Shiksha, Śikṣā, Śīkṣā: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shiksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śikṣā and Śīkṣā can be transliterated into English as Siksa or Shiksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: archive.org: The Taittiriya-upanishad

Śikṣā (शिक्षा, “Phonetics”) is the science which treats of sounds and their pronunciation. Or, the word ‘śikṣā’ may here signify the sounds etc., which are treated of in that science. Sound: such as ‘ā’. Rhythm: such as udātta or high-pitched tone. Length: short, long, etc. Strength: intensity of effort. Modulation: pronunciation of sounds in the middle tone. Union: conjunction of several sounds.—These are the things to be learnt. (See Taittirīya-Upaniṣad 1.2 with Śaṅkarāchārya’s commentary)

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śīkṣā (शीक्षा).—A part of Viṣṇu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 37.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—General name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा (śikṣā), the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा (pāṇinīyaśikṣā), about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (shiksha)

Śikṣā (शिक्षा, “phonetics”) refers to the “science of speech-sounds” and represents one of the six vedāṅgas: disciplines developed in order to articulate and interpret sacred texts (such as the Ṛgveda).—Phonetics (śikṣā), the science of speech-sounds (varṇamālā), developed in response to the need to preserve and articulate accurately the Vedic hymns (mantras) in the oral tradition. Yāska refers to this in his Nirukta. Phonetic study produced a brilliant understanding and a highly sophisticated analysis of the speech-sound structure and sound patterns of human languages.

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Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices

Śīkṣa (शीक्ष, “phonetics”) refers to one of the six divisions of the Vedāṅga texts, a type of Śāstra categorised as Apaurūṣeya; all part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Śikṣā (शिक्षा) refers to “instruction”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) is one of the six Vedangas, treating the traditional Hindu science of phonetics and phonology of Sanskrit. Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns and mantras. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas (prātiśākhya, a vrddhi abstract from Sanskrit prati-śākhā), describing pronunciation and intonation of Sanskrit, as well as the Sanskrit rules of sandhi (word combination) specific to individual schools or Shakhas of the Vedas.

The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Vedic compounds into stems, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation (pāṭha), such as the jaṭāpāṭha, involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next, and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi.

Source: Peter Freund: A Critical Edition of Svara Śikṣā

The name "Śikṣā" (meaning literally "to unfold") is given to a class of works associated with the task of training young students in proper pronunciation of the Sanskrit language, teaching the alphabet, the rules of euphonic combination, the characteristics and peculiarities of the various speech sounds, and the proper place of articulation in the mouth, and in general all the knowledge needed to maintain the tradition of flawlessly correct pronunciation of the Vedic texts generation after generation.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Śikṣā (शिक्षा) or Triśikṣā refers to the “three trainings” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 140):

  1. adhicitta-śikṣā (training in the higher mind),
  2. adhiśīla-śikṣā (training in the higher virtue),
  3. adhiprajñā-śikṣā (training in the higher wisdom).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., śikṣā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śikṣā (शिक्षा).—f (S) Instruction, teaching, communication of knowledge: also learning, acquiring knowledge, but esp. knowledge as acquired. 2 Punishing or correcting: also punishment or correction as received.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śikṣā (शिक्षा).—Instruction. Punishment as received.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—[śikṣ-bhāve a]

1) Learning, study, acquisition of knowledge; पश्य मे हयसंयाने शिक्षां केशवनन्दन (paśya me hayasaṃyāne śikṣāṃ keśavanandana) Mb.3.19.5; Ki.15.36; शिक्षाविशेषलघुहस्ततया निमेषात् (śikṣāviśeṣalaghuhastatayā nimeṣāt) R.9.63.

2) Desire of being able to do anything, wish to prevail; पाण्डवः परि- चक्राम शिक्षया रणशिक्षया (pāṇḍavaḥ pari- cakrāma śikṣayā raṇaśikṣayā) Ki.15.37.

3) Teaching, instruction, training; काव्यज्ञशिक्षयाऽभ्यासः (kāvyajñaśikṣayā'bhyāsaḥ) K. P.1; अभूच्च नम्रः प्रणिपात- शिक्षया (abhūcca namraḥ praṇipāta- śikṣayā) R.3.25; M.4.9.

4) One of the six Vedāṅgas, the science which teaches the proper pronunciation of words and laws of euphony; वर्णस्वराद्युच्चारणप्रकारो यत्रोप- दिश्यते सा शिक्षा (varṇasvarādyuccāraṇaprakāro yatropa- diśyate sā śikṣā) Ṛigvedabhāṣya.

5) Modesty, humility.

6) Science; रणशिक्षा (raṇaśikṣā) 'military science'; Ki.15.37.

7) Giving, bestowing (Ved.).

8) Punishment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śikṣa (शिक्ष).—nt., for śikṣā, q.v.

--- OR ---

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—(see also śiṣyā), (1) śi° tisraḥ (or, in Mahāvyutpatti 929, trīṇi śikṣāṇi), (the three) instructions (Pali sikkhā), viz. by the Vinaya (-piṭaka) in reference to moral conduct (adhi- śīlam), by the Sūtra in reference to thought, intellect (adhicittam), by the Abhidharma in reference to wisdom, insight (adhiprajñam); correspondingly in Pali: see Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xi.1; xx.17; Mahāvyutpatti 929; Dharmasaṃgraha 140; śikṣāsu Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 30.11. The words adhiśīlam etc. were orig. adverbs (adhi governing the second member, in a manner referring to…) and are still so used, e.g. Bodhisattvabhūmi 373.20—21 adhiśīlaṃ (and adhicit- taṃ, adhiprajñaṃ) śikṣā; loc. forms are also used in the same way, as adhicitte ca āyogaḥ Udānavarga xxxii.27(32) = Pali Dnp. 185 (same text). These forms may be turned into adjectives: adhiśīlo vihāro Bodhisattvabhūmi 335.1; sa vihāraḥ adhi- citta ity ucyate Bodhisattvabhūmi 338.21 (this usage seems not recorded in Pali). Often the stems adhiśīla-, adhicitta-, adhiprajña- are used as prior members of cpds., in which case precise analysis becomes difficult; so Bodhisattvabhūmi 185.14; 333.2; 335.3; 338.24; 341.8; etc. But sometimes adhiprajñā-śikṣā is used as a [compound], Dharmasaṃgraha 140, the prior member being then evidently taken as stem of a noun. As nouns, adhi- śīla, adhicitta, and adhiprajñā, like their Pali equivalents, are used Mahāvyutpatti 930—2; Bodhisattvabhūmi 317.2 (parallel with adhimuktiḥ), [Page527-b+ 71] being then reinterpreted (with adhi = adhika) as superior morality, intellect, wisdom, see Critical Pali Dictionary s.vv. adhisīla, °citta, °paññā; (2) like Pali sikkhā (tho [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] and Childers do not clearly recognize the fact), śikṣā also means morality, perhaps as a reflex of its use in the [compound] śikṣā (Pali sikkhā)- pada, q.v.: Bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā 10a.1, after repetition of the five śikṣāpada the novīce says, teṣām…śikṣāyām anuśikṣe, I (will) imitate them (see anuśikṣati) in moral conduct.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) 1. One of the six Vedangas or sciences attached to the Vedas: the proper pronunciation of the vocal sounds which occur in them, as explained by Panini. 2. A plant, (Bignonia Indica.) 3. Learning, study, the acquisition of knowledge. 4. Modesty, humility. E. śikṣ to learn, affs. aṅ and ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—i. e. śikṣa, desider, of śak, + a, f. 1. Learning, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 8, 3; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 318; study. 2. One of the six Vedāṅgas, treating of pronunciation, Madhuādana in Weber, Ind. St. i. 16. 3. Modesty.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikṣā (शिक्षा).—[feminine] ability, cleverness, skill, art, knowledge, instruction; [especially] the science of the grammatical elements.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Śikṣā (शिक्षा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—manuals professing to teach the correct pro- nunciation and recitation of vaidic texts. See Kielhorn's Remarks on the Śikṣās, and Burnell. on the Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians p. 45: Amoghanandinī. Ātreyaśikṣā. Āpiśalī. Āraṇyakaśikṣā. Kātyāyanaśikṣā or Yājñavalkyaśikṣā. Kālanirṇayaśikṣā. Kāhalaśikṣā. Keśavaśikṣā. Kauśikī Śikṣā. Gautamaśikṣā. Cārāyaṇīyā Śikṣā. Taittirīyaśikṣā. Nārada. Pāṇinīyaśikṣā. Pārāśara. Baudhāyana. Bhāradvāja. Māṇḍūkī. Mādhyaṃdinī. Yājñavalkya. Lakṣmīkānta. Lomaśa. Vājasaneya. Vālmīki. Vāsiṣṭha. Vyāḍi. Vyāsa. Śaṅkara. Śambhu. Śikṣāsamuccaya. Mysore. 2. Oppert. Ii, 9113. Kielhorn p. 31. Quoted by Śrīnivāsa Burnell. 42^a.
—Sarvasammataśikṣā. Sāmavedaśikṣā Oudh. Xiii, 26 is probably the Nāradaśikṣā.
—Siddhāntaśikṣā. Hārītaśikṣā.-Lastly the undefined Śikṣāsūtraṇi B. 1, 210.

2) Śīkṣā (शीक्षा):—See Śikṣā.

3) Śikṣā (शिक्षा):—To those previously enumerated add the Māṇḍavī Śikṣā.
—The Śikṣāsamuccaya is also given in Gb. 35.

4) Śikṣā (शिक्षा):—bhakti, by Viṭṭhala Dīkṣita. Io. 1068.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śikṣa (शिक्ष):—[from śikṣ] m. Name of a king of the Gandharvas, [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) Śikṣā (शिक्षा):—[from śikṣa > śikṣ] a f. See below.

3) [from śikṣ] b f. desire of being able to effect anything, wish to accomplish, [Kirātārjunīya xv, 37]

4) [v.s. ...] learning study knowledge, art, skill in ([locative case] or [compound]; śikṣayā or kṣābhis, ‘skilfully, artistically, correctly’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] teaching, training (held by Buddhists to be of three kinds, viz. adhicitta-śikṣā, training in the higher thought; adhiśīla-ś, tr° in the higher morality; adhiprajñā-ś, tr° in the higher learning, [Dharmasaṃgraha 140]), instruction, lesson, precept, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa; Taittirīya-upaniṣad] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] chastisement, punishment, [Nyāyamālā-vistara [Scholiast or Commentator]]

7) [v.s. ...] the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic texts (one of the six Vedāṅgas q.v.), [Prātiśākhya; Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] modesty, humility, diffidence, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] (?) helping, bestowing, imparting (See śikṣā-nara)

10) [v.s. ...] the plant Bignonia Indica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Śīkṣā (शीक्षा):—f. incorrect form of śikṣā (q.v.), [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka; Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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