Shrama, Śrama, Śrāma, Srāma: 21 definitions


Shrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śrama and Śrāma can be transliterated into English as Srama or Shrama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śrama (श्रम, “weariness”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: Natya Shastra

Śrama (श्रम, “weariness”) is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as walking a long way, exercising of limbs and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as gentle rubbing of the body, [deep] breathing, contraction of the mouth, belching, massaging of the limbs, very slow gait, contraction of the eyes, making Śītkāra and the like.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śrama (श्रम) refers to “exhaustion”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.10.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Thus Śiva remained for a long time eliminating the three attributes, and unaffected by aberrations. The lord Himself, the controller of illusion remained in the state of the Supreme Brahman. Then He gave up trance. Many years elapsed. What happened thereafter, I shall now recount to you. The drops of sweat caused by exhaustion [i.e., pṛṣat-śrama] fell on the Earth from the lord’s forehead and took the shape of a child immediately. [...]”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śrama (श्रम).—Son of Āpa, one of the Aṣṭavasus. Āpa had four sons named Vairuṇḍa Śrama, Śānta and Dhvani. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃ a 1, Chapter 15).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śrama (श्रम).—A son of Śāntideva and Vasudeva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 50.

1b) A son of Āpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 111.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Śrama (श्रम) refers to “fatigue”, and is mentioned in verse 2.12 and 5.15, 22 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] normal, fat, and lean (respectively get) those who drink water during, after, and before meals. Cold water removes alcoholism, lassitude, stupor, nausea, fatigue [viz., śrama], giddiness, thirst, heat through hot (factors), hemorrhage, and poison”.

Note (verse 2.12): Śrama (“fatigue”) has been paraphrased by rgyas ṅal (“great fatigue”) so as to better contrast it with the following klama (“weariness”), which presupposes no physical exertion (Suśrutasaṃhitā III.4.51).

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śrama (श्रम) refers to “fatigue” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śrama] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Śrama (श्रम):—Fatigue; Toil, labour, exertion, effort

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Śrama (श्रम) refers to “(suffering from) fatigue”, according to the Yogayājñavalkya, an ancient Sanskrit text from the 8th century dealing with the eight components of Yoga in over 500 verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a practice of breathing]: “Having drawn the breath in through the tongue [whose edges are curled up to form a tube], the man who constantly drinks [the breath this way] does not [suffer from] fatigue (śrama) or [excessive] heat [in the body] and all [minor] diseases are cured. Having drawn in the breath at the junctures of the day or an hour before sunrise, he who drinks it [thus] for three months, good lady, [gains] eloquent speech and within six months of practice, he is freed from all serious diseases”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śrama (श्रम).—m (S) Labor, toil, exertion, tiring or wearying effort. v kara, ghē. 2 Weariness or fatigue: also vexation, disquietude, discomposure, feeling of distress, annoyance, or disturbance. Ex. nayani dēkhati vipra vadhuśramā ||. śrama ṭākaṇēṃ To cast off the sense of weariness or the burden of trouble and care. Ex. tōṃ svāmīcyā dēkhilēṃ āśramātēṃ || kāṃhīṃ cittēṃ ṭākilēṃ hō śramātēṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śrama (श्रम).—m Labour, toil. Fatigue. Disquietude.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śrama (श्रम).—[śram-ghañ na vṛddhiḥ]

1) Toil, labour, exertion, effort; अलं महीपाल तव श्रमेण (alaṃ mahīpāla tava śrameṇa) R.2.34; जानाति हि पुनः सम्यक् कविरेव कवेः श्रमम् (jānāti hi punaḥ samyak kavireva kaveḥ śramam) Subhāṣ.; R.16.75; Manusmṛti 9.28.

2) Weariness, fatigue, exhaustion; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजय- श्रमम् (vinayante sma tadyodhā madhubhirvijaya- śramam) R.4.65,67; Meghadūta 17,52; Kirātārjunīya 5.28.

3) Affliction, distress; देशकालविचारीदं श्रमव्यायामनिःस्वनम् (deśakālavicārīdaṃ śramavyāyāmaniḥsvanam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.45.2.

4) Penance, austerity, mortification of the body; दिवं यदि प्रार्थयसे वृथा श्रमः (divaṃ yadi prārthayase vṛthā śramaḥ) Kumārasambhava 5.45.

5) (a) Exercise; अयोदण्डेन च श्रममकरोत् (ayodaṇḍena ca śramamakarot) K.76. (b) Especially military exercise, drill.

6) Hard study.

7) = आश्रम (āśrama) q. v.; तदा स पर्याववृते श्रमाय (tadā sa paryāvavṛte śramāya) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.114.5.

Derivable forms: śramaḥ (श्रमः).

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Śrāma (श्राम).—

1) A month.

2) Time.

3) A temporary shed.

Derivable forms: śrāmaḥ (श्रामः).

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Srāma (स्राम).—a. One whose nose or eyes are always oozing; स्रामे स्रामः (srāme srāmaḥ) Ch. Up.8.9.1; (according to M. W. 'lame', 'sick').

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śrama (श्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Military exercise. 2. Weariness, fatigue. 3. Labour, exertion, toil. 4. Penance, mortification of the body. 5. Hard study. 6. Distress. E. śram to be wearied, aff. ac or ghañ .

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Śrāma (श्राम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. A month. 2. A temporary shed, or platform and canopy. 3. Time. E. śram to be weary, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śrama (श्रम).—[śram + a], m. 1. Exertion, [Pañcatantra] 226, 25; labour, toil, [Pañcatantra] 134, 14; taking pains, Chr. 22, 20; with kṛ, to study, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 168. 2. Military exercise. 3. Fatigue, weariness, [Hiḍimbavadha] 1, 19; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 28; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 158, 10 (-ambu, Perspiration).

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Śrāma (श्राम).—i. e. śram + a, m. 1. A temporary shed. 2. Time. 3. A month.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śrama (श्रम).—[masculine] weariness, exhaustion, exertion, labour, toil, effort at ([locative] or —°).

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Srāma (स्राम).—1. [adjective] lame.

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Srāma (स्राम).—2. [masculine] disease, sickness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śrama (श्रम):—[from śram] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) fatigue, weariness, exhaustion, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] exertion, labour, toil, exercise, effort either bodily or mental, hard work of any kind (as in performing acts of bodily mortification, religious exercises and austerity; śramaṃ-√kṛ, ‘to work hard at one’s studies’), pains or trouble bestowed on ([locative case] or [compound]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] military exercise, drill, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Āpa, [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) Śrāma (श्राम):—[from śram] a m. a temporary shed (= maṇḍapa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a month, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] time, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] [wrong reading] for śrama, [Rāmāyaṇa]

10) b śrāmaṇaka etc. See p. 1096, col. 2.

11) Srāma (स्राम):—mfn. (of unknown derivation), lame, sick, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

12) m. lameness, sickness, disease ([especially] of animals), [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Kāṭhaka; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śrama (श्रम):—(maḥ) 1. m. Military exercise; labour, weariness.

2) Śrāma (श्राम):—(maḥ) 1. m. A month; temporary shed; time.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śrama (श्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śrama (श्रम) [Also spelled sram]:—(nm) labour, toil, exertion; -[adhikaraṇa] labour tribunal; -[kaṇa] perspiration (caused by hard work); ~[kara/kārī] causing fatigue; -[kalyāṇa] labour welfare; •[adhikārī] labour welfare officer; ~[klāṃta] fatigued, tired by toil; ~[jala] see ~[kaṇa; ~jīvī] a worker, labourer, one who lives by one’s sweat; -[taṃtra] labour machinery; ~[dāna] voluntary contribution of labour for a public cause; -[maṃtrālaya] Ministry of Labour; -[maṃtrī] Labour Minister; ~[biṃdu] see ~[kaṇa; ~vāda] labourism; -[vidhi] labour law; -[vibhāga] labour department; -[vivāda] labour dispute; ~[śīla] laborious, assiduous, hard-working; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf); -[saṃgha] a labour union; ~[sādhya] arduous, strenuous; hence ~[sādhyatā] (nf).

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śrama (ಶ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] physical or mental exhaustion; weariness; fatigue.

2) [noun] the state of being difficult; difficulty.

3) [noun] hard and sincere effort.

4) [noun] bodily exertion for the sake of health; physical exercise.

5) [noun] a training in using weapons; military training.

6) [noun] a meditating on the Supreme or abstract principle of the universal being, following self-denial, strict austere, moral and ethical life, etc.

7) [noun] (rhet.) one of the minor sentiment, expressing fatigue, weariness, etc.

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Srama (ಸ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] (correctly, ಶ್ರಮ [shrama]) 1. physical or mental exhaustion; weariness; fatigue.

2) [noun] a training in using weapons.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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