Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story)

by Somadeva | 1924 | 1,023,469 words | ISBN-13: 9789350501351

This is the English translation of the Kathasaritsagara written by Somadeva around 1070. The principle story line revolves around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the Vidhyādharas (‘celestial beings’). The work is one of the adoptations of the now lost Bṛhatkathā, a great Indian epic tale said to have been composed by ...

62. Story of Sūryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty over the Vidyādharas

THEN Sūryaprabha and his ministers rose up early in the morning and, accompanied by all the troops of the Dānavas and their allies, went to the field of battle. And Śrutaśarman came, surrounded by all the forces of the Vidyādharas; and all the gods, Asuras and others again came to look on. Both armies adopted the crescent formation, then there took place a battle between those two armies. The swift arrows,[1] winged with feathers, clashing against one another and cutting one another in pieces, also fought. The long sword-blades issued from the mouths of the scabbards, and drinking blood, and waving to and fro, appeared like the tongues of Death. The field of battle seemed like a lake, the full-blown lotuses of which were the faces of many heroes; on those the shower of discuses descended like a flight of Brahmany ducks and so ruined the kingly swans. The combat appeared, with the severed heads of heroes flying up and down, like a game of ball, with which Death was amusing himself. When the arena of combat was cleared from the obscuring dust by the sprinkling of bloody drops, there took place on it the single combats of furious champions.[2] There Sūryaprabha fought with Śrutaśarman, and Prabhāsa fought with Dāmodara, and Siddhārtha fought with Mahotpāta, and Prahasta with Brahmagupta, and Vītabhī with Saṅgama, and Prajñāḍhya with Candragupta, and Priyaṅkara with Ākrama, and Sarvadamana fought with Atibala, and Kuñjarakumāraka fought with Dhurandhara, and other great champions fought with others respectively.

Then first Mahotpāta silenced the arrows of Siddhārtha with his arrows, and after cleaving his bow, slew his horses and charioteer. Siddhārtha, though deprived of his chariot, charged him angrily, and with a large iron mace broke in pieces his chariot and horses. Then Siddhārtha fought on foot with Mahotpāta also on foot, and in a wrestling bout hurled him to the ground. But while he was trying to crush him, that Vidyādhara was delivered by his father, Bhaga, and flying up into the air left the battle-field.

And Prahasta and Brahmagupta destroyed one another’s chariots, and then fought with swords, showing various arts of fence; and Prahasta cleft his foe’s shield in the course of their sword-play, and with a dexterous sleight laid him low on the earth; but when he was about to cut off his head as he lay on the ground he was forbidden by his father Brahmā himself by a sign from a distance; then all the Dānavas laughed the gods to scorn, saying:

“You gods have come to save your sons, not to behold the fray.”

In the meanwhile Vītabhaya, after cutting in two the bow of Saṅkrama, and slaying his charioteer, slew him by piercing his heart with the weapon of Kāma. And Prajñāḍhya, fighting on foot with Candragupta, sword to sword, after both their chariots had been destroyed, killed him by cutting off his head. Then the Moon, angry at the death of his son, himself came and fought with Prajñāḍhya, and the two combatants were evenly matched. And Priyaṅkara, who had also had his chariot destroyed, cut him in two with one blow of his sword. And Sarvadamana easily killed Atibala in fight, for when his bow was cleft he threw his elephant hook and smote him in the heart.

Then Kuñjarakumāraka in a contest, in which missiles were opposed by answering missiles, frequently deprived Dhurandhara of his chariot, and as frequently Vikramaśakti brought him a chariot, and defended him in sore straits, repelling weapons with weapons; then Kuñjarakumāraka in wrath rushed forward and swiftly hurled a great rock on to the chariot of Vikramaśakti, and, when Vikramaśakti retired with broken chariot, he crushed Dhurandhara with that very stone.[3]. . .

Then Sūryaprabha, while fighting with Śrutaśarman, being angry on account of the slaughter of Virocana, killed Dama with one arrow. Enraged at that, the two Aśvins descended to the combat, but Sunītha received them with showers of arrows, and a great fight took place between him and them. And Sthirabuddhi slew Parākrama in fight with a javelin, and then fought with the eight Vasus enraged on account of his death. And Prabhāsa, seeing Bhāsa deprived of his chariot, though himself engaged in fighting with Dāmodara, killed Mardana with one arrow. The Dānava Prakampana killed Tejaḥprabha in a missile combat, and then fought with the God of Fire enraged on account of his death. And when Dhūmraketu had slain Yamadaṃṣṭra in fight he had a terrible combat with the enraged Yama.[4] And Siṃhadaṃṣṭra, having crushed Suroṣaṇa with a stone, fought with Nirṛti[5] enraged on account of his death. Kālacakra also cut Vāyubala in two with a discus, and then fought with Vāyu[6] inflamed with rage thereat. And Mahāmāya slew Kuveradatta, who deluded his foes by assuming the forms of a snake, a mountain and a tree, assuming himself the forms of Garuḍa, of the thunderbolt and of fire. Then Kuvera[7] himself fought with him in wrath. In the same way all the gods fought, angry on account of the slaughter of their sons. And then various other princes of the Vidyādharas were slain by various men and Dānavas, darting forward from time to time.

And in the meanwhile a conflict went on between Prabhāsa and Dāmodara, terrible from its unceasing exchange of missiles. Then Dāmodara, though his bow was cleft asunder and his charioteer slain, took another bow and fought on, holding the reins in his own hands.

And when Brahmā applauded him Indra said to him:

“Revered one, why are you pleased with one who is getting the worst of it?”

Then Brahmā answered him:

“How can I help being pleased with one who fights for so long with this Prabhāsa? Who but Dāmodara, who is a portion of Hari, would do this? For all the gods would be a scant match for Prabhāsa in fight. For that Asura Namuci, who was so hard for the gods to subdue, and who was then born again as Prabala, one entire and perfect jewel, has now been born as the invincible Prabhāsa, son of Bhāsa, and Bhāsa too was in a former birth the great Asura Kālanemi, who afterwards became Hiraṇyakaśipu and then Kapiñjala. And Sūryaprabha is the Asura who was called Sumuṇḍīka. And the Asura who was before called Hiraṇyākṣa is now this Sunītha. And as for Prahasta and others, they are all Daityas and Dānavas; and since the Asuras slain by you have been born again in these forms, the other Asuras, Maya and others, have espoused their cause. And see, Bali has come here to look on, for his bonds have been broken by virtue of the great sacrifice to Śiva, duly performed by Sūryaprabha and others, but, keeping his promise faithfully, he remains content with the realm of Pātāla until your allotted period of rule is at an end, and then he will be Indra. These are now favoured by Śiva, so it is not now a time of victory for you; make peace with your foes.”[8]

While Brahmā was saying this to the king of gods, Prabhāsa sent forth the great weapon of Śiva. When Viṣṇu saw that terrible all-destroying weapon let loose, he also sent forth, out of regard for his son, his discus called Sudarśana. Then there took place between those divine weapons, which had assumed visible shape, a struggle which made the three worlds dread a sudden destruction of all creatures.

Then Hari said to Prabhāsa:

“Recall your weapon and I will recall mine.”

And Prabhāsa answered him:

“My weapon cannot be launched in vain, so let Dāmodara turn his back and retire from the fight, and then I will recall my weapon.”

When Prabhāsa said that, Viṣṇu answered:

“Then do you also honour my discus; let not either of these weapons be fruitless.”

When Viṣṇu said this, Prabhāsa, who possessed tact, said:

“So be it; let this discus of thine destroy my chariot.”

Viṣṇu agreed, and made Dāmodara retire from the fight, and Prabhāsa withdrew his weapon, and the discus fell on his chariot. Then he mounted another chariot and went to Sūryaprabha, and then Dāmodara, for his part, repaired to Śrutaśarman.

And then the single combat between Śrutaśarman, who was puffed up by being a son of Indra, and Sūryaprabha became exceedingly fierce. Whatever weapon Śrutaśarman vigorously employed, Sūryaprabha immediately repelled with opposing weapons. And whatever delusion Śrutaśarman employed was overmastered by Sūryaprabha with opposing delusion. Then Śrutaśarman in fierce wrath sent forth the weapon of Brahmā, and the mighty Sūryaprabha let loose the weapon of Śiva. That mighty weapon of Śiva repelled the weapon of Brahmā, and, being irresistible, was overpowering Śrutaśarman when Indra and the other Lokapālas, being indignant, sent forth their tremendous weapons, beginning with thunderbolts. But the weapon of Śiva conquered all those weapons, and blazed exceedingly, eager to slay Śrutaśarman. Then Sūryaprabha praised that great weapon, and entreated it not to kill Śrutaśarman, but to take him prisoner and hand him over to himself. Then all the gods speedily prepared to fight, and the other Asuras also, who had come to look on, did the same, being eager to conquer the gods.

Then a Gaṇa named Vīrabhadra, sent by Śiva, came and delivered this order of his to Indra and the other gods:

“You came to look on, so what right have you to fight here? Moreover, your overstepping the bounds of propriety will produce other bad results.”

When the gods heard that, they said:

“All of us have sons here that have been slain, or are being slain, so how can we help fighting?[9] Love for one’s offspring is a feeling hard to lay aside, so we must certainly revenge ourselves on their slayers to the utmost of our power; what impropriety is there in this?”

When the gods said this, Vīrabhadra departed, and a great fight took place between the gods and the Asuras: Sunītha fought with the two Aśvins, and Prajñāḍhya fought with the Moon, and Sthirabuddhi with the Vasus, and Kālacakra with Vāyu, and Prakampana with Agni, and Siṃhadaṃṣṭra with Nirṛti, and Pramathana with Varuṇa, and Dhūmraketu with Yama, and then Mahāmāya fought with the God of Wealth, and other Asuras[10] at the same time fought with other gods, with missiles and opposing missiles. And finally, whatever mighty weapon any god sent forth Śiva immediately destroyed with an angry roar. But the God of Wealth, when his club was uplifted, was restrained by Śiva in a conciliatory manner, while various other gods, their weapons having been broken, fled from the field of battle. Then Indra himself, in wrath, attacked Sūryaprabha, and let fly a storm of arrows at him and various other weapons. And Sūryaprabha repelled those weapons with ease, and kept striking Indra with hundreds of arrows drawn back to the ear.

Then the king of the gods, enraged, seized his thunderbolt, and Śiva made an angry noise and destroyed that thunderbolt. Then Indra turned his back and fled, and Nārāyaṇa himself, in wrath, attacked Prabhāsa with sharp-edged[11] arrows. And he fearlessly fought with him, opposing those and other missiles with his own missiles; and when his horses were slain, and he was deprived of his chariot, he ascended another, and still fought with that enemy of the Daityas on equal terms. Then the god, enraged, sent forth his flaming discus. And Prabhāsa sent forth a heavenly sword, after consecrating it with magic formulas. While those two weapons were contending, Śiva, seeing that the sword was gradually being overpowered by the discus, made an angry roar. That caused the discus and sword to be both destroyed.

Then the Asuras rejoiced, and the gods were cast down, as Sūryaprabha had obtained the victory, and Śrutaśarman was taken prisoner.

Then the gods praised and propitiated Śiva, and the husband of Ambikā, being pleased, gave this command to the gods:

“Ask any boon but that promised to Sūryaprabha. Who can set aside what has once been promised at a burnt-sacrifice?”

The gods said:

“But, Lord, let that also which we promised to Śrutaśarman be fulfilled, and let not our sons perish.”

Then they ceased, and the Holy Lord thus commanded them:

“When peace is made, let that be so; and this is the condition of peace: let Śrutaśarman with all his retinue do homage to Sūryaprabha. Then we will issue a decree which shall be for the weal of both.”

The gods acquiesced in this decision of Śiva’s, and made Śrutaśarman do homage to Sūryaprabha. Then they renounced their enmity, and embraced one another; and the gods and Asuras also laid aside their enmity, and made peace with one another. Then, in the hearing of the gods and Asuras, the holy Śiva said this to Sūryaprabha:

“You must rule yourself in the southern half -vedi, but the northern half -vedi give to Śrutaśarman. For you are destined, my son, soon to receive the fourfold sovereignty of all the sky-goers, Kinnaras and all. And when you receive this, as you will in a distinguished position, you must also give the southern half-vedi to Śrīkuñjarakumāra. And as for the heroes slain on both sides in the battle, let them all rise up alive with unwounded limbs.”

After saying this, Śiva disappeared, and all those heroes who were slain in that battle rose up unwounded, as if they had awaked from sleep.

Then Sūryaprabha, the tamer of his foes, intent on observing the command of Śiva, went to a remote extensive plain, and, sitting in full court, himself made Śrutaśarman, who came to him, sit down on half of his throne. And his companions, headed by Prabhāsa, and Śrutaśarman’s companions, headed by Dāmodara, sat at the side of the two princes. And Sunītha and Maya, and the other Dānavas, and the kings of the Vidyādharas too sat on seats in order of precedence. Then the Daityas, who were kings of the seven Pātālas, headed by Prahlāda, and the kings of the Dānavas, came there out of joy. And Indra came with the Lokapālas, preceded by Bṛhaspati, and the Vidyādhara Sumeru with Suvāsakumāra. And all the wives of Kaśyapa came, headed by Danu, and the wives of Sūryaprabha in the chariot Bhūtāsana.

When they had all sat down, after showing one another affection, and going through the prescribed courtesies, a friend of Danu’s, named Siddhi, spoke to them as from her:

“O gods and Asuras, the goddess Danu says this to you:

‘Say, if you have ever felt before the joy and satisfaction which we all feel in this friendly meeting! so you ought not to wage against one another war, which is terrible on account of the sorrow it produces. Hiraṇyākṣa and those other older Asuras, who waged it to obtain the empire of heaven, have passed away, and Indra is now the eldest, so what cause is there for enmity?’

So let your antagonism drop, and be happy, in order that I may be pleased, and the prosperity of the worlds may be ensured.”

When they had heard this address of the revered Danu, uttered by the mouth of Siddhi, Bṛhaspati, Indra having looked him in the face, said to her:

“The gods entertain no design against the Asuras, and are willing to be friends with them, unless they display a treacherous animosity against the gods.”

When the preceptor of the gods said this, Maya, the King of the Dānavas, said:

“If the Asuras entertained any animosity, how could Namuci have given to Indra the horse Uccaihśravas that resuscitates the dead? And how could Prabala have given his own body to the gods? And how could Bali have given the three worlds to Viṣṇu, and himself have gone to prison? Or how could Ayodeha have given his own body to Viśvakarman? What more shall I say? The Asuras are ever generous, and if they are not treacherously injured they cherish no animosity.”

When the Asura Maya had said this, Siddhi made a speech, which induced the gods and Asuras to make peace and embrace one another.

In the meanwhile a female warder, named Jayā,[12] sent by Bhavānī, came there and was honoured by all, and she said to Sumeru:

“I am sent by the goddess Durgā to you, and she gives you this order:

‘You have an unmarried daughter named Kāmacūḍāmaṇi; give her quickly to Sūryaprabha, for she is a votary of mine.’”

When Jayā said this to Sumeru, he bowed, and answered her:

“I will do as the goddess Durgā commands me, for this is a great favour to me, and this very thing was long ago enjoined on me by the god Śiva.”

When Sumeru answered Jayā on this wise, she said to Sūryaprabha:

“You must set Kāmacūḍāmaṇi above all your wives, and she must be respected by you more than all the others; this is the order given to you to-day by the goddess Gaurī, being propitious to you.”

When Jayā had said this she disappeared, after having been honoured by Sūryaprabha. And Sumeru quickly fixed upon an auspicious moment in that same day for the marriage, and he had an altar made there, with pillars and pavement of refulgent jewels, furnished with fire that seemed, as it were, eclipsed by their rays. And he summoned there his daughter Kāmacūḍāmaṇi, whose beauty was greedily drunk in by the eager eyes of gods and Asuras. Her loveliness was like that of Umā; and no wonder; for if Pārvatī was the daughter of Himālaya, she was the daughter of Sumeru. Then he made her ascend the altar, fully adorned, resplendent from the ceremony of the marriage-thread, and then Sūryaprabha took the lotus-hand of Kāmacūḍāmaṇi, on which bracelets had been fastened by Danu and the other ladies. And when the first handful of parched grain[13] was thrown into the fire Jayā immediately came and gave her an imperishable celestial garland sent by Bhavānī; and then Sumeru bestowed priceless jewels, and an excellent elephant of heavenly breed, descended from Airāvata. And at the second throwing of parched grain Jayā bestowed a necklace, of such a kind that, as long as it is upon a person’s neck, hunger, thirst and death cannot harm them[14]; and Sumeru gave twice as many jewels as before, and a matchless horse descended from Uccaiḥśravas. And at the third throwing of grain Jayā gave a single string of jewels, such that, as long as it is on the neck, youth does not wither; and Sumeru gave a heap of jewels three times as large as the first, and gave a heavenly pearl that bestowed all kinds of magic powers upon its possessor.

Then, the wedding being over, Sumeru said to all present:

“Gods, Asuras, Vidyādharas, mothers of the gods, and all, to-day all of you must eat in my house; you must do me this honour; I entreat you with palms folded above my head.”

They were all inclined to refuse Sumeru’s invitation, but in the meanwhile Nandin arrived; he said to them, who bowed humbly before him:

“Śiva commands you to feast in the house of Sumeru, for he is the god’s servant, and if you eat his food you will be satisfied for ever.”

All of them, when they heard this from Nandin, agreed to it.

Then there came there innumerable Gaṇas sent by Śiva, under the heavenly leadership of Vināyaka, Mahākāla, Vīrabhadra and others. They prepared a place fit for dining, and caused the guests to sit down in order, gods, Vidyādharas and men. And the divine beings, Vīrabhadra, Mahākāla, Bhṛṅgin and others, ministered to them viands produced by Sumeru by magic, and others supplied by the cow Kāmadhenu, ordered to do so by Śiva; and they waited upon every single guest according to his rank. And then there was a concert, charming on account of the dancing of heavenly nymphs, and in which the bards of the Vidyādharas kept continually joining out of delight. And at the end of the feast Nandin and the others gave them all celestial garlands, robes and ornaments. After they had thus honoured the gods and others, all the chiefs of the Gaṇas, Nandin and the others departed with all the Gaṇas as they had come. Then all the gods and Asuras, and those mothers of theirs, and Śrutaśarman and his followers took leave of Sumeru and went each to his own place. But Sūryaprabha and his wife, accompanied by all his former wives, went in the chariot first to that ascetic grove of Sumeru. And he sent his companion Harṣa to announce his success to the kings and to his brother Ratnaprabha. And at the close of day he entered the private apartments of his wife Kāmacūḍāmaṇi, in which were splendid jewelled couches, and which were admirably built.

There he flattered her by saying:

“Now other women dwell outside of me, but you alone live in my heart.”

Then the night and his sleep gradually came to an end.

And in the morning Sūryaprabha got up and went and paid compliments to his head wives, who were all together. And while they were rejecting him, as being in love with a new wife, with playfully sarcastic, sweet, affectionate and bashful turns of speech, a Vidyādhara named Suṣeṇa came, announced by the warder, and after doing homage said to that triumphant king:

“Your Highness, I have been sent here by all the princes of the Vidyādharas, the lord of Trikūṭa and others, and they make this representation to your Highness:

‘It is auspicious that your coronation should take place on the third day at the mountain Ṛṣabha; let this be announced to all, and let the necessary preparations be made.’”

When Sūryaprabha heard that, he answered the ambassador:

“Go and say to the King of Trikūṭa and the other Vidyādharas from me:

‘Let your honours begin the preparations, and say yourselves what further is to be done; I for my part am ready. But I will announce the day to all, as is fitting.’”

Then Suṣeṇa departed, taking with him this answer. But Sūryaprabha sent off his friends Prabhāsa and the others, one by one, to invite all the gods, and the hermits, Yājñavalkya and others, and the kings, and the Vidyādharas, and the Asuras to the great festival of his coronation.

He himself went alone to Kailāsa, the monarch of mountains, in order to invite Śiva and Ambikā. And as he was ascending that mountain he saw that it gleamed white as ashes, looking like a second Śiva to be adored by the Siddhas, Ṛṣis and gods. After he had got more than half-way up it, and had seen that farther on it was hard to climb, he beheld on one side a coral door. When he found that, though gifted with supernatural power, he could not enter, he praised Śiva with intent mind.

Then a man with an elephant’s face opened the door, and said:

“Come! enter! the holy Gaṇeśa is satisfied with you.”

Then Sūryaprabha entered inly wondering, and beheld the god seated on a broad slab of jyotīrasa,[15] with one tusk, and an elephant’s proboscis, in brightness like twelve suns, with pendent stomach, with three eyes, with flaming axe and club, surrounded by many Gaṇas with the faces of animals, and falling at his feet he adored him. The Vanquisher of Obstacles, being pleased, asked him the cause of his coming, and said to him with an affectionate voice: “Ascend by this path.”

Sūryaprabha ascended by that path another five yojanas, and saw another great door of ruby. And not being able to enter there either, he praised the god Śiva by his thousand names with intent mind. Then the son of Skanda, called Viśākha, himself opened the door, proclaiming who he was, and introduced the prince into the interior. And Sūryaprabha, having entered, beheld Skanda of the brightness of burning fire, accompanied by his five sons, like himself, Śākha, Viśākha and their brothers, surrounded by inauspicious planets and infant planets,[16] that submitted to him as soon as he was born, and by ten millions of Gaṇeśas, prostrate at his feet. That god Kārttikeya also, being pleased, asked the cause of his coming, and showed him the path by which to ascend the mountain.

In the same manner he passed five other jewel-doors in succession, kept by Bhairava, Mahākāla, Vīrabhadra, Nandin and Bhṛṅgin severally, each with his attendants, and at last he reached on the top of the mountain an eighth door of crystal. Then he praised Śiva, and he was introduced courteously by one of the Rudras, and beheld that abode of Śiva that excelled Svarga, in which blew winds of heavenly fragrance, in which the trees ever bore fruit and flowers,[17] in which the Gandharvas had begun their concert, which was all joyous with the dancing of Apsarases. Then, in one part of it, Sūryaprabha beheld with joy the great god Śiva, seated on a throne of crystal, three-eyed, trident in hand, in hue like unto pure crystal, with yellow matted locks, with a lovely half-moon for crest, adored by the holy daughter of the mountain, who was seated at his side. And he advanced, and fell at the feet of him and the goddess Durgā. Then the adorable Hara placed his hand on his back, and made him rise up, and sit down, and asked him why he had come.

And Sūryaprabha answered the god:

“My coronation is nigh at hand, therefore I desire the Lord’s presence at it.”

Then Śiva said to him:

“Why have you gone through so much toil and hardship? Why did you not think of me where you were, in order that I might appear there? Be it so, I will be present.”

The god, who is kind to his votaries, said this, and calling a certain Gaṇa, who stood near him, gave him the following command:

“Go and take this man to the Ṛṣabha mountain, in order that he may be crowned emperor, for that is the place appointed for the grand coronation of emperors such as he is.”

When the Gaṇa had received this command from the holy god, he took in his lap with all respect Sūryaprabha, who had circumambulated Śiva. And he carried him and placed him on the Ṛṣabha mountain by his magic power that very moment and then disappeared.

And when Sūryaprabha arrived there his companions came to him, and his wives with Kāmacūḍāmaṇi at their head, and the kings of the Vidyādharas, and the gods with Indra, and the Asuras with Maya at their head, and Śrutaśarman, and Sumeru with Suvāsakumāra. And Sūryaprabha honoured them all in becoming fashion, and when he told the story of his interview with Śiva they congratulated him.

Then Prabhāsa and the others brought the water of consecration with their own hands, mixed with various herbs, in pitchers of jewels and gold, taking it from male and female rivers, seas and holy places. In the meanwhile the holy Śiva came there, accompanied by Durgā; and the gods, and Asuras and Vidyādharas, and kings and great Ṛṣis adored his foot. And while all the gods, and Dānavas, and Vidyādharas uttered loud cries of, “Blessed be this day I” the Ṛṣis made Sūryaprabha sit on the throne, and pouring all the waters over him, declared him Emperor of the Vidyādharas. And the discreet Asura Maya joyfully fastened on his turban and diadem. And the drum of the gods, preceded by the dancing of lovely Apsarases, sounded joyfully in heaven, in unison with the cymbals of earth. And that assembly of great Ṛṣis poured the water of consecration over Kāmacūḍāmaṇi also, and made her the appropriate queen consort of Sūryaprabha.

Then, the gods and Asuras having departed, Sūryaprabha, the Emperor of the Vidyādharas, protracted his great coronation feast with his relations, friends and companions. And in a few days he gave to Śrutaśarman that northern half -vedi mentioned by Śiva, and having obtained his other beloved ones, he enjoyed for a long time, together with his companions, the fortune of King of the Vidyādharas.



“Thus, by virtue of the favour of Śiva, Sūryaprabha, though a man, obtained of yore the empire of the Vidyādharas.”

Having told this story in the presence of the King of Vatsa, and having bowed before Naravāhanadatta, Vajraprabha, the King of the Vidyādharas, ascended to heaven. And after he had gone, that hero, King Naravāhanadatta, together with his queen, Madanamañcukā, remained in the house of his father, the King of Vatsa, waiting to obtain the rank of Emperor of the Vidyādharas.

Footnotes and references:


Śavāra should probably be śarāka.——The D. text has proved Tawney’s conjecture correct.—n.m.p.


Cf. the descriptions of similar battles with the Jann in the Nights (Burton, vol. if, pp. 253, 271; vol. vii, p. 31, and vol. viii, p. 136).— n.m.p.


Here Brockhaus supposes a hiatus-but this is wrong; there is no gap. The D. text also reads straight on.—n.m.p.


The God of Death.


I.e. Destruction (a goddess of death and corruption).


I.e. the God of the Wind.


The God of Wealth.


For B.’s reading, vigrahaiḥ, the D. text has kiṃ grahaiḥ, “What is the use of fighting?” This is literal and seems correct, while T.’s translation is not a true rendering.—n.m.p.


Cf. Homer’s Iliad, Book XV, 113-141.


For anyonyaiś I read anyeanyaiś.


Or perhaps—with arrows having ten million points.


See Vol. I, pp. 6, 7, 85.—n.m.p.


Cf. Thiselton Dyer’s English Folk-Lore, p. 203.


For note on magical articles see Vol. I, pp. 25-29, and Bolte, op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 361.—N.M.P.


Probably some kind of sparkling gem.


Said to mean planets or demons unfavourable to children.


Cf. Odyssey, vii, 117. The same is asserted by Palladius of the trees in the island of Taprobane, where the Makrobioi live. The fragment of Palladius, to which 1 refer, begins at the seventh chapter of the third book of the History of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, edited by Carolus Mueller.

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