Samaya, aka: Samayā, Samāya; 15 Definition(s)

Introduction

Samaya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Samaya (समय) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mānasāra XIX.108-12, which is a populair treatise on Vāstuśāstra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Samaya in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

1a) Samaya (समय).—An agreement;1 of Sagara with conquered chiefs;2 broken by Devas.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 26. 26: 35. 16: 36. 135: III. 48. 41. Vāyu-purāṇa 55. 25: 88. 138: 91. 12: 96. 59: 100. 52.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 48. 46.
  • 3) Ib. III. 66. 12-13: 72. 126.

1b) A son of Kriyā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 35.

1c) A deva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Samaya (समय, “deliverance”) refers to ‘deliverance’ from all misery or misfortune. Samaya represents one of the fourteen nirvahaṇasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known as Śama. Nirvahaṇasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the concluding part (nirvahaṇa)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samaya (समय).—One of the fourteen elements of the ‘concluding segment’ (nirvahaṇasandhi);—(Description:) Passing away of all misery, is called Deliverance (samaya).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Samaya (समय, “guild”).—An inscription from Maṭṭeweda dated A.D. 1228 and an undated record from Bezaweda warns the members of the Samaya that if any one who violates the samayadharma will be excommunicated from the guild or samaya. The guilds also dealt the civil cases.

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Samaya (समय).—The omission of words which have already occurred before in the recital of the Pada and other Pathas or recitals, with a view to avoiding an unnecessary repetition; cf.दृष्टक्रमत्वात्समयान् संदध्यात् सर्वशः क्रमे। पदेन व पदाभ्यां च प्रागवस्येदतीत्य च (dṛṣṭakramatvātsamayān saṃdadhyāt sarvaśaḥ krame| padena va padābhyāṃ ca prāgavasyedatītya ca) R.Pr.X.12.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Samaya (समय) refers to “time-instant” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.40.—“It (conventional time) consists of infinite instants”.—What is the meaning of time-instant (samaya)? The smallest mode of time is called time-instant. How is practical time said to of infinite time-instants? Time consists of infinite time-instants. Present is one time instant. Infinite is with respect to the past and future also and to figuratively prove or establish continuity. What is the meaning of one time-instant? The normal time taken to move by one matter sub-atom from one space point to another adjacent space point is called time-instant.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Samaya.—(EI 10), a religious system. (CITD), Telugu-Kannaḍa; a sect; an assemblage, a company or congregation; established moral or ceremonial custom; cf. samaiyam (EI 24), a creed. Cf. samaye (EI 19), used instead of varṣe in the dates after saṃvat. (SITI), a religious mendicant; cf. Samay-mudali, religious head. Note: samaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Samaya in Pali glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

samaya : (m.) time; congregation; season; occasion; religion.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Samaya, (cp. Sk. samaya, fr. saṃ+i. See also samiti) congregation; time, condition, etc.—At DhsA. 57 sq. we find a detailed explanation of the word samaya (s-sadda), with meanings given as follows: (1) samavāya (“harmony in antecedents” translation), (2) khaṇa (opportunity), (3) kāla (season), (4) samūha (crowd, assembly), (5) hetu (condition), (6) diṭṭhi (opinion). (7) paṭilābha (acquisition), (8) pahāna (elimination), (9) paṭivedha (penetra‹-› tion). Bdhgh illustrates each one with fitting examples; cp. DhsA. 61.—We may group as follows: 1. coming together, gathering; a crowd, multitude D. I, 178 (°pavādaka debating hall); II, 254 sq.; Miln. 257; J. I, 373; PvA. 86 (=samāgama). samayā in a crowd Pv III, 34 (so read for samayyā; PvA. 189 “saṅgamma”). ‹-› 2. consorting with, intercourse Miln. 163; DhA. I, 90; sabba° consorting with everybody J. IV, 317.—3. time, point of time, season D. I, 1; Sn. 291, 1015; Vin. I, 15; VbhA. 157 (maraṇa°); Vism. 473 (def.);— samayā samayaṃ upādāya from time to time It. 75. Cases adverbially: ekaṃ samayaṃ at one time D. I, 47, 87, 111; tena samayena at that time D. I, 179; DhA. I, 90. aparena s. in course of time, later PvA. 31, 68; yasmiṃ samaye at which time D. I, 199; DhsA. 61. ekasmiṃ samaye some time, once J. I, 306. paccūsa° at daybreak PvA. 38; aḍḍharatti° at midnight PvA. 155; cp. ratta°.—4. proper time, due season, opportunity, occasion Sn. 388; Vin. IV, 77; Bu II. 181; Mhvs 22, 59; VbhA. 283 sq.; aññatra samayā except at due season Vin. III, 212; IV, 77; samaye at the right time J. I, 27.—asamaya inopportune, unseasonable D. III, 263, 287.—5. coincidence, circumstance M. I, 438. akkhara° spelling DhA. I, 181.—6. condition, state; extent, sphere (cp. definition of Bdhgh, above 9); taken dogmatically as “diṭṭhi, ” doctrine, view (equal to above definition 6) It. 14 (imamhi samaye); DhA. I, 90 (jānana°); Dāvs VI, 4 (°antara var. views). bāhira° state of an outsider, doctrine of outsiders, i.e. brahmanic DhA. III, 392, cp. brāhmaṇānaṃ samaye DA. I, 291; ariyānaṃ samaye Miln. 229.—7. end, conclusion, annihilation Sn. 876; °vimutta finally emancipated A. III, 173; V, 336 (a°); Pug. 11; cp. DhsA. 57.—pp. abhi°.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

samaya (समय).—m (S) A time, season, occasion, a or the time, any particular time: also the season or proper time. 2 S Agreement, compact, contract, engagement or appointment with or together. sa0 paḍaṇēṃ or yēṇēṃ with vara of s. To have a time of calamity come upon one. samayaviśēṣīṃ Upon some particular occasion or season. samayācē śirīṃ, samayāsa or samayīṃ upayōgī paḍaṇēṃ To come of use upon occasion or in its proper time.

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samaya (समय).—f (Or samaī) A metal and upright lampstand and lamp.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

samaya (समय).—m A time, occasion; agreement. f See samaī. samaya paḍaṇēṃ-yēṇēṃ Have a time of calamity come upon one. samayaviśēṣīṃ Upon some particular occasion. samayī upayōgīṃ paḍaṇēṃ Come of use upon occasion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samaya (समय).—1 Time in general.

2) Occassion, opportunity; न तैः समयमन्विच्छेत् पुरुषो धर्ममाचरन् (na taiḥ samayamanvicchet puruṣo dharmamācaran) Ms.1.53.

3) Fit time, proper time or season, right moment; गन्तुं प्रवृत्ते समयं विलङ्घ्य (gantuṃ pravṛtte samayaṃ vilaṅghya) Ku.3.35.

4) An agreement, a compact, contract, an engagement; मिथःसमयात् (mithaḥsamayāt) Ś.5.

5) A convention, conventional usage.

6) An established rule of conduct, a ceremonial custom, usual practice, observance; निह्नवन्ति च ये तेषां समयं सुकृतं च यत् (nihnavanti ca ye teṣāṃ samayaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca yat) Mb.12. 229.8; निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः (nirastanārīsamayā durādhayaḥ) Ki.1.28; U.1.

7) The convention of poets; (e. g. that persons separated from their beloveds are affected at the sight of clouds.).

8) An appointment, assignation.

9) A condition, stipulation; V.5.

10) A law, rule, regulation; वीराणां समयो हि दारुणरसः स्नेहक्रमं बाधते (vīrāṇāṃ samayo hi dāruṇarasaḥ snehakramaṃ bādhate) U.5.19.

11) Direction, order, instruction; precept.

12) Emergency, exigency.

13) An oath; कामं तथा तिष्ठ नरेन्द्र तस्मिन् यथा कृतस्ते समयः सभायाम् (kāmaṃ tathā tiṣṭha narendra tasmin yathā kṛtaste samayaḥ sabhāyām) Mb.3.183.35.

14) A sign, hint, indication; शौरिसमयनिगृहीतधियः (śaurisamayanigṛhītadhiyaḥ) Śi.15.41.

15) Limit, boundary.

16) A demonstrated conclusion, doctrine, tenet; बौद्ध°, वैशेषिक° (bauddha°, vaiśeṣika°) &c.

17) End, conclusion, termination.

18) Success, prosperity.

19) End of trouble. (samayena 'on condition, conditionally'.)

Derivable forms: samayaḥ (समयः).

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Samayā (समया).—ind.

1) Duly, seasonably, in due time.

2) At a fixed or appointed time.

3) In the midst, within, between.

4) Near (with acc.); समया सौधभित्तिम् (samayā saudhabhittim) Dk.; Śi.6.73;15.9; सचिवासमेतं समया गिरोत्तरं नाजनिष्ट मेतं समया (sacivāsametaṃ samayā girottaraṃ nājaniṣṭa metaṃ samayā) Nalod.4.8.

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Samāya (समाय).—

1) Arrival, coming.

2) A visit.

Derivable forms: samāyaḥ (समायः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samaya (समय).—(1) time, as in Sanskrit; app. nt. (Sanskrit only m.) in LV 210.2, see s.v. ardharātri; tena samayena (as in Pali), at that time, very common in phrase introducing a new episode, tena khalu punaḥ samayena (Pali tena kho pana sa°), now, however, at that time…, SP 19.11; LV 18.14; 238.14; Vaj 19.14; Mv i.35.14, etc. (in many pas- sages, incl. some of these, a voc. intervenes between punaḥ and sam°); (2) (Pali id.; not in Sanskrit, not even in Vedic; AV 2.35.3 is to be taken otherwise, see Ludwig Rig Veda 3.302) assembly, congregation, concourse (of persons), = Sanskrit samiti: punar api devasamaye yadā satyāṃ prakāśayet Mv i.250.15 = 251.1 (verse); a rare usage, here and seemingly in Pali; (3) nt., a high number: Gv 133.9, cited in Mvy 7857 as samarya, q.v.; the corresp. form in Gv 105.26 seems to be sāmpa (probably corrupt).

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Samāya (समाय).—adv. °ya-tas (probably m.c. for Sanskrit samaya-tas, but compare Vedic samāyin, late Sanskrit samāya = saṃmukham āgata, Schmidt, Nachträge; and s.v. samāsa), because of the (arrival of the appropriate) time: iha te ciraṃ samāyata …skandhā sopādānā jñānena mayā parijñātā(ḥ) LV 371.19(—20).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samaya (समय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Time. 2. Oath, affirmation by oath or ordeal. 3. An established moral or ceremonial custom, rule, law. 4. Demonstrated conclusion. 5. Agreement, covenant, contract, bargain. 6. Engagement, appointment. 7. Order, precept, instruction. 8. Sign, hint, indication. 9. Religious obligation or observance. 10. Leisure, interval, opportunity. 11. Season, fit or proper time for anything. 12. Speech, declaration. 13. Limit, boundary. 14. End of trouble or distress, (in dramatic action.) 15. End, conclusion, termination. 16. Convention. 17. Poetical conventionality, (as the dance of peacocks on the appearance of clouds.) 18. Success, prosperity. 19. Condition, stipulation. E. sa for sama with, to mete, to measure, aff. ac; or sama alike, iṇ to go, aff. ac .

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Samayā (समया).—Ind. 1. Near, (with an accusative.) 2. Within, between, midst. 3. At such a time, at a fixed or appointed time. 4. Duly, seasonably, in due time or season. E. sam alike, iṇ to go, ā Unadi aff.

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Samāya (समाय).—m.

(-yaḥ) A visit, arrival. E. sam and āṅ before to go, ḍa aff.

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Sāmaya (सामय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Sick, diseased. E. sa with, āmaya sickness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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