Andhaka, Āndhaka, Andhakā, Amdhaka: 25 definitions
Andhaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Andhaka (अन्धक) is referred to as the “king of the Asuras” in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 1. Accordingly, “When he (Maheśvara) drove his trident into the heart of Andhaka, the King of the Asuras, though he was only one, the dart which that monarch had infixed in the heart of the three worlds was, strange to say, extracted.”
Andhaka (अन्धक) or Andhakāsura is also mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 114. Accordingly, “... when the goddess [Pārvatī] had said this, she ceased; and at that very moment the Asura Andhaka came there, having heard of the absence of Śiva. The presumptuous Asura hoped to win the goddess, but having been reproached by her attendants he departed; but he was slain on that account by the god, who discovered the reason of his coming, and pursued him”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Andhaka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Andhaka (अन्धक) is the name of an Asura, as black as collyrium, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.2. Accordingly, “He was engaged in great penance and was invulnerable of the Devas. There was a most fearful battle started between Śiva and the demon Andhaka, fought in the Mahākāla forest, in the district of Avanti.”
Andhaka also refers to the thousands of demons spawned Rudra discharged his Pāśupata weapon on Andhaka. They were created out of every drop of blood spilled. When those newly spawned demons were killed, more were created in the same way. They spread across the whole world, each having formidable appearance. According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8, there were created many ‘divine mothers’ (mātṛ) for the purpose of drinking the blood of those Andhaka demons.
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Andhaka (अन्धक).—There was a very renowned king called Andhaka in the Yadu dynasty. All kings belonging to this dynasty used to be called Andhakas. (See full article at Story of Andhaka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Andhaka (अन्धक).—Verse 12, Chapter 4 of Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva refers to another King called Andhaka. The Pāṇḍavas had sent to him a messenger soliciting military help.
3) Andhaka (अन्धक).—An Asura. Birth. This Asura was the foster son of Hiraṇyākṣa. Śiva was really his father. While once Śiva was immersed in yoga his daughter closed his eyes playfully with her hands, and lo! a darkness rose and enveloped the whole place. From that darkness, with a sound as that of thunderbolt, appeared a Rākṣasa. He got the name Andhaka as he was born from darkness. At that time Hiraṇyākṣa was doing tapas for a son. Śiva appeared before him and bestowing on him Andhaka as a foster son said as follows: "If he (Andhaka) earns the hatred of the world or desires even the mother of the three worlds or kills brahmins I will myself burn him to ashes". After saying this Śiva disappeared. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 63). Andhaka desires Pārvatī with lust. One day overcome by erotic passion Andhaka said to his henchmen as follows: "He is my true friend who brings Śiva’s consort, Pārvatī to me. Yes, he is my brother, nay, father even." Hearing these ravings of Andhaka, Prahlāda went to him and convinced him that Pārvatī, in fact was his mother. But Andhaka was not quietened. Then Prahlāda explained to him the gravity of the sin of desiring other people’s wives. Even this had no effect on Andhaka. He sent Śambarāsura to Śiva to ask for and bring Pārvatī to him. Śiva sent word to Andhaka that if the latter would defeat him in the game of dice Pārvatī would be sent to him. Andhaka got enraged and rushed to mount Mandara and began a fight with Śiva. Death. Defeated in the encounter, Andhaka craved for Śiva’s pardon. He admitted that Pārvatī was his mother. He also prayed for Śiva’s blessings for removal of his Asurahood. Śiva granted him the prayers. The sins and Asurahood of Andhaka were thus ended. Śiva made him the head of the Asuras, named Bhṛṅgi. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 63 etc.).
4) Andhaka (अन्धक).—A sacred pool. A dip in this pool will bring all the benefits of a Puruṣamedha yajña. (Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 25, Verses 32, 33).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Andhaka (अन्धक).—A son of Sātvata [Sātvatī (Kausalya)]: suspected Kṛṣṇa of having taken away Syamantaka.1 A mahābhoja who married the daughter of Kaṅka and was father of four sons, Kukura and others.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 6; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 1. 36, 53; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 1.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 44. 48-61; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 12.
1b) Son of Anu and father of Dundubhi.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 20.
1c) A son of Viloma, and a friend of Tumburu: also known as Danodakadundubhi.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 118.
1d) A commander of Bhaṇḍa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 82.
1f) The asura killed by Śiva: Āḍi and Baka were his sons; attempted to abduct the Devī in the presence of Śiva in the Mahākālavana of Avanti. Smitten by Pāśupata, blood came out of his body, out of which were born numberless Andhakas (s.v.) who overpowered Rudra. The latter created a number of mātṛs who were not enough to meet them. Vāsudeva was thought of, and he created one Śuṣkarevati who drank off the blood of Andhakas. On his submission he was admitted to the group of Gaṇeśas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 55. 16; 156. 11-12; 179. 2-40; 252. 5-19.
1g) An elder Yādava advised in the council to secure the return of Akrūra; it was adopted.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 114-137.
1h) A community of the Yādava tribe1 defending Dvārakā; at Dvāravatī their overlord was Ugrasena.2 Praise the heroic deeds of Hari.3 Relieved by Kaṃsa's death.4 Ended their lives by fighting their kinsmen.5 Kṛṣṇa, an Andhaka.6 Kingdom of.7 Their line;8 fetch Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa to Dvāraka.9
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 11; 14. 25; II. 4. 20; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 28.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 1. 69; 39. 25; 45, 15.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 63.
- 4) Ib. X. 45. 15.
- 5) Ib. XI. 29. 39; 30. 18.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 61. 23; 71. 85 & 143-144.
- 7) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 36.
- 8) Matsya-purāṇa 44. 61. 85; 47. 33.
- 9) Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 84.
1i) The Asuras born of the blood of Andhaka Asura, hit by the pāśupata of Rudra. To counteract their evil propensities Rudra created a number of mātṛs who could not bring about the desired effect. Hence Vāsudeva created a Śuṣkarevatī who brought about their destruction by drinking off their blood.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 7-37.
2) Āndhaka (आन्धक).—A son of Vipracitti and Simhikā.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 12.
Andhaka (अन्धक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.221, II.48.42, III.48.18, VI.20.14, V.7.1, V.19.17, VI.20.14) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Andhaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Andhaka (अन्धक) is the name a demon mentally born from Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—It is said that in the former birth Andhaka was the ill-famed king Vena; Andhaka or Antaka is its Puranic name.—Accordingly, “[...] Once when Śiva was performing tapas, Pārvatī closed his three eyes and out of the resulting darkness a son was born named Andhaka (“blind”), who was blind because of the darkness in which he was born. Śiva knew that he would commit evil deeds some day and would desire his own mother, but Śiva gave Andhaka to the prayerful demon Hiraṇyākṣa for his son, promising that some day he would himself purify Andhaka’s body. [...]”.
Note: The myth of Śiva’s encounter with demon Andhaka is an older myth than that of Jalandhara for it appears in a wider range of older text and in combination with a number of other ancient episodes. There are few contradictions between the different versions of the Andhaka myth, and taken in combination they supply numerous mutually supporting details of complex implication .
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Andhaka (अन्धक) is the name of a country classified as Hādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Andhaka] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Andhaka (अंधक): Andhaka was the demon son of Shiva, and was created from a drop of his sweat. He was born blind. After birth, Andhaka was given to Hiranyaksha to be raised, as he had no sons. Later, Andhaka became the king of Hiranyaksha's kingdom.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Andhaka - Mentioned in a list of tribes that came to pay homage to Jatukannika Thera when he was born as a banker in Hamsavati (Ap.ii.359). The Andhakarattha was on the banks of the Godhavari and near where Bavari lived. Assaka and Alaka, mentioned in the Vatthugatha of the Parayanavagga (Sn.977), are described in the Sutta Nipata Commentary as Andhaka kings. SnA.ii.581; Vincent Smith places them originally in Eastern India between the Krsna and Godavari rivers (Z.D.M.G. 56, 657ff.); see also Burgess: Arch. Reports on W. India, ii.132 and iii.54. Cunningham: 603-607.
In the Aitareya Brahmana (vii.18) the Andhakas are mentioned together with the Pulindas, etc., as an outcast tribe. They again appear associated in the time of Asoka (Vincent Smith: Z.D.M.G. 56, 652f). The Mahabharata (xii.207, 42) places the Pulindas, the Andhas and the Sabaras in the Daksinapatha.
2. Andhaka - An important group of monks that seceded from the Theravada. They included as minor sects Pubbaseliyas, Aparaseliyas, Rajagirikas and Siddhatthikas (Points of Controversy, p. 104, extract from Kathavatthu Cy.). They were still powerful in Buddhaghosas time (Ibid., xxxiv). The Andhakas are not mentioned as a special sect either in the Mahavamsa or in the Dipavamsa, though in the Mahavamsa the sects spoken of above as offshoots of the Andhakas (Rajagiriya, Siddhatthika, Pubba- and Apara seliya) are given. (Mhv.v.12f.; also the Mbv.97) For a very valuable account of the different schools and their relation to each other, see Points of Controversy, pp. xxxv xlv. About the Andhakas see particularly pp. xliii.ff.
There were various doctrines held by all the Andhakas either in common with other sects or alone, and various other doctrines held only by some of the minor groups of Andhakas. For a summary of these see Points of Controversy, pp. xx xxiv.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Andhaka (अन्धक) is the younger brother of Kiṣkindhi, both sons of Vidyādhara-king Ghanodadhiratha from Kiṣkindhā and belonged to the Vānaravaṃśa, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“[...] After they had fought for a long time, Andhaka, Kiṣkindhi’s younger brother, made Vijayasiṃha’s head fall, like a fruit from a tree, by means of an arrow. The Vidyādhara-lords, Vijayasiṃha’s followers, were terrifed. Whence is there courage for people without lords? Verily, a leaderless army is defeated. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
andhaka : (adj.) belonging to the Andhra country. (m.), gad-fly.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Andhaka, (fr. andha) “blind fly”, i. e. dark or yellow fly or gad-fly Sn.20 (= kāṇa-makkhikānaṃ adhivacanaṃ SnA 33). (Page 49)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
andhaka (अंधक).—a (S) Dim, pale, feeble--a light or a luminous body. 2 Faint, weak, lustreless-- a color or a colored body.
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andhaka (अंधक).—ad (S) andhaka andhaka ad Dimly, dully, darkly, gloomily, obscurely--objects appearing. v disa. 2 Hazily or thickly--weather prevailing or coming.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
andhaka (अंधक).—a Dim, pale, faint. A light or alumi- nous body. ad Dimly, hazily, darkly.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Andhaka (अन्धक).—a. [andh-kan] Blind; अन्धकः कुब्जकश्चैव (andhakaḥ kubjakaścaiva) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.91.
-kaḥ 1 Name of an Asura, son of Kasyapa and Diti and killed by Śiva. [He is represented as a demon with 1 arms and heads, 2 eyes and feet, and called Andhaka, because he walked like a blind man, though he could see very well; स व्रजत्यन्धवद्यस्मा- दनन्धोऽपि हि भारत । तमन्धकोऽयं नाम्नेति प्रोचुस्तत्र निवासिनः (sa vrajatyandhavadyasmā- danandho'pi hi bhārata | tamandhako'yaṃ nāmneti procustatra nivāsinaḥ) || He was slain by Śiva when he attempted to carry off the Pārijāta tree from heaven; whence Śiva is called Andhakaripu, -ari, -dviṣ &c. According to the Matsya Purāṇa Andhaka was admitted to the class of Gaṇas by Śiva, at his importunities and humble supplication, when he was about to be killed by the god for having attempted to carry off his wife Pārvatī].
2) Name of a descendant of Yadu and ancestor of Krisna and his descendants, a grandson of Krostu, son of Yudhājit who, together with his brother Vrisni is the ancestor of the celebrated family of Andhakavrisnis; P.IV. 1.114, VI.2.34.
3) Name of a sage, son of Mamatā and of Utathya, elder brother of Bṛhaspati.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Blind. m.
(-kaḥ) 1. The name of a country, apparently Behar. 2. The name of a king. 3. Of a Muni. 4. Of an Asura. E. andha to be blind, and kan aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Andhaka (अन्धक).—[andha + ka]. I. adj., f. dhikā, Blind. Ii. m. A proper name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Andhaka (अन्धक).—[adjective] the same; [masculine] [plural] [Name] of a princely race.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Andhaka (अन्धक):—[from andh] mfn. blind
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of an Asura (son of Kaśyapa and Diti)
3) [v.s. ...] of a descendant of Yadu and ancestor of Kṛṣṇa and his descendants
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Muni.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Andhaka (अन्धक):—1. m. f. n.
(-ndhakaḥ-ndhikā-ndhakam) Blind. E. andha, taddh. aff. ka. 2. m.
(-kaḥ) A proper name of:
1) a demon, a son of Kaśyapa and Diti ‘with thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet and called Andhaka because he walked like a blind man although he saw very well’; in his attempt of taking a Pārijāta tree of the Swarga he was slain by Śiva (see andhakaghātin, andhakaripu);
2) a grandson of Kroṣṭṛ, and son of Yuddhājita, who together with his brother Vṛṣṇi is the ancestor of the celebrated family of the AndhakaVṛṣṇis;
3) a grandson of Vṛṣṇi (the brother of Andhaka) and son of Śvaphalka by Gāṇḍinī;
4) a son of Sattwat, belonging to the same family, by Kauśalyā;
5) a son of Bhīma (of the same family) and father of Revata. [The forgoing lineage, 2—5, is taken from the Harivaṃśa. In the Linga Purāṇa an Andhaka is a son of Nahusha who, according to other Purāṇas, is the ancestor of Kroṣṭṛ; in the Kūrma Purāṇa an Andhaka is a son of Aṃśa and father of Sāttvata, while in the Viṣṇu P. a prince of that name is mentioned as the son of Sāttvata who is apparently the same as the Sattwat of the Hariv.]
6) The name of a Muni (in the Padmapurāṇa). 3. m. plur.
(-kāḥ) The descendants of Andhaka (2. 2), (usually mentioned together with the Vṛṣṇis; see andhakavṛṣṇi), apparently the ancient inhabitants of Berar. 4. f.
(-ndhikā) 1) Night.
2) A kind of play or gambling.
3) A disease of the penis (? the same as sarṣapī q. v.).
4) A diseased eye.
5) A woman. [The two latter meanings from the Śabdaratnāvalī, where the word is thus explained: andhikā rajanī nārī dyūtabhedekṣṇi dūṣite.] E. andha, taddh. aff. kan.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Andhaka (अन्धक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. The name of a country, king, demon, &c.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] = ಅಂಧಕಾಸುರ [amdhakasura].
2) [noun] a blind man.
3) [noun] the state in which nothing can be seen for want of light; darkness.
4) [noun] water.
5) [noun] an elephant, the largest land-mammal on the earth;6) [noun] ಅಂಧಕನಿಗೆ ಕತ್ತಲೆಯಿಲ್ಲ, ಮಂದಭಾಗ್ಯನಿಗೆ ದರಿದ್ರವಿಲ್ಲ [amdhakanige kattaleyilla, mamdabhagyanige daridravilla] andhakanige kattale illa, mandabhāgyanige daridravilla (prov.) a penniless person has no fear of being robbed.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+25): Amdhakamardaka, Amdhakarayuga, Amdhakavyapara, Andhakaghati, Andhakaghatin, Andhakala, Andhakamuhrid, Andhakantaka, Andhakar, Andhakara, Andhakara Sutta, Andhakara Vagga, Andhakaraka, Andhakaram, Andhakaramaya, Andhakarana, Andhakarapitatva, Andhakaraprayashcitta, Andhakarasamcaya, Andhakarasancaya.
Ends with (+80): Abandhaka, Abhisandhaka, Amragandhaka, Ananubandhaka, Anubandhaka, Apratibandhaka, Apunarbandhaka, Ashtamukhigamdhaka, Ashvabandhaka, Atadanubandhaka, Atigandhaka, Atmagandhaka, Avalyagandhaka, Avaskandhaka, Bandhaka, Bhattarandhaka, Bhikkhuni Khandhaka, Cammakkhandhaka, Campeyyakkhandhaka, Caritrabandhaka.
Full-text (+390): Dhriti, Aditi, Citta, Brahmi, Camunda, Revati, Mahamukhi, Matrinanda, Shakuni, Kona, Andhakaripu, Andhakasuhrid, Bala, Durbhaga, Bahushalini, Vajrahasta, Aparajita, Nikumbha, Gokarnika, Jayanti.
Search found 43 books and stories containing Andhaka, Āndhaka, Andhakā, Andhāka, Amdhaka, Aṃdhaka; (plurals include: Andhakas, Āndhakas, Andhakās, Andhākas, Amdhakas, Aṃdhakas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Part 2.1h - The Andhaka Dynasty < [Chapter 3 - Historical aspects in the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 2.1 - Dynasties of Pre-Mahābhārata war (Introduction) < [Chapter 3 - Historical aspects in the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 3 - Śāktism: The Devī-cult < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Chapter XIV - Dynasty of Anamitra and Andhaka < [Book IV]
Harivamsha Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter 35 - Vasudeva’s Family < [Book 1 - Harivamsa Parva]
Chapter 101 - Krishna Invites a meeting of His Kinsmen < [Book 2 - Vishnu Parva]
Chapter 38 - An Account of Svyamantaka Jewel < [Book 1 - Harivamsa Parva]
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CCXXII < [Subhadra-harana Parva]
Section CCXXIII < [Haranaharana Parva]
Section 7 < [Mausala Parva]
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Bhagavata Purana (by G. V. Tagare)