Shitala, Sitala, Śītalā, Sītala, Śītala: 22 definitions



Shitala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śītalā and Śītala can be transliterated into English as Sitala or Shitala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shital.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śītala (शीतल) is another name (synonym) for Candana, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Santalum album (Indian sandalwood). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.6-8), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

1) Śītala (शीतल) refers to either “cool” or “white”, mentioned in verse 3.33 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Taking at night moonbeams as food, one shall drink, sugared buffalo’s milk (that is) cooled [viz., śītala] by the moon and stars. In groves in which the hot-rayed one is darkened by cloud-grazing huge Sal trees and Palmyra palms, [...]”.

Note: Sasita (“sugared”) has been interchanged with candrana-kṣatra-śītala and translated by bsil-mo (“cold”), which points to a variant saśīta in the basic text. Accordingly, śītala (which usually signifies “cool”) has been given the rare sense of dkar-ba (“white”); cf. śītalacchada (“white leaf”) or (“white-leaved”) MW p. 1078.—dka-ba in P is a carver’s error.

2) Śītala (शीतल) also refers to “(water that is) cooled down”, as mentioned in verse 5.18.—Accordingly, “[...] not causing effluxions (of phlegm) and light (on the stomach is) water (that has) boiled and cooled down [viz., kvathita-śītala]. In case a humour is combined with choler, (it is) wholesome; having passed (a day, however), it (is) productive of the three humours”.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śītala (शीतल) refers to “cooling” and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect śītala is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Crystal (sphaṭika-pātra) and Vaiḍūrya.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Śītala (शीतल):—[śītalaṃ] Cold

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Śītalā (शीतला) is another name for Kuṭumbinī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 5.78-80 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Śītalā and Kuṭumbinī, there are a total of twelve Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Śītala (शीतल) refers to “cold (speaking of a good quality stone) § 2.10.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Religion, Devotion and Medicine in North India

Śītalā (शीतला), who is principally a women’s goddess, is visualized as a mother (, mātā) who protects children from paediatric ailments, notably exanthemata. She is also a fertility goddess, who helps women in finding good husbands and conceiving healthy sons. Her auspicious presence ensures the wellbeing of the family, and protects sources of livelihood. Being cold, Śītalā is summoned to ensure regular refreshing rains and to prevent famines, droughts and cattle diseases.

The name śītalā is a tatsama-śabda (identical loanword) derived from the Sanskrit root śīta, ‘cold’. It can be a noun (‘cold’, ‘coldness’) or an adjective (‘cold’, ‘cool’, ‘cooling’, ‘refreshing’, ‘calm’, ‘gentle’, ‘mild’, ‘free from passion’).

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Śītala (शीतल) refers to one of the eight direction-guardians (dikpāla) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Śītala is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Veṣṭabhakṣa and with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Karpūra.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śītala (शीतल):—The tenth Tīrthaṅkara (Janism recognizes 24 such teachers or Siddhas). He is also known as Śītalanātha. His colour is gold (kāñcana), according to Aparājitapṛcchā (221.5-7). His height is 90 dhanuṣa (a single dhanuṣa (or, ‘bow’) equals 6 ft), thus, roughly corresponding to 165 meters. His emblem, or symbol, is a Śrīvatsa.

Śītala’s father is Dṛḍharatha and his mother is Nandā. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śītala (शीतल) refers to the tenth of the twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras praised in the first book (ādīśvara-caritra) [chapter 1] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] we worship the Arhats, who at all times and all places purify the people of the three worlds by their name, representation, substance, and actual existence. [...] May the Jina Śītala, a new cloud for making shoot up the bulb of the people’s supreme joy, who pours forth the nectar of Syādvāda, protect you”.

Śītala is the son of Nandā and Dṛḍharatha, according to chapter 3.8, “[...] Then Dṛḍharatha made a festival with releases from prison, etc.; for the purifying birth of such persons is for the emancipation of the world. The name ‘Śītala’ was given to him because the King’s body, when it was hot, became cool at Nandā’s touch, while he was in the womb. Attended by gods in the form of boys, the Lord of the World increased in size daily, like the waves of the ocean attended by Indras of the Velādhārins. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shitala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sītala : (adj.) cool; cold. (nt.), coolness; cold.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sītala, (adj.) (cp. Vedic śītala) cold, cool J. II, 128; DA. I, 1; Miln. 246; tranquil J. I, 3; (nt.) coolness Miln. 76, 323; VvA. 44, 68, 100; PvA. 77, 244. sītalībhāva becoming cool Sdhp. 33. (Page 712)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śitaḷa (शितळ).—a (Or śītaḷa from śītala S) Cold. 2 fig. Gentle or easy;--as a slope.

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śītala (शीतल).—a (S) Cold, cool, frigid.

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śītalā (शीतला).—f pl (S) The small pox. v yē, nigha, māvaḷa, kānapa.

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śītaḷa (शीतळ).—a (śītala S) Cold, not hot or warm. 2 Soft, gentle, easy--a slope.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śitaḷa (शितळ).—a Cold. Fig. Gentle or easy.

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śītala (शीतल).—a Cold, frigid, cool.

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śītalā (शीतला).—f pl The small-pox. The goddess presiding over the small-pox.

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śītaḷa (शीतळ).—a Cold; soft.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śītala (शीतल).—a. [śītaṃ lāti lā-ka, śītamastyasya lac-vā]

1) (a) Cool, cold, chill, frigid; अतिशीतलमप्यम्भः किं भिनत्ति न भूभृतः (atiśītalamapyambhaḥ kiṃ bhinatti na bhūbhṛtaḥ) Subhāṣ. (b) Cool, bearable; महदपि परदुःखं शीतलं सम्यगाहुः (mahadapi paraduḥkhaṃ śītalaṃ samyagāhuḥ) V.4.13.

2) Not exciting, calm, gentle.

-laḥ 1 The moon.

2) A kind of camphor.

3) Turpentine.

4) The Champaka tree.

5) A kind of religious observance (observed upon the sun's entering the sign Aries).

-lam 1 Cold, coolness.

2) The cold season.

3) Benzoin.

4) White sandal, or sandal in general.

5) A pearl.

6) Green sulphate of iron.

7) A lotus.

8) The root called वीरण (vīraṇa) q. v.

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Śītalā (शीतला).—

1) Small-pox.

2) The goddess presiding over small-pox.

3) Sand.

4) Pistia Stratiotes (ārāmaśītalā, kuṭumbinī).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śītala (शीतल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) Cold, chilly, frigid. n.

(-laṃ) 1. Green vitriol. 2. Storax. 3. Sandal. 4. White Sandal. 5. A lotus. 6. A pearl. 7. Cold, coldness. 8. The root of the Andropogon muricatum. m.

(-laḥ) 1. A plant, (Marsilea quadrifolia.) 2. A Jina or Jaina teacher, the 10th of the twenty-four Tirt'hakars. 3. A religious ceremony observed upon the sun’s entering Aries. 4. The moon. 5. A small tree, (Cordia myxa.) 6. The Champaca, (Michelia champaca.) 7. A sort of camphor. 8. Turpentine. f. (-lā-lī) 1. A plant, perhaps intending the Phrynium dichotymum, from the split stems of which a smooth, cool mat is made, thence termed Sitala-pati. 2. Small-pox. 3. The goddess presiding over or inflicting small-pox. E. śīta cool, lac poss. aff., or to give or get, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śītala (शीतल).—[śīta + la], I. adj. Cold, cool, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 58; figurat., [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 90. Comparat. ºlatara, Cooler, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 4. Ii. m. 1. The moon. 2. A sort of camphor. Iii. m., f. , and , and n. The name of several plants. Iv. n. 1. Coldness. 2. A pearl.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śītala (शीतल).—[adjective] cold, cool (lit. & [figuratively]); [neuter] = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śītala (शीतल):—[from śīta] mf(ā)n. cold, cool, cooling, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] shivering, frosty, [Catalogue(s)]

3) [v.s. ...] cold id est. free from passion, calm, gentle, [Aṣṭāvakra-saṃhitā; Prasannarāghava]

4) [v.s. ...] not exciting emotion, not causing painful feelings, [Vikramorvaśī iv, 37]

5) [v.s. ...] m. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) the wind

6) [v.s. ...] the moon

7) [v.s. ...] Cordia Myxa

8) [v.s. ...] Michelia Champaka

9) [v.s. ...] = asana-parṇī

10) [v.s. ...] a kind of camphor

11) [v.s. ...] the resin of Shorea Robusta

12) [v.s. ...] m. green sulphate of iron (also m.)

13) [v.s. ...] m. bitumen (also m.)

14) [v.s. ...] m. a religious ceremony observed on the sun’s entering Aries

15) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) Name of the 10th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī

16) Śītalā (शीतला):—[from śītala > śīta] a f. See below

17) Śītala (शीतल):—[from śīta] n. cold, coldness, cold weather, [Subhāṣitāvali]

18) [v.s. ...] sandal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] a lotus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] Costus Speciosus or Arabicus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] the root of Andropogon Muricatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] a pearl, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) Śītalā (शीतला):—[from śīta] b f. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) sand

24) [v.s. ...] Pistia Stratiotes

25) [v.s. ...] = kuṭumbinī and ārāma-śītalā

26) [v.s. ...] a red cow

27) [v.s. ...] small-pox

28) [v.s. ...] the goddess inflicting small-pox (cf. [compound] and, [Religious Thought and Life in India 227, 228]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śītala (शीतल):—[(laḥ-lā-laṃ) a.] Cool. m. A plant; a Jaina; a ceremony; moon. f. (ā) and (ī) A plant; small-pox. n. Green vitriol; storax; sandal; lotus; pearl; coldness.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Śītala (शीतल):—(von śīta) gaṇa sidhmādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 2, 97.]

1) adj. (f. ā) a) kühl, kalt, kühlend [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 2, 21.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 88. 3, 3, 408.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1385.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 687.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 139.] nyagrodha [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 55, 22.] vāyu [3, 22, 15.] [Suśruta 1, 45, 4.] jala [100, 18. 131, 16. 164, 6. 214, 3. 2, 45, 2.] kriyā [1, 38, 2.] meha [Śārṅgadhara SAṂH. 1, 7, 43.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 49, 25.] [Ṛtusaṃhāra 1, 6.] [Meghadūta 96.] [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 43.] [Śākuntala 69.] [Spr. (II) 138. 748. 1067. 1463. 1742. 1850. 2053. 3078. 3260. 5241. fg. (I) 2719. 3185.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 27, 8. 28, 12.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 53, 160.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 213.] nirdoṣasya hi tasyāsaṃsarvataḥ śītalā diśaḥ [4,86.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 21,4.] [Oxforder Handschriften 46,a,40.] candana wie [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 79, 6.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 31, 23.] himotsargādi [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 104, 23.] śītalatara [Śiśupālavadha 9, 4.] a [86.] ati [Spr. (II) 4245.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 19.] atyanta Cit. beim [Scholiast] zu [Śākuntala 86.] su [Mahābhārata 3, 2535.] [Caurapañcāśikā 2.] [Spr. (II) 451. 2215.] — b) leicht frierend, zum Frost geneigt [Oxforder Handschriften 306], b, [11.] — c) im Herzen abgekühlt, frei von Leidenschaft: dhīrasya śītalaṃ cittam [AṢṬĀV. 18, 81. 1, 16. 18, 22. 23] (śītalācchāntarātmanaḥ zu lesen). sā śokapihitakrauryā tasthau praśamaśītalā [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 294.] — d) Jmd kalt lassend, nicht näher berührend: mahadapi paraduḥkhaṃ śītalam [Vikramorvaśī 90.] —

2) m. a) Wind [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 408.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 171.] — b) der Mond [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) Bez. verschiedener kühlender Pflanzen und Stoffe: = aśanaparṇī [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 5, 15.] [Medinīkoṣa] = tālaparṇī [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] Cordia Myxa Lin. [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] Michelia Champaka (campaka) Lin. [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] eine Art Kampfer und das Harz der Shorea robusta ebend. — d) eine best. Begehung beim Eintritt der Sonne in den Widder [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] — e) Nomen proprium des 10ten Arhant's der gegenwärtigen Avasarpiṇī [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 27.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —

3) f. ā a) Bez. verschiedener Pflanzen: Pistia Stratiotes Lin. [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] = kuṭumbinī und ārāmaśītalā [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) Sand [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) die Göttin der Blattern [WILSON, Sel. Works 2, 21.] pūjā [194.] ṣaṣṭhī [192. fgg.] vrata [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 1209.] [Oxforder Handschriften 284], b, 46. stotra [Westergaard’s Verzeichniss 3],b. —

4) f. ī Pistia Stratiotes Lin. [Ratnamālā 82.] —

5) n. a) Kälte [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] suśītale [Spr. (II) 1366.] — b) (nach [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] masc.) Bez. verschiedener kühlender Stoffe: Sandel; grüner (schwarzer) Eisenvitriol; Erdharz [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] die Wurzel von Andropogon muricatus [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] Perle und = padmaka [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — Vgl. ārāmaśītalā und rāma .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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