Sha, Śa, Śā: 11 definitions


Sha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śa and Śā can be transliterated into English as Sa or Sha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Śā (शा).—Conjugational sign(विकरण (vikaraṇa)) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation (तुदादिगण (tudādigaṇa)) in all conjugational tenses and moods (i. e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential) before the personal-endings; cf. तुदादिभ्यः शः (tudādibhyaḥ śaḥ), P. III.1.77; this sign श (śa) (अ) has got the initial consonant श् (ś) as an indicatory one, and hence this अ (a) is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण (guṇa) for the preceding vowel;

2) Śā.—tad. affix श (śa) in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् (loman) and others; e. g. लोमशः, रोमशः (lomaśaḥ, romaśaḥ) cf. P.V.2. 100;

3) Śā.—Krt affix (अ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे (, ghrā, dhmā, dhe) and दृश् (dṛś) when preceded by a prefix, to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् (limp, vind) etc.not preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा () and धा (dhā) of the third conjugation in the sense of 'an agent'; e.g. उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्पः, विन्दः ददः, दायः (utpibaḥ, utpaśyaḥ, limpaḥ, vindaḥ dadaḥ, dāyaḥ); cf. P.III.1.137-139.

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1) Ṣa (ष).—Consonant ष् (), the vowel अ (a) being added for facility of pronunciation;

2) Ṣa.—Compound-ending अ (a), substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् (mūrdhan) at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् (mūrdhan) is preceded by द्वि (dvi) or त्रि (tri) e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः (dvimūrdhaḥ, trimūrdhaḥ) cf. द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः (dvitribhyāṃ ṣa mūrdhnaḥ) P. V. 4.115

3) Ṣa.—A technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास (tatpuruṣasamāsa) in the Jainendra Vyakarana.

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1) Sa (स).—Short term for समास (samāsa) used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; cf. ति्त्रक्का-रकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधिः (ti्trakkā-rakāṇāṃ prāk suvuptatteḥ kṛdbhiḥ savidhiḥ) Jain.. Pari. 100; cf. also राजा (rājā)sसे (se) ;

2) Sa.—Unadi affix स (sa) placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद्, हन् (vṝ, tṝ, vad, han) and others; cf.Unadi-Sutras 342-349;

3) Sa.—tad. affix स (sa) in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक (cāturarthika)) applied to the words तृण (tṛṇa) and others. e.g. तृणसः (tṛṇasaḥ); cf. P. IV.2.80;

4) Sa.—tad. affix स (sa) applied to the word मृद् (mṛd) when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः (mṛtsā, mṛtsnāḥ); also cf. P. V. 4.41;

5) Sa.—Substitute for the preposition सम् (sam) before the words हित (hita) and तत (tata); cf. समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः (samo hitatatayorvā lopaḥ) M. Bh. on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śa (श).—The letter Śa means to lie down and also Śaṃkara. 'Śam' means comfort or happiness. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 348).

2) Ṣa (ष).—Ṣa means noble, sublime. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 348).

3) Sa (स).—The sound 'Sa' means indirect; 'Sā, Lakṣmī (Goddess of wealth and prosperity) and 'sam' means hair. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 348).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sa.—(IE 8-1), also written as saṃ; abbreviation of saṃvatsara. Note: sa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Sā.—(EI 32), abbreviation of Sādhanika (q. v.). (PJS), abbreviation of Sāhu or Sādhu, designation of a member of the mercantile community often used in medieval inscriptions. Note: is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śa (श).—The thirtieth consonant and the first of the three sibilants. It is termed the palatal sibilant. It corresponds nearly with Sh in Shun.

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ṣa (ष).—The thirty-first consonant, and the second of the three sibilants. The sound is that of Sh but fuller or more prolonged. It must be acquired by the ear.

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sa (स).—The thirty-second consonant. It corresponds with S.

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sa (स).—m (The initial letter of sōdā) A covert term for a Scamp, scrub, or scurvy fellow.

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sa (स).—A preposition or inseparable prefix, signifying With, together with, along with; as sakāma, saguṇa, sadōṣa, saṭīka, saputra, sakuṭumba, sajala, sakampa, sadaya, sakapaṭa, sākāṅkṣa, sākāra, sādara, sāṅga, and innumerable others of which only the best established or the most useful will be inserted. sa will also be found prefixed to words not Sanskrit; as sakasa, sakaṇa, sakuḍī.

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sā (सा).—a (Or sahā. From ṣaṣ S) Six.

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sā (सा).—Abridged from asā Such, similar, like, and much used as affixed to adjectives and verbs, and, occasionally, to other of the parts of speech; as barāsā, mōṭhāsā, gōḍasā, and jāīsā, dēīsā, yēīsā. When attached to nouns some particularity arises; as āja malā nidrāśī vāṭalī-jēvaṇasēṃ vāṭalēṃ-upōṣaṇasēṃ vāṭalēṃ I feel I have had some sleep to-day -have made a meal -have fasted. Also pāūsasā vāṭalā, vārāsā vāṭalā, ūnhasēṃ vāṭalēṃ &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sa (स).—or- n An end; a snag.

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sa (स).—or - m f nāmōśī f Disrepute, dis- honour, bad name.

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sa (स).—or- ad On the back, pickback -carrying, sitting &c.

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sa (स).—or- m A battle-axe.

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sā (सा).—or- a phōpā a Bloated, puffed, flabby.

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sā (सा).—f - m A raised place of earth behind a stove.

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śa (श).—The thirtieth consonant.

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ṣa (ष).—The thirty-first consonant.

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sa (स).—The 32nd consonant. A prefix signi- fying With, &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śa (श).—

1) A cutter, destroyer.

2) A weapon.

3) Name of Śiva.

-śam Happiness; हर्तुर्याति न गोचरं किमपि शं पुष्णाति यत् सर्वदा (harturyāti na gocaraṃ kimapi śaṃ puṣṇāti yat sarvadā) Bh.2.16.

Derivable forms: śaḥ (शः).

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Śa (श).—I. 4 P. (śāmyati, śānta)

1) To be calm, quiet or tranquil, be appeased or pacified (as a person); शाम्येत् प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः (śāmyet pratyapakāreṇa nopakāreṇa durjanaḥ) Ku.2.4; काकुत्स्थमुद्दिश्य समत्सरोऽपि शशाम तेन क्षितिपाललोकः (kākutsthamuddiśya samatsaro'pi śaśāma tena kṣitipālalokaḥ) R.7.3; शान्तो लवः (śānto lavaḥ) U.6. 7; Bh.2.75.

2) To cease, stop, come to an end; चिन्ता शशाम सकलाऽपि सरोरुहाणाम् (cintā śaśāma sakalā'pi saroruhāṇām) Bv.3.7; न जातु कामः कामानामुप- भोगेन शाम्यति (na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānāmupa- bhogena śāmyati) Ms.2.94 'is not satisfied'.

3) To be quelled, be extinguished or quenched; शशाम वृष्ट्यापि विना दवाग्निः (śaśāma vṛṣṭyāpi vinā davāgniḥ) R.2.14; U.5.7.

4) To desist, leave off (speaking &c.).

5) To put an end to, destroy, kill (also 9 P. in this sense) -Caus. (śamayati-te, but śāmayati- te in the sense of 'seeing', see śam II).

1) To appease, allay, calm, tranquillize, pacify, soothe; कः शीतलैः शमयिता वचनैस्तवाधिम् (kaḥ śītalaiḥ śamayitā vacanaistavādhim) Bv.3.1; संरम्भं शमयामास (saṃrambhaṃ śamayāmāsa) R.15. 85;17.55; Ś.5.7.

2) To put an end, to stop; वरेण शमितं लोकानलं दुग्धं हि तत्तपः (vareṇa śamitaṃ lokānalaṃ dugdhaṃ hi tattapaḥ) Ku.2.56.

3) To remove, avert; प्रतिकूलं दैवं शमयितुम् (pratikūlaṃ daivaṃ śamayitum) Ś.1.

4) To subdue, tame, defeat, conquer, vanquish; शमयति गजानन्यान् गन्धद्विपः कलभोऽपि सन् (śamayati gajānanyān gandhadvipaḥ kalabho'pi san) V.5.18; R.9.12;11.59.

5) To kill, destroy, slay; कर्णस्यात्मजमग्रतः शमयतः (karṇasyātmajamagrataḥ śamayataḥ) Ve.5.5.

6) To quench, extinguish; शमितकुरुवंशप्रसविता (śamitakuruvaṃśaprasavitā) Pt.4.5; सुतप्तमपि पानीयं शमयत्येव पावकम् (sutaptamapi pānīyaṃ śamayatyeva pāvakam) H.1.85; Me.55.

7) To leave off, desist, cease. -II. 1 U. (śāmayati-te)

1) To see, look at, inspect.

2) To show, display.

Derivable forms: śam (शम्).

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Ṣa (ष).—(Many roots which begin with s are written in the Dhātupāṭha with to show that the s is changed to after certain prepositions. Such roots will be found under sa in their proper places.)

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Ṣa (ष).—a. Best, excellent.

2) Wise, learned.

-ṣaḥ 1 Loss, destruction.

2) End.

3) Rest, remainder.

4) Final emancipation.

5) Loss of knowledge.

6) Heaven.

7) Sleep.

8) A learned man.

9) A teat or nipple.

10) Hair.

11) Delivery (garbhavimocana).

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Sa (स).—ind. A prefix substituted for सह (saha) or सम्, सम, तुल्य (sam, sama, tulya), or सदृश (sadṛśa) and एक (eka) or समान (samāna), and compounded with nouns to form adjectives and adverbs in the sense of (a) with, together with, along with, accompained by, having, possessed of; सपुत्र, सभार्य, सतृष्ण, सधन, सरोषम्, सकोपम्, सहरि (saputra, sabhārya, satṛṣṇa, sadhana, saroṣam, sakopam, sahari) &c.; (b) similar, like; सधर्मन् (sadharman) 'of a similar nature'; so सजाति, सवर्ण (sajāti, savarṇa); (c) same; सोदर, सपक्ष, सपिण्ड, सनाभि (sodara, sapakṣa, sapiṇḍa, sanābhi) &c. -m.

1) A snake.

2) Air, wind.

3) A bird.

4) Short name for the musical note षड्ज (ṣaḍja) q. v.

5) Name of Śiva.

6) Of Viṣṇu.

7) (In prosody) A foot consisting of two short syllables followed by a long one.

8) God; L. D. B.

-sā The goddess Lakṣmī.

-sam 1 Knowledge.

2) Meditation.

3) A carriage-road.

4) A fence, an enclosure.

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Sa (स).—I. 1 P. (samati)

1) To be confused or agitated.

2) Not to be confused or agitated. -II. 1 U. (samayati- te) To be agitated.

Derivable forms: sam (सम्).

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Sā (सा).—

1) Name of Lakṣmī.

2) Of Pārvatī.

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Sā (सा).—1 U. (sāmayati-te) To appease, conciliate, soothe.

Derivable forms: sām (साम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sa (स).—(°-), inseparable prefix in ‘pleonastic’ positive use, as opp. of neg. (= Pali id., see Childers); sace(t), saca, sa- cchambita, saśakya, sāntarabahis, santika and sā° (°ke), see s.vv.: (lokapālān yakṣarākṣasa-)-gandharvabhu- jagagaṇa-saparivṛtān LV 209.19 (prose), attended by crowds of…; paribubhukṣitā (so Senart em., mss. paribhuk°) sma sapipāsitā (Senart em. saṃpi°, but no such cpd. is recorded) sma Mv i.8.2 (prose), we are hungry, we are thirsty; ayoguḍā hi agnismiṃ yathā-d-iva (so mss.) sa- tāpitā (so mss.) Mv i.15.15 (verse); this could be interpreted as m.c. for saṃtāpitā(ḥ), which Senart reads (unmetr.) by em.; sa-pṛthagjanasevitaṃ (dharmaṃ) Mv i.33.13 (verse); sajaḍaḥ sajaḍataro bhavati Śikṣ 152.12 (prose), he is stupid, very stupid. Cf. sajyotibhūta, satejobhūta, which do not require similar interpretation. (In sayyathīdaṃ, °thāpi, etc., the pronoun sa, tad, is concerned.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śa (श).—The thirtieth consonant of the Nagari alphabet and first of the three sibilants; it is termed the palatal sibilant, and corresponds to “Sh” pronounced softly, as in Shun; in the Roman character it is distinguished by an accent, as S.

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Śa (श).—m.

(-śaḥ) 1. A name of Siva. 2. A weapon. 3. A cutter, a destroyer. n. Adv.

(-śaṃ) or Ind. (śaṃ or śam) Happy, happily, auspiciously. E. śī to sleep or śī to pare, &c., aff. ḍa .

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Ṣa (ष).—The thirty-first consonant of the Nagari alphabet, and second sibilant, corresponding to Sh, pronounced in some schools K'h: this letter is usually the first element of the roots, the derivatives of which commence with sa .

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Ṣa (ष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ) Best, excellent. m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. A learned man, a teacher. 2. A nipple. 3. Loss, destruction. 4. Rest, remainder. 5. Loss of knowledge, previously acquired. 6. Eternal happiness, final emancipation. 7. Heaven, paradise. 8. Sleep. 9. End, term. 10. Hair. n.

(-ṣaṃ) 1. The embryo. 2. Patience, endurance. E. ṣo to destroy, &c., aff. kaṃ or ḍa and the consonant unchanged, &c.

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Sa (स).—The thirty-second consonant of the Nagari' Alphabet, corresponding to S.

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Sa (स).—m.

(-saḥ) 1. A snake. 2. Siva. 3. Vishnu. 4. Air, wind. 5. The abbreviated name of the musical note ṣaḍja. 6. A bird. 7. He, the nominative case masc. of tad the third personal pronoun: before many letters the Visarga is rejected. f.

(-sā) 1. The goddess Lakshmi. 2. She, the nominative case fem. of tad. n.

(-saṃ) 1. Knowledge. 2. Meditation. 3. A carriage-road. 4. A fence. Ind. 1. (In composition,) With, together with; being substituted for sam. or saha. 2. Like, similar, as in “sadharma” which means having similar duties. 3. Same, identical, as in “sodara”; combined with nouns it forms adjectives and adverbs; as sakopaḥ angry, sakopam angrily; sagarvaḥ proud, sagarvam haughtily; savinayaḥ modest, well-behaved, savinayam respectfully; sasambhramaḥ flurried, sasambhramam flurriedly, sānandaḥ joyful, sānandam joyfully, &c. E. ṣo to go, &c., aff. ḍa .

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Sā (सा).—f.

(-sā) 1. A name of Lakshmi. 2. The goddess Gauri. 3. She, (the third personal feminine pronoun or the feminine inflection of tad that, &c.) E. ṣo to destroy, &c., aff. ḍa .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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