Caturashra, Catur-ashra, Caturaśra: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Caturashra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Caturaśra can be transliterated into English as Caturasra or Caturashra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaturashra.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Caturaśra (चतुरश्र, “square”).—One of three main types of playhouses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.7-8. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.86-92, “ A plot of land, thirty-two cubits in length and breadth, is to be measured out in an auspicious moment, and on it the playhouse should be erected by experts in dramatic art. Rules, definitions and propitiatory ceremonies mentioned before [in case of a playhouse of the oblong (vikṛṣṭa) type] will also apply in case of that of the square type”

2) Caturasra (चतुरस्र) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘dance hands’ (nṛttahasta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

(Instructions of Caturasra): Two kaṭakāmukha hands held forward eight aṅgulīs away from one’s chest, the two shoulders and elbows on the same level. The dance-hands are to be used in forming karaṇas.

3) Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—The Vaiṣṇava Sthāna with the two hands moving about at the waist, and the navel together with the breast raised, is called the Caturasra of the limbs.

4) Caturasra (चतुरस्र) refers to one of the two limbs (aṅga) belonging to Khañjanātkuṭā type of song (dhruvā) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes”.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-six combined Hands).—Caturaśra (square): Kaṭaka-mukha hands are held before the chest. Patron deity Varāhi. Usage: churning, Jakkiṇī-naṭana, holding, milking, covering with cloths, wearing pearls, dragging ropes, tying the girdle, tying the bodice, holding flowers, etc., plying the fly-whisk.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the 2nd century Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Caturaśra is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 63, where it is listed in the group named Nāgara, containing 20 different prāsādas (temples/buildings).

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous (C) next»] — Caturashra in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—Quadrilateral square. Note: Caturasra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous (C) next»] — Caturashra in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey

Caturasra (चतुरस्र, “square”) refers to one of the layout designs for gardens and orchards mentioned in the Vṛkṣāyurveda: a Sanskrit text by written by Surapāla that deals with agriculture (kṛṣi).—Surapāla’s text mentions 170 species of plants including trees, shrubs and a few herbs, and deals with the laying out gardens and orchards and growing unusual trees. Layouts included designs such as caturasra (square).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (C) next»] — Caturashra in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Caturasra (चतुरस्र) or Caturasrasusaṃsthana refers to “symmetrical bodies” and represents the first spoke (i.e., of the twelve-spoked wheel of time), according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—(cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 155, p. 150. Sthānāṅgasūtra 495, pp. 357-8.)

Caturasra-susaṃsthana is the first and best kind of body—of which there are 6 varieties.

  1. sama—(the more usual form) is a perfectly symmetrical body.
  2. nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala—the body is like a banyan-tree; the upper part is symmetrical but the lower does not correspond.
  3. sādi—the reverse of the second. The lower part is properly formed, but the upper part is not.
  4. kubja—hunchback. The neck, hands, and feet are property proportioned, but the torso is contracted and misshapen.
  5. vāmana—usually translated ‘dwarfish’—the reverse of kubja.
  6. huṇḍa—in which every part of the body is misshapen.
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (C) next»] — Caturashra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र).—a. (for aśri-sri)

1) four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11.

2) symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः (babhūva tasyāścaturasraśobhi vapuḥ) Ku.1.32. (-śraḥ, sraḥ) 1 a square.

2) a quardrangular figure.

3) (in astr.) Name of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions.

Caturaśra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and aśra (अश्र). See also (synonyms): caturasra.

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Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—a. (for aśri-sri)

1) four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11.

2) symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः (babhūva tasyāścaturasraśobhi vapuḥ) Ku.1.32. (-śraḥ, sraḥ) 1 a square.

2) a quardrangular figure.

3) (in astr.) Name of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions.

Caturasra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and asra (अस्र). See also (synonyms): caturaśra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturasra (चतुरस्र).—mfn.

(-sraḥ-srā-sraṃ) Four cornered, quadrangular. n.

(-sraṃ) A square. E. catur four, and asra a corner.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturaśra (चतुरश्र).—[adjective] four-cornered, regular, harmonious; [abstract] [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caturaśra (चतुरश्र):—[=catur-aśra] [from catur > catasṛ] mf(ā)n. four-cornered, quadrangular, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kauśika-sūtra; Pāṇini 5-4, 120; Harivaṃśa 12378] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] regular, [Jaina literature; Kumāra-sambhava i, 32] ([Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti v, 2, 60])

3) [v.s. ...] m. a quadrangular figure

4) [v.s. ...] a square, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) Name of the 4th and 8th lunar mansions, [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira]

6) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure

7) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] hasta) a particular position of the hands (in dancing)

8) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of various Ketus, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xi, 25]

9) [v.s. ...] n. a particular posture (in dancing), [Vikramorvaśī iv, 41/42 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

10) Caturasra (चतुरस्र):—[=catur-asra] [from catur > catasṛ] for -aśra.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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