturaśra (चतुरश्र):—[=catur-aśra] [from catur > catasṛ] mf(ā)n. four-cornered, quadrangular, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kauśika-sūtra; Pāṇini 5-4, 120; Harivaṃśa 12378] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] regular, [Jaina literature; Kumāra-sambhava i, 32] ([Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti v, 2, 60])

3) [v.s. ...] m. a quadrangular figure

4) [v.s. ...] a square, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) Name of the 4th and 8th lunar mansions, [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira]

6) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure

7) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] hasta) a particular position of the hands (in dancing)

8) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of various Ketus, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xi, 25]

9) [v.s. ...] n. a particular posture (in dancing), [Vikramorvaśī iv, 41/42 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

10) Caturasra (चतुरस्र):—[=catur-asra] [from catur > catasṛ] for -aśra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturasra (चतुरस्र):—[catura-sra] (sraḥ-srā-sraṃ) a. Four-cornered.

[Sanskrit to German]

Caturashra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturashra in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caturaśra (ಚತುರಶ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] having four angles (said of a plane figure bound by four sides).

2) [adjective] neatly arranged; kept in an orderly, systematic manner.

3) [adjective] agreeable; suitable; congenial.

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Caturaśra (ಚತುರಶ್ರ):—

1) [noun] = ಚತುರಶ್ರಲಘು [caturashralaghu].

2) [noun] anything (as a geometrical figure, plane area, etc.) that is square in shape.

3) [noun] the border between two countries; frontier.

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Caturasra (ಚತುರಸ್ರ):—[adjective] = ಚತುರಶ್ರ [caturashra]1.

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Caturasra (ಚತುರಸ್ರ):—

1) [noun] = ಚತುರಶ್ರ [caturashra]2 - 2.

2) [noun] (astrol.) the fourth and eighth houses from one’s birth house (in the horoscope).

3) [noun] (dance.) a posture of hands in which the upper arm is thrown outwards at the breast level, the hands brought to the breast with the forefinger and middle finger are bent to touch the tip of the thumb, while the little finger and ring-finger are bent but slight raised (depicting holding a garland).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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