Akshama, Akṣama: 18 definitions


Akshama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Akṣama can be transliterated into English as Aksama or Akshama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Aksham.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Akṣama (अक्षम) refers to “unable (to do something)”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “If he sees anybody who is abusing the Guru, he should beat him or [at least] curse him. Or, if he is unable (akṣama) [to do so], he should leave the place. He should not ridicule the worship of the [Yoginī] clans, or despise Yogins or Yoginīs, women when they are intoxicated, or nourished, or the wine-pot, or Śiva, or the Guru”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Akṣama (अक्षम) refers to “being unable (to stay)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.4 (“Search for Kārttikeya and his conversation with Nandin”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “On hearing the words of Śiva [the Gods] nervously at one another and spoke before the lord one by one. [...] [The sun said]:—On seeing the crying boy, O lord, I went to the western mountain, urged by the revolving wheel of time, being unable (akṣama) to stay there at night. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Akshama in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Akṣamā (अक्षमा) refers to “intolerance” (of others’ prosperity), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] It has been said that there are eighteen addictions. These are the outcome of the desire for earthly enjovments. [...] Envy means intolerance (akṣamā) of others’ prosperity. It is praise-worthy when it incites to action against rivals or enemies, because inspired by envy, people try to destroy them. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Akṣamā (अक्षमा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Akṣemacinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Akṣamā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Akṣama (अक्षम) refers to “incompetent (to examine)” (the doctrine), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who have adopted a heterodox doctrine, lacking in [knowledge of the highest] reality, proclaim various doctrines. They are not aware of the reality of things because they are not competent to examine that [doctrine] (tat-parīkṣā-akṣama) . The doctrine is said to be forbearance, humility, purity, straightforwardness, truth and restraint, celibacy, asceticism, renunciation and non-possession”.

Synonyms: Asamartha.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

akṣama (अक्षम).—a S Impatient, intolerant, unenduring. 2 Unforgiving. 3 Envious.

--- OR ---

akṣamā (अक्षमा).—f S Impatience or intolerance. 2 Unforgivingness. 3 Enviousness or envy.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

akṣama (अक्षम).—a Impatient; intolerant. Unfor- giving. Envious.

--- OR ---

akṣamā (अक्षमा).—f Intolerance. Unforgivingness. Envy.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Akṣama (अक्षम).—a. [na. ta.]

1) Unfit, incompetent, unable; कार्यं°, पलायन,° उपवास° (kāryaṃ°, palāyana,° upavāsa°) &c.

2) Unable to bear or endure, not forbearing, non-forbearing; impatient; °मा कालहरणस्य (mā kālaharaṇasya) Ś.3 unable to brook delay, admitting of no delay; मामक्षमं मण्डनकालहानेः (māmakṣamaṃ maṇḍanakālahāneḥ) R.13.16.

-mā [na. ta.]

1) Impatience, intolerance; envy, jealousy; धावन्त्यमी मृगजवाक्षमयेव रथ्याः (dhāvantyamī mṛgajavākṣamayeva rathyāḥ) Ś.1.8 as if envying (jealous of) the deer's speed.

2) Anger, passion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akṣama (अक्षम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Impatient, intolerant. 2. Unable, incompetent, impotent f.

(-mā) 1. Impatience, intolerance. 2. Envy, impatience of another’s success. 3. Inability, incapacity. E. a neg. kṣamā patience.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akṣama (अक्षम).—[adjective] unable to bear, no match or unfit for ([locative], [infinitive], or —°); [feminine] ā intolerance, impatience, envy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Akṣama (अक्षम):—[=a-kṣama] mf(ā)n. unable to endure, impatient

2) [v.s. ...] incompetent (with Loc., [Infinitive mood] or ifc.), envious

3) [v.s. ...] unfit, improper, [Jātakamālā]

4) Akṣamā (अक्षमा):—[=a-kṣamā] [from a-kṣama] f. impatience, envy

5) [v.s. ...] incompetence, inability (with [Infinitive mood])

6) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) sensitiveness, irritability, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akṣama (अक्षम):—[tatpurusha compound] I. m. f. n.

(-maḥ-mā-mam) 1) Impatient, intoler-ant.

2) Unable, incompetent, impotent. E. a neg. and kṣama. Ii. f.

(-mā) 1) Impatience, intolerance.

2) Envy, impatience of another’s success.

3) Inability, incapacity. E. a neg. and kṣamā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Akṣama (अक्षम):—[a-kṣama] (maḥ-mā-maṃ) a. Impatient; incompetent, impotent.

2) Akṣamā (अक्षमा):—[a-kṣamā] (mā) 1. f. Impatience, inability.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Akṣama (अक्षम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Akkhama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akshama in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Akshama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Akṣama (अक्षम) [Also spelled aksham]:—(a) incompetent, incapable; handicapped; ~[] incompetence, incapability; handicap.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Akṣama (ಅಕ್ಷಮ):—

1) [adjective] unable to bear or endure; non-forbearing; impatient.

2) [adjective] wanting ability; unable to function; wanting the proper legal qualification or natural competence.

3) [adjective] not pardoning.

--- OR ---

Akṣama (ಅಕ್ಷಮ):—[noun] = ಅಕ್ಷಮತೆ [akshamate]; 2) an incompetent, unfit, man; a man wanting the required qualification or authority.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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