The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes the acquisition of gayatri which is chapter 16 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the sixteenth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 16 - The acquisition of Gāyatrī

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Bhīṣma said:

1-2. O brāhmaṇa, (now) that you have narrated to me the excellent importance of the sacred place, that the sacred place was produced on the surface of the earth by the fall of the lotus, best among the sages, tell me all that revered Viṣṇu and Śaṅkara, who stayed there, did.

3. (Tell me) how the sacrifice was performed by the all-powerful god. Who were the members? Who were the priests? Which brāhmaṇas arrived there?

4. What were the portions of the sacrifice? What was the material? What was the sacrificial fee? What was the altar? What was the measure (of the altar) that Brahmā adopted?

5. Entertaining which desire, did Brahmā, to whom sacrifice is offered by all gods and who is described by all Vedas, perform the sacrifice?

6-11. As this god, the lord of gods, is unaging and immortal, so also the heaven is inexhaustible for him. The great one has granted (a place in) heaven to other gods also. The Vedas and the herbs have come up for an oblation to fire. The Vedic texts say that whatever other beasts are (seen) on the earth all of them have been created for the sake of sacrifice by this lord. Having heard these words of you, I have a curiosity in this matter. Please tell me all that with reference to what desire, what fruit and what idea he performed the sacrifice. Here it is said that the lady with a hundred forms is Sāvitrī. She is said to be the wife of Brahmā and the mother of the sages. Sāvitrī gave birth to the seven sages like Pulastya and others and the lords of the created beings like Dakṣa.

12-17. Sāvitrī also gave birth to Manus like Svāyambhuva. How is it that Brahmā, dear to the brāhmaṇa, abandoned that religiously wedded blessed wife, endowed with sons, devoted (to her husband), of a good vow and smiling charmingly, and take to another wife? What was the name (of the other wife)? How was her conduct? Of which lord was she the daughter? Where was she seen by the lord? Who showed her to him? Of what form did she, alluring the mind, look—seeing whom the lord of gods came under the influence of lust? (Was) she, O sage, who allured the all-powerful lord of gods, superior to Sāvitrī in complexion and beauty? Tell me all that as to how the god accepted that lady (most) beautiful in the world, and how the sacrifice proceeded.

18. What did Sāvitri do on seeing her by the side of Brahmā? and what was Brahmā’s attitude towards Sāvitrī at that time?

19. Please tell (me) all that—which words did Sāvitrī, who was addressed by Brahmā, again utter?

20-28. What did you do there? (Did you express) anger or (did you show) patience? I desire to hear in detail what you did and saw and whatever I have asked you now and all the deeds of the lord. So also (I wish to hear) fully the great performance of the sacrifice. So also the order of acts and their beginning. Similarly (I wish to hear about) the oblation,[1] the food of the sacrificial priest. To whom was worship first offered? How did venerable Viṣṇu (act)? Who offered which help? Please (also) tell me what the gods did. How (i.e. why) did Brahmā leave the divine world and come (down) to the mortal world? (Please) tell me also how according to the (prescribed) rite he established the three fires, viz. the householder’s perpetual fire, the southern fire called Anvāhārya and the consecrated fire. How he got ready the sacrificial altar, the sacrificial ladle,[2] the water for consecration, the wooden ladle[3], the materials for the oblation. So also how he prepared the three sacrifices and the portions of the oblations; how he made the gods the recipients of the offerings meant for gods,[4] and the manes the recipients of the offerings meant for them,[5] the various (small) sacrifices performed according to the sacrificial procedure for portioning (the shares) in the sacrifice. (So also please tell me) as to how Brahmā made (ready) the sacrificial materials like the tying posts, the sacred fuel and the darbha (grass), Soma, so also the two blades of Kuśa grass,[6] and the sticks laid round the sacrificial fire.[7] (Tell me also) how he formerly shone by means of his supreme act.

29-38. The creator of a great mind, formerly created moments, twinklings, Kāṣṭhās, Kalās, the three times, Muhūrtas, dates, months, day, year, seasons, timely incantations[8], the threefold sacred authority (i.e. the scriptures), life, sacred spots, decrease, signs and excellence of form. (He created) the three castes, the three worlds, the three lores (i.e. the Vedas) and the three fires, the three times, three (kinds of) acts, the three castes and the three constituents, so also the superior and other worlds. (He laid down) the course followed by those endowed with (i.e. practising) righteousness, so also of those of sinful acts. He is the cause of the four castes, the protector of the four castes, who (i.e. he) is the knower of the four lores (i.e. the Vedas), is the resort of the four stages of life, is said to be the highest light and the highest penance, is greater than the highest, who (himself) is the supreme (spirit) and is self-possessed, is the bridge of the bridges (in the form) of the worlds, is fit for sacred acts, is fit to be known by those learned in the Vedas, the lord of the creators, is the life of the beings, the fire of those who are vigorous like fire, who is the mind of men, the penance of those who practise it, the modesty of the prudent, and the lustre of the lustrous; thus the grandsire of the worlds created all this. (Please tell) me what course he desired as a result of the sacrifice and how he decided (to perform) the sacrifice. This, O brāhmaṇa, is my doubt—this is my great doubt.

39. Highest Brahma is said to be a wonder by gods and demons. Though he is wonderful due to his (wondrous) deeds, he is here actually described to be so (i.e. a wonder).

Pulastya spoke:

40-49. The load of questions asked by you about Brahmā is great. I shall tell (i.e. answer your questions) according to my capacity. Listen to his great glory. (Hear about him) whom the brahmaṇas knowing the Vedas describe (as follows): He has a thousand mouths, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, a thousand ears, a thousand hands. (He is) immutable, he has a thousand tongues, (he is) thousandfold, thousand times a great lord, he is giver (in) a thousand (ways), is the origin of thousands, and is the immutable one having a thousand arms. (He is) the oblation, the extracting of Soma juice, the offering and the priest. (He is) the vessels, the blades of Kuśa grass used at sacrifices in purifying and sprinkling ghee, the altar, the initiation, the oblation of rice, barley and pulse boiled for presentation to the gods and manes, the sacrificial ladle, so also the wooden ladle used for pouring clarified butter on sacrificial fire, the Soma, the oblation, the holy water,[9] the money for (paying) the sacrificial fees, the officiating priest, the brāhmaṇa versed in the Sāma-veda, the members (present at the sacrifice), the chamber, the assembly, the tying post, the sacred fuel, the spoon[10], the pestle and the mortar, the room in which the friends and family of the sacrificer assemble, the sacrificial ground, the hotṛ-priest, the binding, the short (or) (proper-) sized inanimate objects (like clay, stones), the darbhas, so also the Vedic hymn, the sacrifice, the offering of an oblation with fire, the portion of the fire, and that which is the excellence, the one who enjoys first, the enjoyer of the sacrifice. He is of an auspicious lustre, one who has raised his weapon, the sacrifice and the eternal lord. (I shall tell you), O great king, this divine account about which you are asking (me) and the reason for which lord Brahmā performed a sacrifice on the earth, for the good of gods and mortals and for the production of the worlds.

50-51. Brahmā, and Kapila, and Viṣṇu, gods, the seven sages, Śiva of great prowess, the high-souled Manu, the revered creator, all these resembling fire in lustre were created by the ancient god.

52-53. Formerly when the lotus-born (Brahmā) was performing penance in his abode—in Puṣkara—where gods and groups of sages were produced, the manifestation of him, the high-souled one, is called Pauṣkaraka, about which the Purāṇa, agreeing well with the Vedas and Smṛtis is narrated.

54-67. A boar, with a face of scriptures appeared there. The lord of gods resorting to a boar-form, having made an extensive sacred place at Puṣkara—for it is the opening of a red lotus—manifested himself there for the help of Brahmā. He had the feet in the form of the Vedas, fangs in the form of tying posts, hands in the form of sacrifices, face in the form of an oblong[11], tongue in the form of fire, hair in the form of darbhas, head in the form of sacred texts and had great penance (to his credit). He had eyes in the form of day and nights, was divine, had the body of the Vedas and the ornaments of scriptures, had a nose in the form of ghee, mouth of a sacrificial ladle, was great with the sound of Sāman. He was full of truth, possessed splendour, and was adorned with his steps and strides. He had nails in the form of expiation, and was firm; had knees in the form of beasts and the figure of a sacrifice; had udgātṛ-priest as his intestine, had sacrifice as his genital organ; he was a great plant with fruits and seeds; he had wind as his mind, hymns as his bones, water as his lips and Soma as his blood; his shoulders were the Vedas, he had the fragrance of the oblations; he was very speedy with oblations offered to gods and manes. His body was the sacrificial room having its columns turned towards the east; he was bright; and was decorated with initiations; he, a contemplative saint, had the sacrificial fee as his heart; and the great one was full of great sacrificial sessions. He was charming on account of the sacrificial ceremony of Upakarma[12]. He had ornaments in the form of the ceremonies preliminary to Soma-sacrifices.[13] He was accompanied by his wife like his shadow, and was lofty like a jewelled peak. He who looked to the interest of the people uplifted the earth with his fang. Then he, the holder of the earth, having brought the earth to its own place, became satisfied with having sustained the earth. Thus, the first boar, desiring the good of Brahmā, having seized the earth, uplifted it which had formerly gone down into the water of the ocean. Brahmā, remaining at the opening of the red lotus, covered with (i.e. full of) tranquility and restraint, the lord of the movable and the immovable, endowed with splendour, best among those who knew the Vedas, accompanied by deities like Ādityas[14], Vasus[15], Sādhyas[16], Maruts[17], Rudras[18]—the friends of all, so also by Yakṣas, demons and Kinnaras, directions and intermediate directions, rivers on the earth along with oceans, said these words (to Viṣṇu in the form of the boar): “O lord, you will please always look after and protect the sacred place Kokāmukha (i.e. Puṣkara); here, at the sacrifice you will undertake the protection (of the sacrifice).”

68. Then he said to Brahmā: “Revered one, I shall do so”. Brahmā again said to god Viṣṇu who stood before him:

69-76. “O best of gods, you are my greatest god, you are my best preceptor; you are my highest resort and of Śakra and others. O you having eyes like bloomed, spotless lotuses, you who bring about the destruction of the enemy, you should act in such a way that the demons do not destroy the sacrifice of me who am bending before you; my salutation to you.” Viṣṇu said: “Give up your fear, O lord of gods; I shall destroy all those others (like) the evil spirits and the demons who will cause obstructions.” Saying so he, who had taken a pledge to help (Brahmā), remained there. Auspicious breezes blew and the ten quarters were bright. The very bright luminaries went round the moon. The planets did not have (any) strife, and the seas were appeased. The ground was dustless; water gave joy to all; the rivers followed their own course; the seas were not agitated; the senses of men with controlled minds were conducive to good. Great sages, free from grief, recited the Vedas loudly.

77. In that sacrifice ready with oblations, the fires were auspicious, people followed righteous behaviour and were of a good conduct with their minds pleased.

78-89. Having heard the words of Viṣṇu of a truthful vow, about (his) killing the enemies, the gods along with demons and evil spirits arrived (there). Spirits, goblins, ghosts—all came there successively; so also Gandharvas,[19] celestial nymphs, serpents and groups of Vidyādharas[20] (arrived there). By the order of Brahmā, the wind brought, from all quarters, trees[21] and herbs that wished and that did not wish to come. Having reached the sacrificial mountain towards the southern direction, all the gods remained on the frontier mountain in the north. At that great sacrifice, the Gandharvas, the celestial nymphs and the sages who had mastered the Vedas having resorted to the western direction, remained there. All groups of gods, all demons and the hosts of evil spirits kept their wrath concealed and were mutually affectionate. All of them waited upon the sages and served the brāhmaṇas. Chief sages, brāhmaṇic sages, brāhmaṇas and divine sages, so also royal sages had come from all sides. (All were eager to know) for which god would this sacrifice be performed? Beasts and birds, with a desire to witness it, so also brāhmaṇas desirous of eating and all castes in due order had come there. Varuṇa himself careful in (choosing) the best gave the food. Having arrived from the Varuṇa-worlḍ he dressed the cooked food of his own accord. Vāyu digested the varieties of food and the sun the liquids. Soma, the digester of food and Bṛhaspati, the giver of intelligence (were) present. The lord of wealth (looked after) giving of wealth, and garments of various kinds. Sarasvatī, the head of rivers, goddess Gaṅgā with Narmadā (had come there).

90-111. All other auspicious rivers, wells and lakes, pools and ponds, wells consecrated to some deity or holy purpose, many main streams dug by gods, so also all reservoirs of water and seas seven in number; salt, sugarcane, spirituous liquor, clarified butter and curds with milk and water (were there); the seven worlds with the seven nether worlds, the seven islands with the towns; trees and creepers, vegetables with grass and fruits; the earth, the wind, the ether, the water and fire as the fifth (element)—these elements; so also whichever were the codes of laws (were there), the glosses on Vedas, the sūtras were present in person; (thus) the unembodied, the embodied and the extremely embodied, so also all (that was) visible—(thus) all (objects) created by Brahmā (were present there). When thus the sacrifice of the grandsire was performed at that time in the presence of gods and in the company of the sages, eternal Viṣṇu remained on the right hand side of Brahmā. Rudra, the trident-holder, the giver of boons, the lord, remained on Brahmā’s left side. The great-souled one (Brahmā) also chose the priests to officiate at the sacrifice. Bhṛgu was chosen as the official priest reciting the prayers of the Ṛgveda[22]; Pulastya was chosen as the best Adhvaryu[23] priest. Marīci (was chosen as) the Udgātṛ[24] priest (one who chants the hymns of the Sāmaveda) and Nārada (was chosen as) the Brahmā priest. Sanatkumāra and others were the members (of the sacrificial assembly), so also Prajāpatis like Dakṣa and the castes preceded by the brāhmaṇas (attended the sacrifice); the (seating) arrangement of the priests was made near Brahmā. They were endowed with clothes and ornaments by Kubera. The brāhmaṇas were adorned with rings along with bracelets and fillets. The brāhmaṇas were four, two and ten (thus making the total) sixteen. All of them were worshipped by Brahmā with a salutation. (He said to them): “O brāhmaṇas, during this sacrifice you should favour me; this is my wife Sāvitrī; you are my refuge.” Having called Viśvakarman, the brāhmaṇas got Brahmā’s head shaved, as it was laid down (as a preliminary) in (the performance of) a sacrifice. The brāhmaṇas also (secured) flaxen clothes for the couple (viz. Brahma and Sāvitrī). The brāhmaṇas remained there filling (i.e. the brāhmaṇas filled) the heaven with the sound (of the recitation) of the Vedas; the kṣatriyas remained there with weapons protecting this world; the vaiśyas prepared various kinds of food; food and eatables full of great flavour were also prepared then; seeing it unheard and unseen before, Brahmā was pleased; the lord, the creator, gave the name Prāgvāṭa to the vaiśyas. (Brahmā laid it down:) ‘Here the śūdras have always to serve the feet of the brāhmaṇas; they have to wash their feet, eat what is left over by them (i.e. the brāhmaṇas) and cleanse (the ground etc.). They also did (these things) there; then having again said to them, “I have put you on the fourth position for serving the brāhmaṇas, the kṣatriya brothers, and (other) brothers like you; you have to offer service to the three”. Saying so Brahmā appointed Śaṅkara so also Indra as the gate-superintendents, Varuṇa to give water, Kubera to distribute wealth, Wind to offer scents, the Sun to (arrange) lighting and Viṣṇu stayed as the (chief) authority. The Moon, giver of Soma resorted to the path on the left side.

112-125. Sāvitrī, his beautiful wife, who was well honoured, was invited by the adhvaryu: “Madam, come quickly, all the fires have risen (i.e. are well-kindled), the time for initiation has approached.” She, engrossed in doing some work, did not come promptly, as usually happens with females. “I have not made any decoration here, at the door; I have not drawn pictures on the wall; I have not drawn the Svastika[25] in the courtyard. The cleansing of the pots has not at all been done here. Lakṣmī, who is the wife of Nārāyaṇa has not as yet arrived. So also Svāhā, the wife of Agni; and Dhūmrorṇā, Yama’s wife; Gaurī, the wife of Varuṇa; Ṛddhi, the wife of Kubera; Gaurī, Śambhu’s wife, dear to the world. So also the daughters Medhā, Śraddhā, Vibhūti, Anasūyā, Dhṛti, Kṣamā, and the rivers Gaṅgā and Sarasvatī have not as yet come. Indrāṇī, and the Moon’s wife Rohiṇī, dear to the Moon. Similarly Ārundhatī, Vasiṣṭha’s wife; so also the wives of the seven sages, and Anasūyā, Atri’s wife and other ladies, daughters-in-law, daughters, friends, sisters have not as yet come. I alone have remained here (waiting for them) for a long time. I shall not go alone until those ladies come. Go and tell Brahmā to wait for a while. I shall hurriedly come with all (those ladies); O you of high intellect, you surrounded by gods, will attain great grace; so also shall I; there is no doubt about it.” Leaving her talking like that the Adhvaryu came to Brahmā.

126-127. “O god, Sāvitrī is busy; she is engaged in domestic work. I shall not come till my friends arrive—Thus she has told me. O lord, time is passing away. O grandsire, do today whatever you like.”

128-130. Brahmā, thus addressed (got) a little angry and said to Indra: “O Śakra, get here quickly another wife for me. Do that quickly by which the sacrifice proceeds (properly) and is not delayed; bring some woman for me till the sacrifice is over; I am soliciting you; make up your mind for me; I shall again free her after the sacrifice is over.”

131. Thus addressed, Indra having gone (i.e. roamed) over the entire earth observed women, (but) all of them were others’ wives.

132-133. There was a cowherd’s daughter, endowed with beauty, of a fine nose and charming eyes. No goddess, no Gandharva woman, no demoness, no female serpent, no maiden was like that excellent lady. He saw her of a charming form, like another goddess Lakṣmī, and curtailing (i.e. distracting) the powers of the mind’s functions by means of the wealth of her beauty.

134-137. Whatever object distinguished by beauty is found anywhere, every such excellent object was seen to be attached to the lady with a slim body. Seeing her Indra thought: ‘If she is a maiden, then on the earth no other god is more meritorious than I. This is that gem of a lady, for whom, if the grandsire longs, then this my exertion would be fruitful.’

138. He saw her having the beauty of the blue sky, a golden lotus and a coral, (having) lustre by means of (i.e. in) her limbs, hair, cheeks, eyes and lips and resembling the sprouting bud of an apple-wood or aśoka tree.

139. ‘How was she created by the creator, with the burning dart in his heart and with heaps of flames (of passion) of fire in his eyes, without seeing a likeness?

140-151. If he has fashioned her after his own idea then it is the highest product of his skill. These two breasts of high tips are fashioned (by him); seeing which (i.e. them) I am getting pleasure. In whose heart great wonder would not be produced on seeing them? Though this lip has obviously its form overpowered by passion (also, redness), yet it will give great joy to its enjoyer. The hair, in spite of its having crookedness (i.e. the curly hair) is giving pleasure. Even a defect, when it resorts to abundant beauty appears to be a merit. The decorated corners of (her) eyes have come upto (i.e. reached her) ears; (and for this) reason the experts describe beauty as the (very) spirit of love. Her eyes are the ornaments of her ears (and) her ears are the ornaments of her eyes. There is no scope here either for the ear-rings or for the collyrium. It does not behove her glances to split the heart into two (parts). How can those who come in contact with you share (i.e. have) unhappiness? (Even) a deformation becomes all-beautiful (in contact) with natural qualities. I have seen the valued possession of my hundreds of large eyes. This is the limit of his skill that the creator has well demonstrated in creating this beautiful form. By means of her graceful acts (i.e. movements) she engenders love in men’s minds.’ The body of him, whose brilliance was taken away when he was thinking thus, was covered over with horripilation rising continuously. Having seen her having charm like new gold, and having long eyes like lotus-leaves (he thought:) ‘I have seen many ladies of gods, Yakṣas, Gandharvas, snakes and demons, but nowhere such wealth of beauty (was seen). The creator has fashioned her form after having especially collected whatever things there are in the three worlds.’

Indra said:

152-155. O you of charming eye-brows, tell me-who are you? Whom do you belong to? Whence have you come? Why do you stand in the middle of the road? These ornaments which add excitement to your body and which you put on do not adorn you; (but rather) you adorn them. O you of beautiful eyes, no goddess, no Gandharva lady, no demoness, not a female serpent, not a Kinnara female was seen as beautiful as you. Though repeatedly spoken to by me, why do you not give a reply?

And that maiden, overpowered by bashfulness and trembling, said to Indra:

156-157. “O warrior, I am a cowherd-maiden; I sell milk, this pure butter, and curds full of cream. Whichever taste you want—that of curds or butter milk—tell it (to me), take as much as you desire.”

158. Thus addressed (by her), Indra firmly seized her hand, and brought that lady of large eyes to (the place) where Brahmā was stationed.

159. She, who was being taken by him, was crying for her father and mother. ‘O father, O mother, O brother, this man is taking me (away) forcibly.’

160-161. (She said to Indra): “If you have something to be done by me, then request my father. He will give me to you; I am telling the truth. Which maiden does not long for a husband affectionate with attachment? Nothing will be accepted from you, O you devoted to righteousness, by my father.

162-163. I shall propitiate him with (the bowing down of) my head, and being pleased he will offer (me to you). If I offer myself to you without knowing the mind of my father, much of my religious merit will perish and so I shall not (be able to) please you. I shall submit myself to you if (only) my father presents me to you.”

164-168. Even though Śakra was thus being addressed by her he took her, and having placed her before Brahmā said: “O lady of large eyes, I have brought you for this (lord); do not be grieved, O you of excellent complexion.” Seeing the cowherd’s daughter of a fair complexion and great lustre, he (i.e. Brahmā) thought her having eyes like lotuses, to be Lakṣmī herself. Resembling the portion of a wall of heated gold, she, too, seeing him having a stout chest, having round thighs like the trunks of intoxicated elephants, having the lustre of nails red and bright, looked upon herself as animated with (the feeling of) love. With a desire to secure him (as her husband) the cowherd-maiden appeared to be senseless. She also thought to have (i.e. she had) the authority to offer herself (to him). (She said to herself:)

169-180. ‘If he, due to my beauty, insists on having me, there is no other woman luckier than I am. Since he saw me, he brought me. If I leave him I shall die; if I do not leave him my life will be happy; and due to insult I—with my form condemned—will be causing unhappiness (to others); whichever lady he sees favourably with his eyes, she too would be blessed. I have no doubt about it; (then) what about her whom he embraces? The entire beauty of the world has moved to various ways (i.e. had remained in different places); (now) the origin of the universe (i.e. the creator) has manifested the beauty in one place only. He is comparable to Cupid only; comparison to Cupid due to his brilliance is good. I give up this grief(of mine). Neither the father nor the mother is the cause (of whatever one gets in life). If he does not accept me or does not talk to me a little, I shall, longing for him, meet death due to grief. When this innocent one goes to his wife (i.e. acts as a husband to his wife), such brilliance like pure lotuses will be (the cause of) the grace of gems on the breasts. The mind of me, seeing him, has entered contemplation. (She says to her mind:) If you do not look highly upon the touch of and contact with his body, then, you, not touching (such) an excellent body, are wandering fruitlessly. Or it is not his fault; for you roam at your sweet will. O Cupid, you are indeed robbed. Protect your own beloved Rati, since, O Cupid, he looks superior to you in handsomeness. He has certainly snatched away the gem of my mind and all my possessions. How (can one find) the beauty on the moon which is seen on his face? Comparison between an object with spots and a spotles object is not advisable.

181-183. A lotus does not attain resemblance with his eyes. How can the water-conch be compared with his conch (-like) ears? Even a coral certainly does not obtain the resemblance of his lip. Nectar resides in him. He certainly causes a flow of nectar. If I have done some auspicious deed in hundreds of my former existences, then due to its power let him, whom I desire, be my husband’.

184-187. When that cowherd-maiden was thus beyond herself due to being engrossed in thought, Brahmā quickly said these words to Viṣṇu for (expediting) the sacrifice: “And this is, O lord, the goddess named Gāyatrī, the greatly blessed one.” When these words were uttered, Viṣṇu said these words to Brahmā: “O lord of the world, today marry, in the Gāndharva-style (of marriage), her whom I have given to you. Do not hesitate any longer. O lord, without being perturbed, accept this hand of her.” (Then) the grandsire married her in the Gāndharva-style of marriage.

188-191. Having obtained her (as his wife), Brahmā said to the best of the adhvaryu-priests: “I have taken this lady as my wife; put her into my house.” The priests, masters of the Vedas, then took that young lady, holding the deer’s horn and clothed in a silken garment, to the chamber meant for the sacrificer’s wife. Brahmā with the audumbara staff (in his hand and) covered with deer-hide, shone there at the sacrifice, as it were with his own lustre. Then the brāhmaṇas, with Bhṛgu, commenced the sacrifice as laid down in the Vedas. Then that sacrifice lasted (i.e. continued) at the Puṣkara-tīrtha for a thousand yugas.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Hotra: Anything fit to be offered as an oblation (as ghee).

[2]:

Sruva: a sacrificial ladle.

[3]:

Sruc: a kind of wooden ladle, used for pouring clarified butter on sacrificial fire. It is usually made of Palāśa or Khadira.Sruva: a sacrificial ladle.

[4]:

Havya: An offering to gods.

[5]:

Kavya: An offering to manes.

[6]:

Pavitra: Two blades of Kuśa grass used at sacrifices for purifying and sprinkling ghee.

[7]:

Paridhi: A stick of a sacred tree like Palāśa laid round the sacrificial fire.

[8]:

Yoga: Incantation.

[9]:

Prokṣaṇī: Holy water.

[10]:

Darvī: Ladle, spoon.

[11]:

Citi: An oblong with quadrangular sides.

[12]:

Upakararma: A rite performed at the commencement.

[13]:

Pravargya: A ceremony preliminary to the Soma-sacrifice.Upakararma: A rite performed at the commencement.

[14]:

Ādityas: They are twelve suns and are supposed to shine only at the destruction of the universe.

[15]:

Vasus: They are a class of deities; they are eight in number: Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhara or Dhava, Anila, Anala, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa.

[16]:

Sādhyas: A class of celestial beings.

[17]:

Maruts: A class of gods.Sādhyas: A class of celestial beings.

[18]:

Rudras: Name of a group of gods, eleven in number, supposed to be inferior manifestations of Śiva or Śaṅkara, who is said to be the head of the group.

[19]:

Gandharvas: A class of demi-gods regarded as the singers or musicians of gods and said to give good and agreeable voice to girls.

[20]:

Vidyādharas: A class of semi-divine beings or demi-gods. Himalaya is regarded as their favourite haunt. Whenever they notice any act of extraordinary merit performed by mortals, they are described as showering heavenly flowers. They are said to wander in the air.

[21]:

Vānaspatya: A tree, the fruit of which is produced from the blossom e.g. the mango.

[22]:

Hotṛ: A sacrificial priest, specially one who recites the prayers of the Ṛgveda at a sacrifice.

[23]:

Adhvaryu: An officiating priest.

[24]:

Udgātṛ: One of the four principal priests at a sacrifice; one who chants the hymns of the Sāmaveda.

[25]:

Svastika: A kind of mark denoting good luck.

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