Sam, aka: Sām, Sham, Śam; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Sam means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śam can be transliterated into English as Sam or Sham, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Sām (साम्).—The case-ending(आम् (ām)) of the genitive plural with the augment स् (s) prefixed; cf. साम आकम् (sāma ākam) P.VII. 1.33.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

sam means well;

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

Saṃ.—(IE 8-1), abbreviation of saṃbaddha, ‘attached to’, ‘belonging to,’ etc.; possibly also saṃsakta, ‘relating to’ (JAS, Letters, Vol. XX, p. 204). (CII 3, 4), abbreviation of the word saṃvatsara, a year, or of its declensional cases that can be used in expressing a date. Note: saṃ is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Saṃ.—(PJS), also written Saṃgha; contraction of Saṃghavī or Saṃghapati in medieval Jain inscriptions; same as the modern Jain family name Siṅghī. Note: saṃ is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Sāṃ.—(IE 8-1; LP), abbreviation of sāṃvatsarika, annual. See sāṃ-hi. Note: sāṃ is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Śam.—(ML) ‘to prevent’. Note: śam is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

sam (सम्).—(S) A particle and prefix implying I. Union or junction (with, together). II. Assemblage or collection. III. Beauty, excellence, rightness. IV. Intensity. As a prefix it corresponds with Con, com, col, cor, co. Before a consonant the final of this word is changed to Anuswar, and the word is written saṃ. Ex. saṃlagna, sammōhita, sañjāta.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

1) Sāṃ (सां).—or sāṃ ad Imit. of the sound of gulping eagerly; also of crying copiously.

2) sāṃ (सां).—or-sāṃ ad Imitative sounds of walking over sand, in thick mud &c.; of staling or urining copiously; of the hissing, singing, or fizzing of substances under fermentation.

3) sāṃ (सां).—or-sāṃ ad Spittingly, hissingly, snappishly &c.

4) sāṃ (सां).—or-sāṃ ad Imit. of replying to sharply and petulantly v bōla, aṅgāvara yē.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śam (शम्).—ind. A particle meaning welfare, happiness, prosperity, health, and generally used to express a blessing or pious wish, (with dat. or gen.); शं देवदत्ताय (śaṃ devadattāya) or देवदत्तस्य (devadattasya) (often used in modern letters as an auspicious conclusion; iti śam).

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Sam (सम्).—ind.

1) As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् (saṃgam, saṃbhāṣaṇa, saṃdhā, saṃyuj) &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by 'very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much'; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता (saṃtuṣ, saṃtoṣa, saṃnyas, saṃnyāsa, saṃtā) &c, तस्या- मात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः (tasyā- mātmānurūpāyāmātmajanmasamutsukaḥ) R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty.

2) As prefixed to nouns to form comp. it means 'like, same, similar', as in समर्थ (samartha).

3) Sometimes it means 'near', 'before', as in समक्ष (samakṣa).

4) In the Vedas it is sometimes used as a separable preposition (with instr.).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śam (शम्).—[(ir u)iraśmu] r. 4th cl. (śāmyati) 1. To be pacified, to be calmed or appeased. 2. To pacify, to calm. 3. To be tranquil, to have the passions tamed and quiescent. r. 10th cl. (śāmayate) To look, to look at or inspect. (śamayati-te) To allay, to appease. (śāmayati) To display. With upa prefixed, To tranquillize, to ally, to tame. With ni, 1. To hear. 2. To observe, to perceive. 3. To restrain or prevent. With pra, 1. To destroy. 2. To be very tranquil. 3. To be soothed. 4. To cease. 5. To fade away. With sam, To be extinguished.

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Śam (शम्).—Ind. A particle meaning “welfare, prosperity, blessing, health,” (with a dat. or gen.)

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Ṣam (षम्).—r. 1st cl. (samati) 1. To be unconfused. 2. To be confused. r. 10th cl. (samayati-te) To perplex or distress.

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Saṃ (सं).—Ind. (In composition,) With, together with, &c.; being the optional form of writing sam before a consonant: before consonants of the first five classes, the Anuswara may be again changed to the nasal of the class to which the letter it preceds belongs, as saṃ for sam and kalpa make saṅkalpa, &c.: before the semi-vowels, the sibilants, and ha, it preferably remains unaltered; this practice however is very arbitrary in this respect and the change is expressed or not, in all manuscripts according to the pleasure of the writer.

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Sam (सम्).—Ind. A particle and prefix implying:—1. Union, junction, (with, together.) 2. Assemblage, collection. 3. Beauty or perfection. 4. Intensity. As a prefix it corresponds to con, co, com, &c. Before a consonant the final of this word is changed to Anuswara, and is written saṃ. E. so-vā0 kamu .

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Sām (साम्).—r. 10th cl. (sāmayati-te) 1. To conciliate, to appease. 2. To pacify, to tranquillize; more properly ṣām .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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