Svara, Svarā, Śvara, Shvara: 37 definitions


Svara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śvara can be transliterated into English as Svara or Shvara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Swar.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Svarā (स्वरा, “Sound, Speech”):—One of the female offspring from Mahākālī (tamas-form of Mahādevī). Mahākālī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Kālī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named tamas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Svara (स्वर) refers to “voice”, as in, a visible trait or charecteristic of a human being. When a King (rājan) is investigating a suit in the court, he is to closely watch the variations (ākāra) of the subject. For the voice (svara) of a person, this means monitoring for faltering (of the voice), being choked with tears etc. The term is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Svara (स्वर) refers to the “notes” in musical performance. The notes (svara) have two bases: the human throat (lit. body) and the Vīṇā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.10, chapter 19 and chapter 28, there are seven notes (svara), to be used in different sentiments:

  1. ṣaḍja (sa),
  2. ṛṣabha (ri),
  3. gāndhāra (ga),
  4. madhyama (ma),
  5. pañcama (pa),
  6. dhaivata (dha),
  7. niṣāda (ni).

According as they relate to an interval of more or less śrutis, they are of four classes, such as

  1. Sonant (vādin),
  2. Consonant (saṃvādin)
  3. Assonant (anuvādin),
  4. Dissonant (vivādin)

Accordingly, “as a note prominently sounds it is called sonant (vādin); as it sounds in cosonance with another it is consonant (saṃvādin); as it sounds discordantly to another it is dissonant (vivādin), and as it follows another note it is called assonant (anuvādin). These notes become low or high according to the adjustment of the strings, and the varying condition (lit. diversity) of the beam of the vīṇā and of the sense-organs”.

Source: Google Books: Dhanapāla and His Times (arts and learning)

Svara (स्वर, “notes”).—The Indian scale has seven notes, namely, ṣaḍja, ṛṣabha, gāndhāra, madhyama, pañcama, dhaivat, niṣāda. Now-a-days these are generally abbreviated to sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha and ni. Svaras are of four kinds namely, vādī, saṃvādī, anuvādī and vivādī. (cf. Tilaka-mañjarī by Dhanapāla)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music

Svara (स्वर, “interval”).—According to the Saṅgīta-makaranda, “The seven notes, ṣaḍja, ṛṣabha, gāndhāra, madhyama, pañcama, dhaivata and niṣāda, are said to dwell respectively in the navel, the heart, the throat, the palate, the nose, the teeth and the lips”. (Cf. Saṃgītarāja of Kumbhā)

Source: Natya Shastra

Svara (स्वर, “vowels”).—Vowels are fourteen in number: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, ṛ, ḹ (long) ḷ, ḹ (long) e, ai, o and au are to be known as vowels.

Source: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Svara (स्वर, “notes”).—The svara is defined by Mataṅga as that which shines by itself. The names of the notes have been explained by different writers old and modern. (cf Mataṅga’s 9th century Bṛhaddeśī)

Source: The Nāṭyaśāstra: the Origin of the Ancient Indian Poetics

The seven basic musical notes (svara), coincided with the seven diatonic intervals of the Indian scale.

Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra

Svara is a Sanskrit word that connotes a note in the successive steps of the octave. The svara differs from the sruti concept in Indian music. A sruti is the smallest gradation of pitch available, while a svara is the selected pitches from which the musician constructs the scales, melodies and ragas. The seven notes of the musical scale in Indian classical music are ṣaḍja (षड्ज), ṛṣabha (ऋषभ), gandhāra (गान्धार), madhyama (मध्यम), pañchama (पञ्चम), dhaivata (धैवत) and niāṣda (निषाद).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams (natyashastra)

1a) Svara (स्वर).—“tone in recitation etc.” (either high or low),

1b) “accent” (of which there are three kinds, udātta-, anudātta-, and svarita- svaras),

1c) “note of the musical scale” (of which seven rarely six or eight are enumerated, 1. niṣāda-;2. ṛṣabha-;3. gāndhāra-;4. ṣaḍja-;5. madhyama-;6. dhaivata-;7. pañcama- svaras; of which niṣāda- and gāndhāra- are referred to the udātta-, ṛṣabha- and dhaivata- to the an-udātta-, while ṣaḍja- and the other two are referred to the svarita- accent; described as resembling respectively the notes of an elephant, bull, goat, peacock, curlew or heron, horse, and Koil)

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Svara (स्वर) refers to “one’s voice”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Śiva described Pārvatī: “Is this your face or the moon? Are these your eyes or lotus petals? These two eyebrows are the bows of Kāma of noble soul. Is this your lower lip or Bimba fruit? Is this your nose or the beak of a parrot? Do I hear your voice or the cooing of the cuckoo [i.e., svarakiṃ svaraḥ kokilālāpaḥ]? Is this your slender waist or the sacrificial altar? How can her gait be described? How can her comely appearance be described? How can the flowers be described? How can the clothes be described? [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Śvara (श्वर).—A son of Dadhīci.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 42.

2a) Svara (स्वर).—A son of Gāyatrī and Prajāpati.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 42.

2b) Seven (music);1 sixteen of the Vedas.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 36.
  • 2) Ib. 65. 28; 104. 71.

3a) Svarā (स्वरा).—A daughter of Uttānapāda.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 90; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 77.

3b) A daughter of Kardama and one of the wives of Atharva Angiras; son Gautama.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 102; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 98.

3c) A daughter of Krodhā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 205.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Music Therapy (upainishads)

Svara (स्वर).—Svara is life (uyir) and vyañjana is the body (mey) of Devi of language and music. The svara gives life to the music/language/devi. The singer evoking the svara gives life to Devi.

According to Chāndogya khāṇḍa 3 (adhidaivata) śloka 2: “This and that are samāna (equalizers). Both are heat and energy. This is svara and that is svara and pratyasvara. This and that are the udgāthas (singers). Prāṇa of singer and sūrya are samam in quality and in name (guṇa and nāma) both move (svarati-verb) by waves of light and sound. Therefore, they are called svara/sūrya. Without the sūrya (sun and the prāṇa), there is no life or art or science possible on earth. Therefore, svara is the life (uyir). We see both the life and the sun coming back cyclically, and so is prāṇa as inhalation and exhalation, and hence both are svara and pratyasvara. But we don’t see the life of a particular individual coming back after it leaves a body, therefore, it is just called svara and not pratyasvara.”

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Svara (स्वर).—Svara refers to the “voice”, and Ayurvedic literature enumerates various voice-enhancing rejuvenating recipes, for example: 1) the juice of maṇḍūkaparṇī; 2) powder of yaṣṭimadhu mixed with honey; juice of guḍūcī along wih its root and flowers; 4) paste of śaṅkhapuṣpī. (See Caraka-saṃhitā, cikitsā-sthāna 1.30-31)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Svara (स्वर) refers to “voice”, as mentioned in verse 5.37-39 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] [ghee is] recommended for [...] children, old people, those desirous of offspring, beauty, great tenderness, and voice [viz., svara], [...]: ghee [viz., ghṛta] (is) possessed of a thousand powers (and), by its (many) ways of application, productive of a thousand effects”.

Note: Prajā (“offspring”) has been translated by bu (“son”), kānti (“beauty”) by mdaṅs bzaṅ (“fair complexion”), and saukumārya (“great tenderness”) by rab gźon (“great youthfulness”) (gźon-pa being so far attested only as an adjective). The following arthin (“desirous of”), which in Sanskrit belongs to prajā, kanti, saukumārya, and svara alike, has in Tibetan been confined to prajā.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music [shiksha]

Svara (स्वर, “interval”), also “note”.—The Indian system is based on a series of seven intervals (svara), called saptaka. Nāradīyā-śikṣā 1.5.1 compares the notes (svara) used by the singers of sāmas (i.e. religious songs of the Sāmaveda), with the notes of the flute, which may represent here secular (laukika) music:

  1. prathama (i.e. the first) is the note madhyama of the flute;
  2. dvitīya (i.e. the second) is gāndhāra,
  3. tṛtīya (i.e. the third) is traditionally ṛṣabha.
  4. caturtha (i.e. the fourth) is said to be ṣaḍja;
  5. pañcama (i.e. the fifth) is dhaivata;
  6. ṣaṣṭha (i.e. the sixth) is considered to be niṣāda;
  7. saptama (i.e. the seventh) is traditionally pañcama.

The fifth, sixth and seventh note of religious (vaidika) music are commonly indicated by the names mandra, atisvārya and kruṣṭa.

context information

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Svara (स्वर).—The svaras originate fro mthe twenty-two Śrutis.

They are seven:

  1. Ṣaḍja,
  2. Ṛṣabha,
  3. Gāndhāra,
  4. Madhyama,
  5. Pañcama,
  6. Dhaivata,
  7. Niṣāsa.

Sā is produced from the first four śrutis, Ri from the next three and so on. Their names are accepted as Sā, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha and Ni what results after a śruti, is soft and resonant. Svara results in aesthatic joy to the mind of the listner. Now in this way, the cause of the svara is the fourth śruti, etc.

The illustrations of these svaras are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Svara (स्वर).—Vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर (svara) is defined generally as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः (svayaṃ rājante te svarāḥ) (M. Bh. on pan. The word स्वर (svara) is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (ac) (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ (a) in 'अइउण् (aiuṇ)' and च् (c) at the end of एऔच् (eauc) Mahesvara sutra 4) always used for vowels, the term स्वर (svara) being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर (svara) in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ (a, i, u, , lṛ), and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ (e, ai, o), and औ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ (ā, ī, ū), and ऋ (), are increased to thirteen and further to twenty two by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ (lṛ) and short on for the diphthongs. All these twenty two varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुद (udātta, anuda)Iत्त (tta) and स्वरित (svarita) and निरनुनासिक (niranunāsika) and सानुनासिक (sānunāsika).

2) Svara.—The word स्वर (svara) also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute (उदात्त (udātta)), the grave अनुदात्त (anudātta) and the circumflex (स्वरित (svarita)) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः (uccairudāttaḥ, nīcairanudāttaḥ) and समाहारः स्वरितः (samāhāraḥ svaritaḥ) by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,31). The point whether समाहार (samāhāra) means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide M. Bh. on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित (svarita) as possessed by the word स्वर् (svar) (from which possibly the word स्वरित (svarita) was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels (उदात्त (udātta) and अनुदात्त (anudātta)) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called; cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see R. Pr. III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 V. Pr. I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 A. Pr. Adhyaya 1 padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29;

3) Svara.—The word स्वर (svara) is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर (saptasvara) above.

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Svāra (स्वार).—A term used in the Pratisakhya works for स्वरित (svarita) or the circumflex accent; स्वारः स्वरितः (svāraḥ svaritaḥ) (Com. on T.Pr. XVII.6; cf. also T.Pr.XX.20; XXIII.24. There are seven varieties of स्वार (svāra) given in the Pratisakhya works, viz. क्षैप्र, नित्य, प्रातिहत, अभिनिहत, प्रश्लिष्ट, पादवृत्त (kṣaipra, nitya, prātihata, abhinihata, praśliṣṭa, pādavṛtta) and तैरोव्यञ्जन (tairovyañjana), cf. T. Pr. XX.1-7.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Svara (स्वर) represents the number 7 (seven) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 7—svara] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Gitashastra (science of music)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (gita)

Svara (स्वर) refers to the “notes of Music”.—The sound which has the quality of satisfying nature to please the listeners’ minds and also has śrutis immediately before it is called a svara.

In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, seven kinds of svara are accepted. These are—

  1. ṣaḍja,
  2. ṛṣabha,
  3. gāndhāra,
  4. madhyama,
  5. pañcama,
  6. dhaivata and
  7. niṣāda.

The Saṃgītaratnākara also accepts seven numbers of svara. Generally the seven notes viz., ṣaḍja, ṛṣabha, gāndhāra, madhyama, pañcama, dhaivata and niṣāda are denoted with the initials as-S, R, G, M, P, D, N respectively. It is seen that when two separate musical sounds occur at one time and both are gradually rising in one pitch following a particular direction, those sounds can be called as svaras. In the Abhijñānaśakuntala also the reference of mingling of notes can be seen.

context information

Gitashastra (गीतशास्त्र, gītaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of Music (gita or samgita), which is traditionally divided in Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance (under the jurisdiction of music). The different elements and technical terms are explained in a wide range of (often Sanskrit) literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Svara (स्वर) denotes in the Upaniṣads the sound of a vowel: these are described as being ghoṣavant, ‘sonant,’ and also as balavant, ‘uttered with force’. The precise word for a mute is sparśa, ‘contact’, while ūṣman denotes a ‘sibilant’, and svara a ‘vowel’, in the Aitareya and Śāṅkhāyana-āraṇyakas. The semivowels are there denoted by antasthā (‘intermediate’) or akṣara.

Another division in the Aitareya-āraṇyaka is into ghoṣa, ūṣman, and vyañjana, apparently ‘vowels’, ‘sibilants’, and ‘consonants’ respectively.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Svara (स्वर) refers to the “voice”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Bodhisattva Gaganagañja explains to Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī what kind of concentration should be purified: “[...] (43) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Ornaments for body’, the characteristics of a great man and the marks of beauty will be fulfilled; (44) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Ornaments for speech’, by the voice of Brahmā (brahma-svara-ruta), the thoughts of all beings will be pleased; (45) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Ornaments for thought’, they will never give up their concentration; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Svara (स्वर) refers to “sounds” and represents one of the eight divisions of Nimittaśāstra (“science of omens”), possibly corresponding to “the eight divisions of the science of omens” (aṣṭādhikaraṇīgrantha), according to chapter 2.6 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—(Cf. Uttarādhyayana with Kamalasaṃyama’s commentary 31. 19, pp. 506-7).—See Rājendra, aṭṭhaṅgaṇimitta; Sūtrakṛtāṅga 2.2. 25; Pravacanasāroddhāra 1405-09, p. 410.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Svara (स्वर) refers to the “seven musical notes” and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra: a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Svara.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘seven’. Note: svara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

svara (स्वर).—n S One of the divisions of the universe,--the space between the sun and polar star and region of the planets and constellations. In this sense the word is one of the three mystical words to be repeated daily at the morning ceremonies &c. with the Gayatri. 2 Sky, the heavens. 3 The residence of Indra and the gods and deified mortals. The same with svarga.

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svara (स्वर).—m (S) A note in music. 2 An accent. 3 A vowel. 4 Air breathed through a nostril. 5 Sound in general. svara dēṇēṃ To join in with one's voice and assist the singer. svara bhajaṇēṃ or svara vāhaṇēṃ g. of s. To incline or lean unto, to flow freely towards--the will or mind.

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svāra (स्वार).—m ( A) A man on horseback, a cavalier or horseman. 2 as a Mounted upon (horse-back, camel-back, bullock-back &c.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

svara (स्वर).—m A note in music; an accent; a vowel sound. svara bāhaṇēṃ To incline or lean to.

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svāra (स्वार).—m A man on horseback. a Mounted.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Svara (स्वर).—a. Going; one who goes (this meaning is given only by Gīrvaṇa.); असौ स्वर इतीममाचक्षते स्वर इति प्रत्या- स्वर इत्यमुं (asau svara itīmamācakṣate svara iti pratyā- svara ityamuṃ) ...... चोद्गीथमुपासीत (codgīthamupāsīta) Ch. Up.1.3.2.

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Svara (स्वर).—[svar-ac, svṛ-ap vā]

1) Sound, noise.

2) Voice; स्वरेण तस्याममृतस्रुतेव प्रजल्पितायामभिजातवाचि (svareṇa tasyāmamṛtasruteva prajalpitāyāmabhijātavāci) Kumārasambhava 1.45.

3) A note of the musical scale or gamut, a tone, tune; (these are seven:-niṣādarṣabhagāndhāraṣaḍjamadhyamadhaivatāḥ || pañcama- ścetyamī sapta tantrīkaṇṭhotthitāḥ svarāḥ Ak.); सप्त स्वरास्त्रयो ग्रामा मूर्छनाश्चैकविंशतिः (sapta svarāstrayo grāmā mūrchanāścaikaviṃśatiḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.54.

4) The number 'seven'.

5) A vowel.

6) An accent; (these are three; udātta, anudātta and svarita q. q. v. v.); निहन्त्यरीनेकपदे य उदात्तः स्वरानिव (nihantyarīnekapade ya udāttaḥ svarāniva) Śiśupālavadha 2.95.

7) Air breathed through the nostrils.

8) Snoring.

9) Sweetness of tune or tone; तस्मादार्त्विज्यं करिष्यन् वाचि स्वरमिच्छेत तया वाचा स्वरसंपन्नयार्त्विज्यं कुर्यात् (tasmādārtvijyaṃ kariṣyan vāci svaramiccheta tayā vācā svarasaṃpannayārtvijyaṃ kuryāt) Bṛ. Up.1.3.25.

-rā Name of the chief wife of Brahman.

Derivable forms: svaraḥ (स्वरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svara (स्वर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A Vedic accent, (of which there are three, viz: —udāta, anudātta and svarita.) 2. A vowel. 3. A note of the musical scale or gamut. 4. Air breathed through the nostrils. 5. Snoring. 6. Voice. 7. Sound in general. 8. A symbolical expression for the number “seven.” E. svar to sound, ac aff.; or svṛ to sound, ap aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svara (स्वर).—i. e. svṛ + a, m. 1. Sound, [Pañcatantra] 82, 17; voice, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 83. 2. Snoring. 3. A note in music, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 43. 4. A vowel. 5. Accent, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 25.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svara (स्वर).—[masculine] sound, voice, accent, musical tone or note.

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Svara (स्वर).—[masculine] sound, voice, accent, musical tone or note.

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Svāra (स्वार).—[masculine] sound, accent, [especially] the Svarita.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svara (स्वर):—a svaraṇa etc. See p.1285.

2) Svāra (स्वार):—a etc. See p. 1285, col. 3.

3) Svara (स्वर):—[from svṛ] b svara or svara, m. (ifc. f(ā). ) sound, noise, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] voice, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] tone in recitation etc. (either high or low), accent (of which there are three kinds, udātta, anudātta qq.vv., and svarita, [column]3), a note of the musical scale (of which seven [rarely six or eight] are enumerated, 1. niṣāda; 2. ṛṣabha; 3. gāndhāra; 4. ṣaḍja; 5. madhyama; 6. dhaivata; 7. pañcama [described as resembling respectively the notes of an elephant, bull, goat, peacock, curlew or heron, horse, and Koil ; and designated by their initial letters or syllables thus, ni; ; ga; ṣa; ma; dha; pa], but the order is sometimes changed, ṣadja being placed first, and niṣāda last), [Prātiśākhya; ???; Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] a symbolical expression for the number ‘seven’ [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] a vowel (either dīrgha, ‘long’; or hrasva, ‘short’; or pluta, ‘prolated’), [Prātiśākhya; ???; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] air breathed through the nostrils, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]

10) Svarā (स्वरा):—[from svara > svṛ] f. Name of the chief wife of Brahmā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Svara (स्वर):—[from svṛ] n. a musical note, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda x, 146, 2]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

13) Svāra (स्वार):—[from svṛ] b m. sound, noise (of a snorting horse), [Ṛg-veda]

14) [v.s. ...] tone, accent, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

15) [v.s. ...] the Svarita accent, [Taittirīya-prātiśākhya]

16) [v.s. ...] mfn. relating to sound or accent, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

17) [v.s. ...] having the Svarita accent

18) [v.s. ...] n. a Sāman ending with the Svarita accent, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svara (स्वर):—(raḥ) 1. m. Sound; accent; vowel; musical note; snoring.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Svara (स्वर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sara, Sāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Svara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Svara (स्वर) [Also spelled swar]:—(nm) a vowel; sound, voice; tone; gamut; note; -[kaṃpha] tremolo; trembling of the voice; -, [gadagad] emotion-charged voice; -[guṇa] vowel-quality; quality of the voice; ~[grāma] musical scale; ~[darśī] tonoscope; -[peśī] vocalis; ~[pradhāna] a [rāga] in which the [svara] dominates and not the [tāla; ~baddha] rhythmic, moulded in a rhythm; -[bhaṃga] soreness/hoarseness (of throat); loss of voice; -[mādhurya] melody; ~[māna] pitch; -[mela] unison; -, [mūla] pure vowel; -[yaṃtra] larynx; -[laharī] melody; -[lipi] musical notation; -[lopa] loss/elision of a vowel; -[vikāra] vocal disorder; -[virodha] cacophony; -, [vivṛtā] open vowel, -[vyavasthā] vowel system; tonal set-up; -[saṃgati] harmoney of musical notes; vowelharmony; —, [saṃvṛta] close vowel; -[saṃdhi] (in Grammar) fusion of adjacent vowels into one; —[saṃpanna] having a sweet/melodious voice; -[saptaka] the gamut, seven notes of music; —[ūṃcā honā] to speak in a high pitch; —[caḍhānā] to raise the voice or the musical note; —[bharanā] to elongate the same note; —[bhīganā] one’s voice to be charged with emotion; —[milānā/-meṃ svara milānā] to chime in; —[sādhanā] to practise mastery over musical notes.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Svara (ಸ್ವರ):—[noun] an instance of (a cow, buffalo) letting the milk flow out of its udder.

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Svara (ಸ್ವರ):—

1) [noun] a sound produced from the throat; voice.

2) [noun] a sound (in gen.).

3) [noun] any of the three tones in reciting the vedas.

4) [noun] any voiced speech sound characterised by generalised friction of the air passing in a continuous stream through the pharynx and opened mouth but with no constriction narrow enough to produce local friction; the sound of the greatest prominence in most syllables; a vowel.

5) [noun] any of the letters in Kannaḍa alphabet from "ಅ" to "ಔ"; a vowel.

6) [noun] (mus.) a tone of definite pitch, as made by a voice or musical instrument; a musical note.

7) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number seven.

8) [noun] ಸ್ವರ ಸೇರಿಸು [svara serisu] svara sērisu to sing along with another (esp. with the main singer); 2. (fig.) to support another’s views, opinions; ಸ್ವರ ಕೂಡಿಸು [svara kudisu] svara kūḍisu = ಸ್ವರ ಸೇರಿಸು [svara serisu].

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Svāra (ಸ್ವಾರ):—

1) [noun] (correctly, ಸವಾರ [savara]) a man who rides a horse; a horse-rider.

2) [noun] a member of the combat troops of soldiers mounted on horses.

3) [noun] a man who rides on any animal.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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