The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes importance of dwelling at a sacred place (tirtha) which is chapter 15 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the fifteenth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 15 - Importance of Dwelling at a sacred place (tīrtha)

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Bhīṣma said:

1-3. What did Brahmā do after having sent (Rudra) to Vārāṇasī? What work did Viṣṇu do? Tell me (also), O sage, what Śaṅkara did, which sacrifice he performed, and at which sacred place (he performed it). Who were the assistant priests and who were the officiating priests? Tell me about them all. I have great curiosity (to know) who were the gods that he gratified.

Pulastya said:

4. On Meru’s peak there is a city named Śrīnidhāna. It is variegated with jewels; is the abode of many wonders; is full of many trees; is variegated with many minerals and is clear like spotless crystal.

5. It is beautified with the expansion of the creepers; it resounds with peacocks’ cries; it is fearful due to (the presence of) lions; it is full of herds of elephants.

6-7. It is cool with the sharp sprays rising from the water falling from the springs; it is variegated with pleasing taverns of the groves of trees struck by wind; the entire forest of it is made fragrant with the excellent perfume of musk; in its bowers of creepers the travelling Vidyādharas sleep due to the fatigue caused by sexual pleasures.

8. It is resounding with the sweet sounds of the songs sung by the groups of Kinnaras. In it there is Brahmā’s mansion by name Vairāja, the entire floor of which is decorated with various arrangements.

9-14. In it there is a hall named Kāntimatī. It resounds with the sweet sound of songs sung by divine ladies; it has the garlands of sprouts shooting from the Pārijāta trees; lt is variegated with many colours rising from a number of rays of the gems; crores of pillars are fixed in it; it is adorned with spotless mirrors, and with the splendour of the graceful movements of the dance presented by the celestial dancers; it resounds with the number of sounds produced by the many musical instruments, graced with many songs and musical instruments with pauses and beating time. It gives joy to gods; it is full of the groups of sages and is resorted to by ascetics. It resounds with the texts of Sāman (sung by) the brāhmaṇas and causes delight. In it Brahmā, honoured (i.e. served) by (his wife) Sandhyā, resided.

15. He meditated on the highest god who created this world. While meditating it came to his mind: ‘How shall I perform a sacrifice?

16. Where on the earth—at which place—should I perform the sacrifice?

17. Kāśī, Prayāga, Tuṅga and Naimiṣa and Śṛṅkhala, so also Kāñcī, Bhadrā, Devikā, Kurukṣetra and Sarasvatī, Prabhāsa and others are the holy places on the earth.

18. These are the places which are holy places of pilgrimage and also others which Rudra established on the earth at my command.

19. As I have been settled as the first god among all gods, so I shall make one great sacred place as the first one.

20. That lotus, that sprung up from Viṣṇu’s navel, and in which I was born, is called the Puṣkara-tīrtha by sages who recite the Vedic texts.’

21. When Brahmā was thus thinking, this idea came to his mind: ‘I now go to the earth.’

22-24. Reaching the place first, he entered that best forest, full of many trees and creepers; adorned with many flowers; filled with the notes of many birds; crowded with groups of many beasts; making gods and demons fragrant with the perfumes of the abundant flowers of trees; its ground was graced with flowers which were as it were intentionally placed there.

25-28. The (seasons there) were fully enveloped with many perfumes and juices, and it was full of fruits of the six seasons, which were endowed with golden appearance delighting the sense of smell and sight; where wind, as it were through favour, throws out worn-out leaves, grass and dry wood and fruits; where wind, taking fragrance from the heaps of flowers, (and) perfuming the sky, earth and quarters, blows (being) cold; (which is) adorned with green glossy large trees without any opening and without groups of worms and with tops and of various names.

29. Everywhere it appears as a family of brāhmaṇas with healthy, handsome, virtuous and bright priests on account of trees covered with sprouts resembling minerals.

30-31. They look like men covered (i.e. endowed) with noble and fautless qualities; with their tops tossed by wind they as it were touch one another; and with ornaments of flowery branches as it were smell one another.

32. At some places the Nāga trees with the filaments of the ratan look beautiful as it were with eyes with their black pupils unsteady.

33. Karṇikāra trees in pairs and in twos with their tops full of flowers look like couples. The rows of the Sinduvāra trees with the abundance of good flowers actually appear to be the sylvan deities that are worshipped.

34. At places the Kunda creepers, bright with the ornaments of flowers, (look) like young moons risen on (the tops of) trees and in the quarters.

35-39. In some parts of the forest the flowered Śarja and Arjuna trees look like men covered with white silken garments. Similarly trees embraced by the blooming Atimukta creepers look like lovers embraced by their own beloveds. The Sāla and Aśoka trees with their leaves clinging to one another as it were touch one another like friends touching one anothers’ hands when they meet after a long time. Panasa, Sarala and Arjuna trees bending due to abundance of fruits and flowers as it were worship one another with flowers and fruits.

40. Sāla trees, with their arms (in the form of branches) touched by the flurry of the wind have, as it were, risen (to greet) the approaching people with the same feelings (i.e. affection).

41-42. With the covering of flowers, trees planted there for beauty, having reached the spring-festival, as it were vie with men (having arms). With their tips bent with abundance of beautiful flowers and tossed by wind, the trees dance like men, who are pleased and whose heads are adorned with garlands.

43-47. Trees with rows of flowers on their tops tossed by wind dance with the creepers like men with their beloveds. At paces trees surrounded by creepers bent due to their (abundant) flowers appear like the autumnal sky with variegated clusters of stars. The blossomed Mālatī creepers on the tops of trees look charming like chaplets arranged intentionally. Green trees with wealth of beauty, having (abundant) fruits, and flowers, show friendliness like men on the arrival of a good man. Bees, tawny due to the filaments of flowers, moving in all directions, as it were announce the victory of the Kadamba-flower and intoxicated with (i.e. due to having sucked) honey, fall here and there.

48-56. At places the flocks of male cuckoos (are seen) in the thickets of trees with their mates. At places the parrot-couples resembling the Śirīṣa-flowers speak interesting word like brāhmaṇas that are honoured. Peacocks with variegated plumage accompanied by their mates dance like richly decorated dancers even in the interiors of the forests. The cooing groups of birds giving out various notes, make more charming the (already) charming forest, full of many herds of beasts and always delighting the birds, resembling Indra’s garden and delighting the mind and eyes. The lotus-born lord saw with his pleasing eyes as it were removing evil, that best forest of that nature resembling a mirror. All those rows of trees, seeing god Brahmā who had arrived like that, and presenting themselves to him with devotion, poured forth their wealth of flowers. Accepting the flowers (offered) by the trees Brahmā said to them, “Welfare to you; ask for a boon.” The trees, free from (any) control, with humility (lit. with their palms joined in obeisance) having saluted Brahmā said: “If, O god, affectionate towards people, who take refuge with you, you are granting a boon then always stay by us in the forest.

57. This is our greatest desire; salutation to you, O grand-sire.

58-59. O lord of gods, O creator of the universe; if you stay in this forest, (that would) be the best boon for us seeking your refuge and desiring a boon. Give us this boon—more adequate than crores of other boons. This (forest) will be more distinguished and greater than all other holy places by your presence.”

Brahmā said:

60-62. This (place) will be best of all sacred places and auspicious. By my favour you will always be full of flowers and fruits; you will always have very steady youth; you will (be able to) move at your desire; you will (be able to) take any form desired by you; you will give pleasant fruits; you will present yourselves to men at will and will (give) splendour to men in fulfilment of their penance; you will be endowed with great affluence.

Thus Brahmā, the granter of boons, favoured the trees.

63. Remaining (there) for a thousand years he threw a lotus on the ground. The earth by its fall trembled upto bottom.

64-65. Helpless oceans, with agitated waves, crossed their boundary. Thousands of mountain-peaks occupied by tigers and vicious elephants struck as it were with Indra’s bolt, were shattered.

66-67. The mansions of gods and Siddhas (semi-divine beings characterised by eight special faculties), the cities of Gandharvas shook, tottered and penetrated the earth. The Kapota-clouds, showing a collection of sheaths fell (i.e. showered rain) from the sky. There were poignant suns, covering the clusters of luminaries.

68. Due to the great sound of that the three worlds with the mobile and immobile in it, rendered dumb, blind and deaf were frightened.

69-70. The bodies and minds of all gods and demons sank down and did not know what it was. Mustering courage all of them looked for Brahmā. They did not know where Brahmā had gone. (They could not understand) why the earth quaked and why the omens and portents appeared.

71. Viṣṇu just went there where the gods had remained. Gods saluting him said these words:

72-73. “O revered one, why is this appearanee of omens and portents by which, the three worlds as it were joined with death are made to tremble, and the Kalpa has come to an end and the oceans have crossed their boundaries? Why have the four steady quarter-elephants become unsteady?

74-75. Why is the earth covered over with the water of the seven seas? O lord, the sound could not have been produced without any cause; such a terrible sound which, when it arose, made the three worlds frightened is not remembered to have ever occurred before nor will it occur again.

76. If, O lord, you know whether this is an auspicious or inauspicious sound to the three worlds and to the gods, tell us what this is.”

77. Thus addressed, Viṣṇu, cherished by the supreme, said: “O gods, do not be alarmed; all of you listen to the cause of this.

78. This I, perceiving (the cause) definitely will tell you as it happened.

79. Revered Brahma, the grandsire of the worlds, with a lotus in his hand, settled in an extremely beautiful region—a heap of religious merit—on the slope of mountains to perform a sacrifice.

80. And from his hand the lotus fell on the ground. It made a great sound which caused you to tremble.

81-84. There, being greeted with the fragrance of flowers by the trees, he favoured the forest with beasts and birds, and for favouring the world took delight in residing there. The revered one, benefactor of the worlds, put up that best holy place (called) Puṣkara. Going there with me propitiate Brahmā. The revered one, when pleased, will give you excellent boons.”

85-93. Saying so, divine Viṣṇu went with those gods and demons to that forest-region where Brahmā dwelt. They, delighted and with their minds pleased, and conversing among themselves like cooings of the cuckooks entered Brahmā’s forest bright with heaps of flowers and praiseworthy. That forest, reached by all gods and resembling Indra’s garden, and rich with lotus-creepers, beasts and flowers, then looked beautiful. Then the gods, entering the forest adorned with all (kinds of) flowers said (to themselves), ‘The god is here’; and desiring to see Brahmā wandered (in it). Then all gods, with Indra, searching for Brahmā did not see the interior of the forest. Then the gods looking for god (Brahmā) saw Vāyu. He said to them, “Without penance you will not (be able to) see Brahmā.” Then being dejected and keeping in mind what Vāyu had told (them), all the gods again and again looked for Brahmā on the slope of the mountain, in the south, in the north and in between (the two directions). Vayu again spoke to them, “Thereis always a threefold means to have the sight of Viriñci (i.e. Brahmā). It is said to be by faith-born knowledge, penance and deep and abstract meditation. Those who follow the path of deep and abstract meditation see the god both with and without parts. The ascetics see him with parts while the wise see him without them.

94. On the other hand when worldly knowledge is produced one with indifference does not see (Brahmā). Those who follow the path of deep and abstract meditation speedily see the god by means of their great devotion.

95. One should see that changeless lord of Prakṛti and Puruṣa.

96. Always being absorbed in the god by acts, mind and speech, and intent on propitiating Brahmā, observe penance; god will bless you. He always thinks: ‘I should appear before those who have dedicated themselves to Brahmā and before brāhmaṇa devotees.’”

97-98. Hearing the words of Vāyu and thinking them to be beneficial (and) with their minds possessed of the desire for (seeing) Brahmā they then said to the lord of speech (Bṛhaspati), “O you god of knowledge, initiate us into (the path of) the realisation of Brahmā.”

99. Desiring to initiate them into (the path), the great Guru initiated them according to the Vedie rules.

100. Dressed in a simple way and being humble, they became his disciples; they obtained the favour of Brahmā; the knowledge about Puṣkara was given to (them).

101. Guru, the best of the officiating priests performed a sacrifice according to rules.

102. By employing the (method of the) consecration of the lotus the sage, propelled by the desire of those gods, made a lotus full of fibres and (thus) favoured the gods.

103. The highly intelligent Bṛhaspati knowing the rules stated in the Veda and casting off doubt initiated the discreet (gods).

104-111. The magnanimous Āṅgirasa (i.e. Guru), being pleased and having consecrated a fire, gave (i.e. taught) the gods muttered prayers as laid down in the Vedas. The highly intelligent one taught (the gods) (Vedic chants called) Trisuparṇa, Trimadhu and all muttered prayers etc. That bath (accompanied by the chant) Āpohiṣṭhā is called Brāhma. It removing sins, subdues the wicked, increases fulness, wealth and strength, gives (the special faculties called) Siddhis and fame, and destroys the sins of the Kali (age). So one should by all means take that bath. All (of them) taking a bath observing the vow of silence, being restrained (for the vow), and being prepared (for the vow), and with their senses destroyed (i.e. curbed), with water-pots (in their hands), with the ends of their lower garments loosened, having rosaries, carrying staffs, clothed in bark or rags, very much adorned with matted hair, engaged in taking a bath and (particular) postures, meditating with great effort, and desiring limited food after having united the mind with Brahmā, remained there avoiding visiting (any one), talk, company or thought (about worldly objects). Endowed with great devotion and a great sacred precept, their minds had, through meditation, the knowledge of the god, after (a lapse of some) time.

112. When their minds were absolutely pure, being fully burnt by means of the meditation on Brahmā, the lord became visible to all.

113-114. They were pleased with his lustre(yet) their minds were perplexed. Then mustering courage, with their mind pleased and intent on him they placed their folded palms on their heads, and putting their heads to the ground (i.e. bowing with their heads) praised the lord, the author of the creation and maintenance by resorting to the Vedas with their six limbs (i.e. with Vedic texts and texts from the six limbs).

The gods said:

115-121. O god, we, well-controlled, salute you, the Brahman, the one having the body of Brahmā, friendly to brāhmaṇas, the unconquered one, the giver of sacrifices and Vedas, kind to the world, of the form of creation, extremely compassionate to your devotees, one who is praised by the muttering of the texts from the Vedas, one whose form consists of many forms, one who takes up hundreds of forms, the lord of Sāvitrī and Gāyatrī, seated on a lotus, (yourself) a lotus and having (a beautiful) face like a lotus, the giver of boons, worthy of a boon, the Kūrma (the second incarnation) and Mṛga, having matted hair and a crown, holding a ladle, having the characteristics of the moon and a deer, and having the eyes of Dharma, having every name and the lord of the universe. O you, having the eyes of piety, please protect us more; O grand-sire, we have sought your refuge by speech, mind and body.

122. Brahmā, the best among those who know the Vedas, thus praised by gods (said to them): “All right, when remembered by you I shall give (you what you want); your seeing me will be fruitful.

123. O sons, tell (me) what is desired by you; I shall give you excellent boons!” Thus addressed by the lord, the gods said (these) words:

124. “O revered one, this in itself is a great boon which is quite enough, that a good sound was heard by us when you threw the lotus.

125. Why did the earth tremble? Why were the people distressed? That cannot be without any purpose. Tell (us) the cause of this, O god.”

Brahmā spoke:

126. This lotus is held by me for your good and for protecting the gods. Now listen what was the cause.

127. This demon Vajranābha by name, takes away the life of children. He remains taking shelter in the nether world.

128. Knowing about the arrival of you, remaining in penance, having laid down your weapons, the wicked one wanted to kill (you) the gods along with Indra even.

129. I brought about his destruction by dropping the lotus; he was proud of his kingdom and splendour; so I killed him.

130. At this time there are in the world, devotees, brāhmaṇas who have mastered the Vedas. May they not meet with misfortune, but may they have good fortune.

131. O gods, I am equal (i.e. impartial) to gods, demons, men, reptiles, friends, and the entire host of beings.

132. I killed the sinner with a spell for your well-being. He has reached the worlds of the religious due to the sight of this lotus.

133. Since I dropped the lotus (here), therefore this place will be known as Puṣkara, a great, sanctifying holy place, giving religious merit.

134-135. For all the beings on the earth it will be said to be holy. (I) have, being requested by the trees, O gods, shown favour to devotees desiring devotion, by staying here eternally. O sinless ones, when I arrived here Mahākāla (also) has come here.

136. You who have been practising penance, have demonstrated great knowledge, O gods; bear in mind your own interest as well as of others.

137. Taking various forms on the earth you have to show that a man hating a wise brāhmaṇa is afflicted by sin only.

138-141. Even after crores of existences he would not be free from sins. One should neither kill nor find fault with a brāhmaṇa who has mastered the Veda and its limbs (i.e. the Vedāṅgas); since if one is killed, a crore (of them) are killed. One should feed with faith (at least) one brāhmaṇa who has mastered the Veda. There is no doubt about it that one would feed a crore of brāhmaṇas (by just feeding one such brāhmaṇa). One who offers a potful of alms to ascetics is free from all sins and does not meet with misfortune. As I, the grandsire, am the eldest and the best among gods, similarly, a wise man, not having the feeling of mineness and possessions, is always respectable.

142-148. I have promulgated this vow, preserved in the Vedas, for (getting) freedom from the bondage of the worldly existence and leading to the absence of rebirth in the case of brāhmaṇas. One, who, after accepting the maintenance of the sacred fire, (and) not conquering (i.e. losing control over) his senses, gives it up, would, led by Yama’s servants, immediately go to Raurava (hell). (By talking to one) who cavils the way of the world and does a mean act, has his heart full of attachment and erotic sentiment, is fond of women and wealth, eats all alone very sweet things, follows agriculture and commerce, does not know the Veda and censures the Veda, and enjoys other’s wife; by talking to such a person who is defiled with such faults, a man goes to hell; so also one who spoils a good vow. One should not have a bodily contact with one who is not satisfied, is of a split or wicked mind and is a sinner. If one touches (such a person) one would be pure after taking a bath.

Thus speaking, lord Brahmā, with the gods, founded a sacred place there. I shall tell (about) it to you in (due) order.

149-150. It is in the north of Candranadī; Sarasvatī is (flowing) by its east; it is superior to Indra’s garden; and the entire one with Puṣkara (Tīrtha) will remain there till the end of the Kalpa. This is the altar in (i.e. of) the sacrifice, made by Brahmā, the author of the worlds.

151-153. The first one should be known as the best and purifying the three worlds. That is said to be sacred to the deity Brahmā. The middle one (i.e. the second) (is sacred to) Viṣṇu. The last one is sacred to the deity Rudra. Brahmā first fashioned (these). This great sacred place viz. the forest called Puṣkara is said to be the foremost mystical region in the Vedas. Lord Brahmā is present (there). Brahmā himself favoured this region.

154-156. For favouring all the brāhmaṇas wandering over the earth he made the land bounded by gold and diamonds, and marked by an altar; he made it all beautiful with the variegated jewels of the floor. Brahmā, the grandsire of the worlds, stays here. So also the gods Viṣṇu, Rudra and Vasu and the two Aśvins also, and Maruts with Indra stay here.

157-158. I have told you this fact, the cause of favouring the worlds. Those brāhmaṇas, who are engaged in serving their preceptors, and who recite here the Vedas according to proper rules and with chants in order of the hymnical text of the Veda, live in the vicinity of Brahmā, being helped by him.

Bhīṣma said:

159-160. O revered one, tell me all this: Following which rules should the men, the residents of the region, desiring Brahmā’s world, stay in the Puṣkara forest? And what should the men or the women having (i.e. belonging to) various castes and stages of life, living here, practise?

Pulastya said:

161-162. Men and women of (various) castes and living in (different) stages of life, engaged in following the duties of their own class, free from deceit and delusion, devoted to Brahmā by acts, mind and speech and with their senses controlled, and free from jealousy and meanness, engaged in the good of all beings, should stay here.

Bhīṣma said:

163. Tell me, doing which act is a man said to be the devotee of Brahma. Of what nature are the devotees of Brahmā among men?

Pulastya said:

164. Homage is said to be of three kinds: effected by mind, speech and body; so also it may be worldly, Vedic and relating to the soul.

165. That is said to be mental homage which, in the recollection of the significance of the Veda with mind holding fast (i.e. meditating) causes love for Brahmā.

166. The homage by speech is laid down (to be done) by means of chants, (recital of) Vedic texts, obeisance, (offering oblations into) fire, performing Śrāddha and thinking (about these), and by means of mu ttering essential texts.

167-168. For the brāhmaṇas homage by body is said to be of three kinds: Kṛcchra (bodily mortification), (rigid penance like) sāntapana and others, so also (religious observances depending upon the phases of the moon like) the cāndrāyaṇa, regulated by vows and fasts restraining the senses, so also Brahmakṛcchra-fasts and other auspicious vows.

169-171. That worship with reference to Brahmā is said to be worldly homage which is done by men with cow’s ghee, milk and curds, jewelled lamp, darbha grass and water, sandal, flowers and various minerals that are made ready, clarified butter, guggulu (a kind of fragrant gum resin) and fragrant incense of the sandal, ornaments rich in gold and jewels, and variegated garlands, dance, instrumental music and songs, presents of all (kinds of) jewels, and with eatables, meals, food and drinks.

172-176. The homage (offered) with Vedic chants and oblations is said to be Vaidikī. Offering to fire should be made on every new-moon day and full-moon day; a present to brāhmaṇas is recommended; a sacrificial oblation made of powdered rice, so also an oblation of boiled rice, barley and pulse; similarly a sacrifice in honour of the manes giving them joy is always (regarded as) a sacrificial act. So also (that is Vaidikī homage in which) texts from the Ṛgveda, Yajurveda and Sāmaveda are muttered and the hymnical texts of the Veda are studied according to the rules. All the rites performed with reference to fire, earth, wind, sky, water, the moon, and the sun belong to the deity Brahmā. O King, the homage to Brahma (called) spiritual is oftwo kinds: one is called Sāṃkhya and the other is born of Yoga.

177-178. Hear from me thedivisions in it (i.e. the Sāṃkhya). The number of the (Sāṃkhya) principles like Pradhāna, that are insentient objects of enjoyment, is twentyfour. The soul is the twenty-fifth. The sentient soul is the enjoyer of an act but not its agent.

179. The soul is eternal, immutable, controller and employer; and Brahmā, the unmanifest, eternal, supreme being is the cause.

180-182. There is truly the creation of the principles, of the dispositions and of the beings. The Sāṃkhya enumerates the Pradhāna to be of the nature of the (three) constituents. It resembles the lord in respect of certain qualities and is also different from him. This (resemblance) is said to be the condition of cause and of Brahmahood; that of Pradhāna's being used (by Puruṣa) is said to be its dissimilarity. Brahman is all-potent; while the soul is a non-doer.

183. The sentience in Pradhāna (due to its contact with the lord) is said to be its similarity (with the latter). This another principle (Pradhāna) is the cause of the active property of the other principles.

184. No purpose is to be attributed to this principle (the other principle viz. Pradhāna). The wise, who ponder over the truth, having ascertained (it) say it is reflection (Saṃkhyā).

185-186. The wise ones, having thus learnt the collection of the principles, and their number properly, so also the principle of Brahman as an additional one, have grasped the truth. The propounders of the Sāṃkhya (system) have termed this (kind of) worship as spiritual. Listen to the homage, arising from (i.e. as told in the) Yoga (philosophy), which is paid to Brahmā:

187-189. Intent on restraining the breath, always meditating and with one’s senses restrained, eating food got by begging, observing vows, and with all one’s senses withdrawn one should meditate upon and keep in one’s mind, the lord of the created beings, remaining in the pericarp of the lotus of the heart, having red face(s), beautiful eyes, and with his faces illuminated all round, with a sacred thread (around) his loins, having four faces, four arms, with his hands granting boons and safety.

190. The great mental accomplishment due to the yogic practices is said to be the homage to Brahmā. One who has such a devotion for Brahma is said to be Brahmabhakta (a devotee of Brahmā).

191-196. O best of kings, listen to the mode of living laid down for those who live in the sacred place. It was formerly told in detail by the lord himself in the presence of all the brāhmaṇas and in the congregation of Viṣṇu and others. (The residents of this place should be) without the feeling of mineness; without ego; without attachment and possessions; without feeling of love for the host of relatives; looking upon a clod of clay, a stone and gold equally; granting safety to beings by various obligatory acts; always intent upon restraining their breath; and engrossed in the meditation on the supreme soul; always performing sacrifices and pure; given to the ascetic practices; knowing the rules of the Sāṃkhya and Yoga (systems); well-versed in the religious practices and having their doubts removed. Listen to the good fruit obtained by those brāhmaṇas, living in (this) sacred place, who perform sacrifices according to these precepts and die in the Puṣkara forest. They get complete and inexhaustible absorption with Brahmā, which is difficult to obtain.

197-202. Having got this absorption in Brahmā, they avoid rebirth, and remaining in the knowledge of Brahmā, they do not get rebirth; others who live in the (various) stages of the (illusory) world, have to be born again. One (i.e. a brāhmaṇa) following the rules of the householder’s stage, and always engaged in the six duties (learning, teaching, performing sacrifices. and acting as priests at sacrifices and giving and accepting gifts), who, when invited to (act as a priest) at a sacrifice offers (oblations) properly with the chants, being free from all miseries, gets a greater fruit. His movement in all the worlds is never prevented. Being self-dependent due to divine power, he with his wife (or belongings), surrounded by thousands of ladies, going to places at his sweet will, in a very bright aeroplane resembling the young sun, moves uninterruptedly and as he likes, in all the worlds. He becomes most desirable among men; he, performing the best duties, becomes a wealthy man.

203-207. Fallen from heaven he would be born in a great family (as a) handsome (person). He becomes well-versed in the moral duties and is devoted to them; he masters the significance of all the lores. Similarly with (the practice of) celibacy, service to preceptors, and study of the Vedas, subsisting on alms, with his senses conquered, always engaged in the vow of truth, not erring in his own duties, being unrestricted (he goes) to the world of Viṣṇu in an aeroplane richly endowed with all objects of desire and supporting (i.e. fulfilling) all desires, and as it were being another sun; he, endowed with the splendour similar to that of Brahma-attendants named Guhyakas, who are very much esteemed, who have infinite power and splendour and who are honoured by gods and demons, resembles them.

208-213. His weapons are unrestrained among gods, demons and mortals. In this way he is honoured in the world of Viṣṇu for thousands of crores, hundreds of crores of years. Having thus stayed there with great slpendour, when he again falls from Viṣṇu’s world, he is born in heavenly places by dint of his own deeds; or having come to the Puṣkara forest and ramaining in the stage of celibacy, he lives studying the Vedas; and after death, looking auspicious like the moon, he goes by divine aeroplane with its lustre like the fullmoon-light (to Rudra’s world); having reached Rudra’s world he rejoices there with the Guhyakas, and being the lord of the entire world obtains great affluence.

214-217. Enjoying (like this) for thousands of yugas he is honoured in Rudra’s world. Always rejoicing there, enjoying sound happiness and then having fallen from that Rudra’s world, he is born in a divine, great brāhmaṇa family. Among the human beings that religious soul would be (born as) handsome and as a master of speech; he has an enviable body, he is the powerful husband of ladies, who enjoys greatly; he (then) leads the life of an anchorite and is free from vulgar tricks; his movement even in the divine worlds is not hampered.

218-219. He eats withered leaves and fruits, and flowers and roots. He lives like the pigeons or by pounding them (i.e. leaves etc.) with stones or using the teeth as mortar, and wearing rags or bark garments. He has matted hair, bathes thrice a day, gives up all faults and has a staff.

220. He is engrossed in the Kṛcchra vow, even if he is an outcast or of a superior (caste). He remains in water, observes the (agni-sādhana) penance, remains in the rains during the rainy season.

221. Similarly he lies on the ground, full of insects, thorns and stones; he remains in the standing posture or in the posture of sitting on the hams; he shares (articles with others) and is of a firm vow.

222-225. He eats the herbs in the forest, and gives safety to all beings. He is always engaged in earning religious merit, controls his anger and senses. He is a devotee of Brahmā, and lives in a sacred place like Puṣkara. Such an ascetic gives up all attachment, is delighted in himself and is free from desires. O Bhīṣma, listen to what course he, who lives here, gets. Such a devotee of Brahma, goes by the aeroplane of those who move according to their own will, which shines like the young sun, and looks charming by means of a raised seat and pillars; he shines in the sky like a second moon.

226-227. For hundreds of crores of years he is in the company of celestial nymphs knowing vocal and instrumental music and dancing. To whichever god’s world he undeterred, goes, remains there by Brahmā’s grace.

228-230. Fallen from Brahmā’s world, he goes to Viṣṇu’s world, and fallen from Viṣṇu’s world he goes to Rudraloka; and fallen from that place also, he is born in the (various) divisions of the world, so also in other heavens, enjoying pleasures as desired. Having enjoyed affluence there he is born among the mortals as a king or as a prince or a wealthy or happy person—very handsome, very fortunate, loveable, famous and endowed with devotion.

231-238. O King, Brāhmaṇas, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas or Śūdras residing in the sacred places, engaged in (practising) the duties of their own class, well-behaved and having a long life, devoted completely to Brahmā, showing kindness to beings, who live in the great sacred place viz. Puṣkara, go, after death, to Brahmā’s abode in richly decorated aeroplanes, beautified by the hosts of celestial nymphs, and going as desired (by the occupants), and taking any form as desired (by the occupants). One who, very pious, meditating upon Brahmā, offers his body into an all-blazing fire, would go to Brahmā’s abode. Brahmā’s world, best among all worlds, charming and accomplishing the desired objects, becomes his permanent abode with all (its) greatness. O Bhīṣma, those magnanimous ones also, who cast their life in the water at the very meritorious Puṣkara, go to the imperishable world of Brahmā. They actually see the god, the destroyer of all miseries, and accompanied by all gods and by the hosts of Rudras and Viṣṇus.

239-241. The Śūdras who die at Puṣkara, never causing frustration, go in an aeroplane yoked with swans, resembling the sun in lustre, rich with various jewels and gold, strong and made fragrant with perfumes, of (several) other matchless qualities, resounding with the songs of celestial damsels, fixed with banners and flags, and, sounding with many bells, endowed with many wonders and acquainted with pleasures and very lustrous, endowed with qualities and being borne by excellent peacocks.

242-244. The wise men who die in the unperishable (Puṣkara) rejoice in Brahmā’s world. Having lived there for a long time and having enjoyed pleasures as desired, the mortal coming (to this world) is born in a brāhmaṇa family, is a rich man enjoying pleasures. A man, who, accomplishes the Karīra rite at Puṣkara, leaving all (other) worlds goes to Brahmā’s world. He would dwell in Brahmā’s world till the Kalpa comes to an end.

245. He does not at all see a man being tormented by his own deeds. His course is undeterred—slanting, upwards and downwards.

246. He is revered in all worlds, spreading his fame and controlled. His behaviour is good, he knows the rules and all his sense organs are attractive.

247. He is well-versed in dancing, instrumental music, fortunate and handsome. He is always like an unfaded (i.e. a fresh) flower, and adorned with divine ornaments. He is dark-blue like the petals of a dark-blue lotus, and his hair is dark and curly.

248-249. Ladies there, who are of a high origin and of a graceful waist, and (who are) full of all good fortune and endowed with all rich qualities, (who are) very proud of their youth serve him and delight him in bed (i,e. give him sexual pleasure).

250-252. He is awakened from his sleep by the sound of lutes and flutes. Due to the favour of the lord viz. Brahmā, the doer of auspicious things, he enjoys pleasure of great festivity, which is difficult to be obtained by the ignorant ones.

Bhīṣma said:

(Good) practices are a great religious merit; to me it is not a wonder, that those who are intent upon (following) the customary observances of a sacred place, who are engaged in following the duties of their class, and who have conquered their anger and senses, go to Brahmā’s world.

253. There is no doubt that Brāhmaṇas go even to other worlds without waiting upon Brahmā or observing restrictions.

254-255. O brāhmaṇa, tell me the course followed by the women, Mlecchas, Śūdras, cattle, birds and quadrupeds, (so also) the dumb, the dull, the blind, the deaf, who live in Puṣkara (but) do not practise the penance or observe the restrictions.

Pulastya said:

256-259. O Bhīṣma, women, Mlecchas, Śūdras, cattle, birds and quadrupeds, who die in Puṣkara go to Brahmā’s world with divine bodies in aeroplanes resembling the sun in lustre, endowed with divine forms, having excellent golden banners, decorated with staircases of gold and diamonds and with jewelled pillars, rich in all pleasures, moving at the desire (of the occupants) and having any form (as desired by the occupants). The great ones, surrounded bythousands of ladies go to Brahmā’s world full of many charms or to other worlds as desired by them. Fallen from Brahmā’s world they go to other terrestrial regions in due order.

260-267. A brāhmaṇa becomes rich (being born) in a great large family. Those born as lower animals like serpents, insects, ants, so also the land-born, water-born, sweat-generated, oviparous, plants and the viviparous animals who, with or without any desire, die in Puṣkara go to Brahmā’s world in a plane resembling the sun in lustre. In the Kali-age the beings are impelled by sin. In this (yuga) neither religious merit nor heaven is obtained by any other means. Those men who live in Puṣkara and are intent on the worship of Brahmā in the kali-yuga are blessed;others having no goal, suffer. A man is free from the sin which he commits at night by his five sense-organs, by action, thought and speech and under the influence of desire and anger, when, after going to the water of Puṣkara he reaches the grandsire (i.e. Brahmā) and becomes pure. Seeing the sun from his rise to his going up (in the sky) removes a man’s sin after he meditates in Brahmā’s union called mental (union). On seeing Brahmā at mid-day a man is free from sin.

268. A man is free from that sin which he commits from mid-day to sun-set when he merely sees Brahmā in the evening.

269-270. Even though that devotee of Brahmā who lives at Puṣkara remaining in penance enjoys all objects of senses like sound, and remaining in the Puṣkara forest eats dainty dishes even three times a day is regarded as equal to one who subsists on air.

271. Those men who live in Puṣkara doing pious deeds, obtain great pleasures by the power of this sacred place.

272. As there is no reservoir comparable to the great ocean, similarly there is no sacred place like Puṣkara.

273-275. There is no other sacred place like Puṣkara that can surpass it in merits. I shall tell you (the names) of other (gods) who have settled in this sacred place: All gods along with Viṣṇu and Indra and others; Gajānana, Kārtikeya; Revanta with the sun; Śiva’s messenger goddess Durgā, who is always propitious. Enough of (i.e. no need for) penance and restraints for them who do good deeds and (pay) respect to deities and superiors.

276-277. A brāhmaṇa, who, having done such acts as vows and fasts, stays in the best Puṣkara forest without doing anything, has always all his desires fulfilled even when he simply lives here. He goes to the great imperishable place resembling that of Brahmā.

278-279. The residents of this sacred place obtain in this sacred place (just) in a day that fruit which is obtained in twelve years in the Kṛta (yuga), in a year in the Tretā (yuga) and in a month in the Dvāpara (yuga). Thus was I formerly told by Brahmā, the god of gods.

280. There is no other sacred place superior to this on the earth. Therefore one should, with all efforts, resort to this forest.

281. A householder, a celibate, an anchorite and a mendicant—all those told (above) reach a great position.

282. He, who, without any desire or hatred, duly follows the religious precepts in a (particular) stage of life is honoured in the next world.

283. Brahmā has set up here a ladder with four rungs. One resorting to this ladder is honoured in Brahmā’s world.

284. He, who knows moral merit and worldly prosperity should live with a preceptor or his son for one-fourth (span) of his life and perform the worship of Brahmā.

285. He, who wants to be excellent in moral duty, should learn from a preceptor; should give present (to the preceptor); and when called should assist the preceptor.

286. (While staying) in the preceptor’s house, he should sleep after him and should get up before the preceptor gets up. He should do all that i.e. service etc. that ought to be done by a disciple.

287. Having done all that service, he should stand by (the preceptor). He should be a servant, doing everything and proficient in all (kinds of) work.

288. He should be pure, diligent, endowed with qualities and, give the preceptor a desired reply with his senses controlled; he should gaze steadfastly at the preceptor.

289-290. He should not eat unless the preceptor has eaten; he should not drink (water) unless the preceptor has done so. He should not sit when the preceptor is standing, and should not sleep unless the preceptor has slept; with his hands stretched out he should press the (preceptor’s) feet; and should press the (preceptor’s) right foot with his right hand and the left foot with his left hand.

291. Announcing his name and saluting the preceptor he should say, ‘O revered sir, I shall do this, and I have done this’.

292. Having informed the preceptor of all this, and having offered money to him, he should do all that work (assigned to him) and should inform the preceptor of (having done) it.

293. (Only) after having returned from the preceptor’s house he should enjoy all those odours and flavours, which a celibate does not enjoy. This is the fixed opinion of the law (-books).

294. The disciple and devotee of the preceptor should observe all the rules prescribed in detail for a celibate.

295. The disciple himself, having, according to his power, bestowed affection on his preceptor, should live by performing his duty in the hermitage outside the village.

296-297. Similarly a brāhmaṇa lying low should learn a Veda, two Vedas or (three) Vedas from the mouth of the preceptor, and practising the vows laid down in the Veda and giving the preceptor one-fourth of his acquisition he should duly return home from the preceptor’s house.

298. Having a wife endowed with religious merit, he should propitiate fires after having invoked them. (Thus) a householder should behave in the second part of his life.

299-300. The sages have formerly laid down four modes of a householder’s life: first is to store corn sufficient for three years; the second is to store corn sufficient for one; the third is to store corn sufficient for a day; the fourth is to store little corn. Of them the last is the best as it conquers (all) the worlds (for him).

301. One follows the six duties (viz. learning, teaching, sacrificing, acting as a priest at a sacrifice, giving and receiving gifts); another leads his life (performing) three duties; the fourth one (lives) by only two duties. Such a brāhmaṇa remains in Brahman.

302-305. No other great sacred place is said (to exist) than the vow of a householder. One should not cause food to be cooked for oneself; one should not kill a beast for no reason, (but) an animal or a non-animal deserves a sacrifice (i.e. may be sacrificed) after (proper) sanctification. He should never sleep by day nor in the first or the last part of the night. He should not eat at a wrong time—between the two meals, and should not tell a lie. No brāhmaṇa coming to his house should remain unhonoured; and his guests are venerable and are said to convey offerings made to gods and manes. They are bathed in the vow of (studying) the Vedic lore, are learned and have mastered the Vedas.

306. They obtain their livelihood by (doing) their own duty, are restrained, are engaged in (their) work and practise penance. Offering made to gods and manes is laid down for honouring them.

307-308. (But) he who has attached himself with perishable things, and has deviated from religious practices, and has broken the vow of keeping sacred fire, and plays false with his teacher, and is devoted to falsehood, has no right to perform these two duties (i.e. offering oblations to gods and manes) and in such a case sharing (food) with all beings remains (undone).

309. Similarly a householder should give (food) to those who do not cook (for themselves). He should always be vighasāśī (one who eats the remains of food eaten by others) and amṛta-bhojana (one who tastes the residues of a sacrifice).

310. Amṛta is the remains of a sacrifice; and bhojana is said to be equivalent to oblations. He, who eats the remains of what is eaten (by others), is called vighasāśī.

311-313. He should be devoted to his wife, should be restrained, diligent and should have his senses very much controlled. He should not argue with old people, children, sick persons, persons belonging to his caste and relatives, his mother, father, son-in-law, brother, son, wife, daughter and servants. Having avoided (i.e. if he avoids) argument with these he becomes free from all sins.

314-318. Won over by these he undoubtedly conquers all the worlds. The preceptor is the lord of Brahmā’s world. The father is the lord of whatever is sacred to Prajāpati. The guest is the lord of all the worlds. The officiating priest is the resort of the Vedas and a supreme authority. The son-in-law is (the lord) in the world of the celestial nymphs. The kinsmen belong to all the gods. The relatives are powerful in the quarters. The mother and maternal uncle are powerful on the earth. Old people, children and sick persons are powerful in the sky. The family-priest is the lord of the world of the sages. The dependents are the rulers of the (particular class of celestial beings called) Sādhyas. The physician is the lord of the world of Aśvins. And the brother is the lord of the world of Vasus. The wife is the ruler of the world of the moon. The daughter is powerful in the house of the celestial nymphs.

319. The eldest brother is equivalent to the father. The wife and the son are one’s own body. The clerks, servants, the daughter are very piteable. Therefore, (when) insulted by these, he should without getting angry, always bear with them.

320. A wise man, devoted to a householder’s life, firm in religious duties, and undepressed should not commence many acts (simultaneously) (but) being dutiful he should start a little.

321. The modes of subsistence of a householder are three. Their main aim is the highest bliss. Similarly they say that four stages of life are mutually (dependent).

322-323. And he who desires to be (a householder) should follow all the rules that are laid down. They should (live) by storing grain in jars for six days (or for one year’s consumption), or should live by gleaning grains like pigeons (i.e. by storing very little); and that nation, in which such significant persons live, prospers. Such a person purifies the former ten paternal grandsires (i.e. ancestors) and the ten of the successive (generations).

324. He, who, free from anguish, follows the way of the life of a householder, would obtain a position similar to that of the worlds of Viṣṇu.

325. Or this is said to be a condition of those who have conquered their senses. Heaven is the habitation of those who are self-controlled.

326. This ladder is laid down by Brahmā. One liberated from this, getting the second in due order, is honoured in heaven.

327. I shall narrate the third one—the stage of the anchorite; (please) listen. When a householder sees himself to be with wrinkles and grey hair, and sees his child’s child, he should then resort to forest only.

328-337. Well-being to you, O Bhīṣma, listen to (the account) of those who are disgusted with the householder’s stage, who live in the stage of the anchorite, the supporters of all the worlds, who have retired to forest after being initiated, who live in holy countries, who have the power of intelligence and who are endowed with truth, purity and forgiveness. Living in the third part of life in the stage of the anchorite, he, a sacrificer, should tend the same divine fires (as he tended as a householder). Controlled and moderate in food (habits) and devoted and attached to Viṣṇu, he should by all means(continue) the agnihotra (maintenance of the sacred fire) and other sacrificial requisites. He (should subsist on) rice and barley growing wild and on leavings of food eaten. He should offer oblations in the summer season (beginning) with the month of Māgha. These four modes of subsistence are said (to be found) in the stage of the anchorite. Some eat instantly (i.e. do not store anything); some store (grains) lasting for a month, or lasting for a year or for twelve years for honouring the guests and sacrificial rituals. In the rainy season they remain under the sky; in the winter they resort to water; in the summer they practise the penance of the five fires (i.e. four fires placed around one inthe four directions and the sun is the fifth fire); in the autumn they eat unsolicited alms. They roll on the ground or stand on the forepart of their feet. They remain in the stationary posture or even in their (own dwellings). Some use their teeth for a mortar, while others use stones for pounding things.

338-339. Some drink boiled sour gruel during the bright fortnight; or some in the dark fortnight; or eat as (and when) they get something (to eat); practising the mode of the anchorite’s life, and of a firm resolve some properly live on roots, others on fruits and (still) others on water.

340-341. These and others are the various religious rites of those high-minded ones. The fourth mode of life (i.e. Saṃnyāsa) as laid down in the Upaniṣads is said to be universal. The mode of the life of an achorite is one; another is the mode of the life of a householder. In the same life the other one (i.e. the Saṃnyāsa) proceeds (after these). (This is said) by sages who see everything.

342-343. These (sages) viz. Agastya and the seven sages, Madhucchandas, Gaveṣaṇa, Sāṃkṛti, Sadiva, Bhāṇḍi, Yavaprotha, Atharvaṇa, Ahovīrya, so also Kāmya, Sthāṇu, and the wise Medhātithi, Manovāka, Śinīvāka, Śūnyapāla, Kṛtavraṇa, knowing well their duty, went to heaven.

344-345. Those who are religion incarnate, so also the groups of the vagrant mendicants from among the sages practising severe penance and showing skill in religious matters, having propitiated the lord of gods, have resorted to a forest.

346. Brāhmaṇas who have repented, have, having given up deceit, resorted to a forest. Vagrant and unapproachable groups are seen to be away from their homes.

347-349. Being afflicted by old age and troubled by disease (brāhmaṇas) have gone to the remaining stage of life viz. the fourth, from that of the anchorite. Quick in action, he who has finished (the study of) all Vedas and (has performed sacrifices) with presents, is one who looks upon all beings as self; is of a soft mind, sporting in himself; self-dependent, having placed fire in the self and having given up all possessions, he should always perform sacrifices (or a sacrifice).

350-351. (In the case) of those who always perform sacrifice it goes into the self At a fit moment he should duly surrender the three fires with his individual soul into the supreme self. He should eat, without censuring, whatever he gets in whatever manner. One who is fondly attached to the (third) stage of life viz. that of the anchorite, should cast off the hair on the head and other parts of the body.

352-359. Being instantly purified by his acts he goes from one stage of life to another. That brāhmaṇa, who resigns the world after having granted security to all beings, goes to lustrous worlds after death and attains infinity. He, of a good character and with his sins removed, does not take delight either in this or the next world. Free from anger and infatuation, without friendship or strife, he remains indifferent as a result of self-meditation. He is not perturbed by the deaths of others; is mentally indifferent to his scriptures and does not err in (understanding) self. For him, free from doubt, looking upon all beings as self, and intent on righteousness and with his senses conquered, acquisition (of things) becomes agreeable to his desire (i.e. things may take their own course). Now listen to (the description of) that fourth stage of life, which is said to be the greatest stage, being described (by me). It is the highest goal, very much surpassing (other) stages of life. Listen, with concentration, to that which should be done for (reaching) the supreme soul and which has received refinement from the two stages (viz. that of a householder and of the anchorite) and (which should be undertaken) after them. Listen to how he, having put on red garments in the three rungs (i.e. who accepts asceticism)—the unsurpassed stage—and having renounced (everything) with that thought (of renunciation), behaves; unaccompanied by anyone else, he should all alone practise righteousness. He, who, a discerning person, practises (righteousness) by himself, does not forsake (anyone nor is deficient in anything).

360-363. Not maintaining any fire, nor having any abode, he should resort to a village (only) for alms. Endowed with the thoughts (befitting) an ascetic, he should not keep anything for the future. He should eat little, have control over food (habits), and should eat food once (in a day). He should (use a begging-) bowl, should (stay) at the roots of trees, should (wear) rags, and be all alone. He should be indifferent to all beings. These are the signs of an ascetic. He, to whom words go as dead bodies (are) in a well, and never return to him who utters them (i.e. he who is deaf to all criticism) should remain in the ascetic’s stage. He should not see (unworthy things) nor should hear what is not worthy of being told to others.

364. This should especially take place in the case of brāhmaṇas on any account; he should always speak what is agreeable to a brāhmaṇa.

365. Taking care of himself he should keep mum when he is censured (by others); so that by him being but one the entire space is filled.

366. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who has filled up a void.

367. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who covers himself with anything, and is satisfied by eating anything.

368. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who like a serpent, is afraid of people, or who, like a man of good heart, is afraid of (falling into) a hell, or who, like a vile person, is afraid of ladies.

369. When honoured he should not be elated, nor should he be dejected when insulted. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who grants security to all beings.

370. He should welcome neither death nor life. He should just observe (the workings of) destiny as an ox waits for (his master’s) order.

371. Then (such) a man, with his mind unaffected, self-restrained, and with his intellect unimpaired, being free from all sins, would go to heaven.

372. To him, who has no fear from all beings and who grants safety to beings, and who is liberated in the body (i.e. while living), there is no fear from anywhere.

373. As the footprints (of) others lie (i.e. disappear) under the footprints of an elephant, similarly all kinds of knowledge lie in his heart.

374. Thus everything, so also piety and worldly prosperity, increase when harmlessness (is practised); he who does harm to others, is always dead.

375. So one who does no harm (to anybody), who is properly courageous, who has his senses controlled. and who is a refuge to all beings, obtains the best position.

376. Thus, for the wise one, who is content with knowledge, who is fearless, death is not an additional condition; and, he reaches immortality.

377. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who is a sage free from all attachments, remains like space, does what is dear to Viṣṇu and is calm.

378. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, whose life is for piety, and whose piety is (meant) for affection; and whose day and night are for (doing) meritorious deeds.

379. Gods look upon him as a brāhmaṇa, who keeps away from (all) actions, who avoids salutation and praise, who is unaffected, and (the effects of) whose actions are diminished.

380. All beings enjoy happily; all sorrows are excessive; being dejected due to their causing birth he should perform his acts (i.e. duty) with faith.

381. His gift is granting safety to beings; it stands superior to all (other) gifts in the world. He who first offers his body to severity obtains infinite security from beings.

382. He offers the oblation frank-mindendly with his mouth (i.e. he performs the sacrifice only verbally). He everywhere obtains a high position for an endless period. All this has gone forth due to the contact with his body; has reached Vaiśvānara (the Supreme Being).

383. Whatever, he, sacrificing for himself, offers into his heart, which has spread (i.e. is) of the measure of the span between the thumb and the forefinger, remains in the soul, in the presence of all the people along with the deities.

384. Those, who know the three-fold god of a fine complexion, who has become the highest object, being honoured in all the worlds (and becoming) powerful gods, reach immortality.

385. Always all move by him who finds in his individual soul the Vedas, that which is to be known, the entire rite, the etymological interpretations and the highest truth.

386-388. He, who, having blazing rays, knows that wheel of time, which does not stick to the ground, which cannot be measured in the sky, which is golden in the orb, which is in the south in the atmosphere, and not in himself, which is revolving and turning round, which has six fellies and three periods, in the opening of which everything falls (i.e. is included), to have been placed in a cave (i.e. is unintelligible), by the favour of which he knows the body of the world and all the people here, in it he pleases the gods and (thus) becomes eternally free.

389-390. In the world he becomes lustrous, omnipresent, eternal and approaches (the supreme being) due to the fear of worldly objects; of whom (i.e. him) the beings are not afraid, nor is he fed up with the being, that brāhmaṇa, not being censured, does not censure others; he should very much look into his own soul. With his confusion removed, and sins destroyed, he becomes stiff in this world and the next, as desired.

391. Free from anger and delusion, looking upon equally on a clod of clay and gold, with his grief destroyed, with his friendship and quarrel ceased, free from censure or praise, not having anything dear or disagreeable, he is an anchorite indifferent (to the world).

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