Vibhuti, Vibhūti: 28 definitions
Vibhuti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Vibhuti - The sublimated power of procreation. Kāma or Eros was destroyed and turned into ashes by the ray from the third-eye of Shiva. Ashes also symbolise the ultimate transience of everything.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Vibhūti (विभूति).—One of Viśvāmitra’s sons who were expounders of the Vedas. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 57).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “ashes” (which are smeared over one’s body), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.30 (“The Celebration of Pārvatī’s Return”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] O sage, on hearing the sweet songs, and seeing the delightful dance, the people entered into raptures of ecstacy. Pārvatī became unconscious. She saw Śiva’s handsome form, bearing trident and other symbols before her vision. He had smeared the ashes all over His body (vibhūti-vibhūṣita). He was wearing a garland of bones. His face was beaming with his shining three eyes. He had the sacred thread of a serpent. Exquisitely white in complexion, the handsome lord Śiva, the friend of the distressed, the ocean of mercy was repeating the words ‘Choose the boon (or the bridegroom)’. On seeing Him thus in her mind she bowed to Him. Mentally she had chosen the boon when she had said, ‘Be my husband’.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vibhūti (विभूति).—A name of Śrī (Lakṣmī). Her abode in the chest of the Lord; wife of Hari.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 18. 20; III. 16. 20; 28. 26; V. 20. 40; VI. 16. 25; 19. 8.
1b) Of Hari; Indra among gods, Viṣṇu among Ādityas, Bhṛgu among Brahmaṛṣis and so on.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 16. 9-40; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 329.
Vibhūti (विभूति) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIII.4.56, XIII.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vibhūti) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “bhagavān’s divine opulences”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to:—Great opulences; mystic powers. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Vibhūti (विभूति) and Īśvara refers to the pair of Goddess and God appearing in the seventh Kalpa (aeon), according to the Kularatnoddyota.—Chapter nine of the Kularatnoddyota opens with the goddess asking how the Kula tradition (kulāmnāya) will be worshipped along with its mantras and Vidyās and who will bring it down (avatāraka) into the world in the various cosmic aeons (kalpa). After explaining that it is brought down into the world by incarnations or aspects of both the god and the goddess (aṃśamātra), the god goes on to list the names of these aspects—a goddess and her consort [i.e., Vibhūti—Īśvara]—in nineteen aeons (kalpa), many of which we recognize from the earlier version in the Tantrasadbhāva.—(cf. Jayadrathayāmala-tantra of the Kāpālikas).
2) Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to one of the eight Heroes (nāyaka-aṣṭaka) associated with Candrapīṭha (or Candrapīṭhapura), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Heroes (nāyakāṣṭaka): Vibhūti, Varavīreśa, Sarvajñakamala, Kāmeśa, Kaustubha, Kāmārta, Tripurāntaka, Anaṅga.
3) Vibhūti (विभूति) is the name of the Maṭha associated with Nāda, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “(various) powers”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 330).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus, due to practicing [this insight], the qualities of His consciousness, which are aspects of Śakti, fully penetrate [those various levels], causing the [various] powers (vibhūti) to arise. But even without practice, in the [rare] case of an instantaneous immersion into That, one obtains the state of liberation-in-life through the process of the direct experience of [the Five Mystic States]: Bliss, Ascent, Trembling, Sleep, and ‘Whirling,’ which means Pervasion”.Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “power”, according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 4.1-2ab]—“[The thirty-six [are those] beginning with earth and ending with śiva [i.e., the complete set of thirty-six tattvas]. [...] The one is śivatattva, which pervades all. For the expansion of both transcendent and imminent power (parāpara-vibhūti) means, both mokṣa and bhoga may be accomplished in all these without difference]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch
1) Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to the “yogic powers”, according to the Śivayogadīpikā, an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with Yoga possibly corresponding to the Śivayoga quoted in Śivānanda’s Yogacintāmaṇi.—Accordingly, [while describing a sequence of Haṭhayoga practices]: “Thus, by means of this Haṭhayoga which has eight auxiliaries, those [students who are] life-long celibates obtain the Siddhis of the [best of Sages] because of their untiring practice. [...] In the seventh year, he can leave the earth and in the eighth [year], the [yogic] powers (vibhūti—vibhūtayas tasya bhaveyuraṣṭame) [such as minimization, etc.,] arise for him. In the ninth year, he can move in the atmosphere, travel in [all] directions and has a body [as hard as] a diamond. [...]”.
2) Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “ashes ”, according to the Haṭhapradīpikā 3.96-98.—Accordingly, “Having discarded the first flow of water because of its excessive heat and the last flow because it is worthless, [the Yogin] should use the middle flow [which is] cool. In the Khaṇḍakāpālika sect, this is [called] Amarolī. If he regularly drinks the [middle flow called] Amarī; snorts [it] everyday and correctly practices Vajrolī Mudrā [in order to draw it up his urethra], it is called Amarolī. He should mix the lunar fluid which is emitted because of [this] practice, with ashes (vibhūti) and [then,] put it on the upper body (i.e., the head, eyes, shoulders, throat, chest, arms and so on). [As a result], divine sight arises”.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Vibhūti (विभूति) refers to “superhuman powers” (i.e. the rainbow), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he explains (darśayati) the transience (anityatvam) of superhuman powers (vibhūtinām)]—As the waves of rivers only go away [and] they do not return, so the former powers of embodied souls that have gone away do not come [again]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vibhūti.—(IA 12), holy ashes; same as vibhoga. (SITI), also called vibhūti-kāṇikkai in Tamil inscriptions; originally, voluntary contribution to a temple by the devotees while receiving the sacred ashes; later, it was collected as a tax. Note: vibhūti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
vibhūti : (f.) splendour; glory.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Vibhūti, (f.) (fr. vi+bhavati) 1. (cp. vibhūta 2) destruction, ruin Th. 1, 1018 (°nandin=malign).—2. (cp. vibhava 1) splendour, majesty, glory J. V, 305; PvA. 133 (dāna°), 216 (rāja°). (Page 630)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vibhūti (विभूति).—f S Ashes (of dung, wood &c.) with which Shiva is said to have smeared his body, and employed now, in imitation of him, by devotees. Grandeur, glory, majesty, magnificence. 3 Superhuman power consisting of eight faculties especially attributed to Shiva, and supposed to be attainable through a course of austere worship in honor of Shiva and his wife Durga. The eight are a- ṇimā Extreme minuteness or invisibility, laghimā Extreme lightness or incorporeality, garimā Power of increasing one's weight ad infinitum, prāpti Reach or power of attaining unto anything, prākāmya The fulfilment of every wish, mahimā Illimitable bulk, īśitā Sovereignty or supreme dominion, vaśitā The power of enchanting or of holding in obedience Nature with her works and laws. 4 The term is applied, by a figure, to a person distinguished for learning, riches &c. vibhūtīcēṃ mūḷa rēḍyācē gāṇḍīnta (Of sanctity, sacredness, or honorableness, the origin and rise may have been out of foulness and baseness.) Used in remarking upon the pretensions to holiness or greatness of one whose primitive condition was impure or mean.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vibhūti (विभूति).—f Ashes. Grandeur. Super-human power. A Hero, great personage.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति).—f. Might, power, greatness; सा विभूतिरनुभावसंपदां भूयसी तव (sā vibhūtiranubhāvasaṃpadāṃ bhūyasī tava) Śiśupālavadha 14.5; Kumārasambhava 2.61.
2) Prosperity, welfare; अघोपघातं मघवा विभूत्यै भवोद्भवाराधनमादिदेश (aghopaghātaṃ maghavā vibhūtyai bhavodbhavārādhanamādideśa) Ki. 11.8.
3) Dignity, exalted rank.
4) Riches, plenty, magnificence, splendour; ममैष कामो भूतानां यद् भूयासुर्वि- भूतयः (mamaiṣa kāmo bhūtānāṃ yad bhūyāsurvi- bhūtayaḥ) Bhāgavata 6.4.44; अहो राजाधिराजमन्त्रिणो विभूतिः (aho rājādhirājamantriṇo vibhūtiḥ) Mu.3; R.8.36.
5) Wealth, riches; (lokān) त्रीनत्यरोच उपलभ्य ततो विभूतिम् (trīnatyaroca upalabhya tato vibhūtim) Bhāgavata 1.16.34; विभूतयस्तदीयानां पर्यस्ता यशसामिव (vibhūtayastadīyānāṃ paryastā yaśasāmiva) R.4.19;6.76;17.43.
6) Superhuman power (which consists of eight faculties, aṇiman, laghiman, prāpti, prākāmya, mahiman, īśitā, vaśitā and kāmāvasāyitā); Kumārasambhava 2.11.
7) Ashes of cow-dung.
8) Name of Lakṣmī; हित्वेतरान् प्रार्थयतो विभूतिर्यस्याङ्घ्रिरेणुं जुषतेऽनभीप्सोः (hitvetarān prārthayato vibhūtiryasyāṅghrireṇuṃ juṣate'nabhīpsoḥ) Bhāgavata 1.18.2.
9) Expansion (vistāra); एतां विभूतिं योग च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः (etāṃ vibhūtiṃ yoga ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.7.
1) Disposition; क्षेत्रज्ञ एता मनसो विभूतीर्जीवस्य मायारचितस्य नित्याः (kṣetrajña etā manaso vibhūtīrjīvasya māyāracitasya nityāḥ) Bhāgavata 5.11.12.
Derivable forms: vibhūtiḥ (विभूतिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति).—name of a Bodhisattva: Gaṇḍavyūha 442.8 (°teḥ, gen.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tiḥ) 1. Superhuman power, consisting of eight faculties especially attributed to Siva, and supposed to be attainable by human beings, through a course of austere worship, attended with magical rites, in honor of that deity and his spouse Durga: the eight properties thus supposed to be assumable at will are:- aṇimā extreme minuteness or invisibility; laghimā extreme light- ness or incorporeality; prāpti attaining or reaching any thing, as illustrated by the power of touching the moon with the tip of the finger; prākāmyaṃ the fulfilment of every wish; mahimā illimitable bulk; īśitā supreme dominion over animate or inanimate nature; vaśitā the power of enchanting or changing the course of nature, and kāmāvaśāyitā the accomplishment of every promise or engagement. 2. Power, dignity, dominion. 3. Ashes of cow-dung, &c. with which Siva is said to have smeared his body, and thenee used in imitation of him by devotees. 4. Prosperity. 5. Wealth. E. vi implying change of form, &c., bhū to be, aff. ktin .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति).—[vi-bhū + ti], f. 1. Power, dignity, [Pañcatantra] 203, 1. 2. Superhuman power, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 115. 3. Ashes of cow-dung.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति).—[adjective] pervading, abundant, powerful, mighty, disposing of ([genetive]); [feminine] development, growth, abundance, might, power, glory, majesty, splendour, success, welfare, fortune, prosperity, wealth, riches.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vibhūti (विभूति):—[=vi-bhūti] [from vi-bhū] mfn. penetrating, pervading, [Nirukta, by Yāska]
2) [v.s. ...] abundant, plentiful, [Ṛg-veda]
3) [v.s. ...] mighty, powerful, [ib.]
4) [v.s. ...] presiding over ([genitive case]), [ib. viii, 50, 6]
5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Sādhya, [Harivaṃśa]
6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Viśvāmitra, [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
8) [v.s. ...] f. development, multiplication, expansion, plenty, abundance, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] manifestation of might, great power, superhuman power (consisting of eight faculties, especially attributed to Śiva, but supposed also to be attainable by human beings through worship of that deity, viz. aṇiman, the power of becoming as minute as an atom; laghiman, extreme lightness; prāpti, attaining or reaching anything e.g. the moon with the tip of the finger ; prākāmya, irresistible will; mahiman, illimitable bulk; īśitā, supreme dominion; vaśitā, subjugating by magic; and kāmāvasāyitā, the suppressing all desires), [ib.]
10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Śakti, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
11) [v.s. ...] the might of a king or great lord, sovereign power, greatness, [Kālidāsa; Pañcatantra; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.
12) [v.s. ...] successful issue (of a sacrifice), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]
13) [v.s. ...] splendour, glory, magnificence, [Harivaṃśa; Raghuvaṃśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
14) [v.s. ...] fortune, welfare, prosperity, [Praśna-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.
15) [v.s. ...] (also [plural]) riches, wealth, opulence, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]
16) [v.s. ...] Name of Lakṣmi (the goddess of fortune and welfare), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
17) [v.s. ...] the ashes of cow-dung etc. (with which Śiva is said to smear his body, and hence used in imitation of him by devotees), [Pañcarātra; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
18) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति):—[vi-bhūti] (tiḥ) 2. m. Superhuman power; ashes of cow dung.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Vibhūti (विभूति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vibhūi.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Vibhūti (विभूति):—(nf) ash; majesty/magnificence; an outstanding personality, personage.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] manifestation of might, great power, superhuman power, attributed to be the quality of the Supreme Being.
2) [noun] wealth; riches.
3) [noun] a splendid display; a grand show.
4) [noun] great honour and admiration won by doing something important or valuable; glory.
5) [noun] a man who has extraordinary and divine qualities.
6) [noun] the ash got by burning the cow-dung.
7) [noun] the plant Mirabilis jalapa of Nyctaginaceae family.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+6): Vibhuti-hu, Vibhuti-kanikkai, Vibhutibala, Vibhuticandra, Vibhutidharana, Vibhutidharanamantra, Vibhutidharanavidhi, Vibhutidhari, Vibhutidvadashi, Vibhutigama, Vibhutiganike, Vibhutigrahana, Vibhutikalpa, Vibhutimadhava, Vibhutimahatmya, Vibhutimant, Vibhutimat, Vibhutipatta, Vibhutipatte, Vibhutipuja.
Ends with: Asamavibhuti, Ashtavibhuti, Ativibhuti, Avibhuti, Ishvaravibhuti, Jnanavibhuti, Kevalavibhuti, Koshavibhuti, Mahavibhuti, Nitavibhuti, Nyayalilavativibhuti, Paraparavibhuti, Rajavibhuti, Rajyavibhuti, Sarvavibhuti, Shivavibhuti, Viryavibhuti, Yajnavibhuti.
Full-text (+59): Vaibhutika, Vibhutimat, Vibhutimant, Rajyavibhuti, Vibhutidharanavidhi, Mahavibhuti, Vibhutibala, Vibhuticandra, Rundika, Vibhutimadhava, Vibhutimahatmya, Vibhutiyoga, Vibhutigrahana, Vibhutidvadashi, Yugma, Sambhuti, Iputi, Vibhutiyugma, Vimuti, Vibhuti-hu.
Search found 61 books and stories containing Vibhuti, Vi-bhuti, Vi-bhūti, Vibhūti; (plurals include: Vibhutis, bhutis, bhūtis, Vibhūtis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 3.8.14 < [Chapter 8 - The Opulences of Śrī Girirāja]
Verse 4.11.7 < [Chapter 11 - The Story of the Gopīs that were Residents of...]
Chapter 8 - The Opulences of Śrī Girirāja < [Canto 3 - Girirāja-khaṇḍa]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 10.18 < [Chapter 10 - Vibhūti-yoga (appreciating the opulences of the Supreme Lord)]
Verse 10.19 < [Chapter 10 - Vibhūti-yoga (appreciating the opulences of the Supreme Lord)]
Verse 10.7 < [Chapter 10 - Vibhūti-yoga (appreciating the opulences of the Supreme Lord)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 1.5.9 < [Chapter 5 - Priya (the beloved devotees)]
Verse 1.6.14 < [Chapter 6 - Priyatama (the most beloved devotees)]
Verse 2.4.190 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Yoga-sutras (Ancient and Modern Interpretations) (by Makarand Gopal Newalkar)
Vibhūti-pāda and Vibhūti-yoga (Introduction) < [Book III - Vibhūti-pāda]
Mandukya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)