Tana, Tāṇa: 21 definitions



Tana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Taan.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Tāna (तान).—Bharata calculates the number of tānas (which at his time are understood as names for grouping of svaras by permutation) which are derived from mūrchanās.

The tānakriyā or “the production of the tāna” on the string is of two kinds, viz.,

  1. praveśa (by the pulling of the lower note and the smoothening of the higher note),
  2. nigraha (by not touching).

Tāna as applied to this kriyā shifts the reference from the grouping of the notes in prastāra to the quality and peculiarity of the tone produced.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Tāna (तान).—The tānas depend on mūrchanās (melody) are eighty-four in number. Among these the hexatonic (ṣāḍava) ones are forty-nine, and the pentatonic (auḍavita) ones thirty-five.

The hexatonic tānas have seven varieties, e.g. four tānas devoid of Ṣaḍja, Ṛṣabha, Niṣāda and Pañcama in the ṣaḍja-grāma; three tānas devoid of Ṣaḍja, Ṛṣabha and Gāndhāra in the madhyama-grāma. Thus these being worked in all, the mūrchanās in the two grāmas will give rise to forty-nine tānas.

The pentatonic tānas have five varieties e.g. three tānas devoid of Ṣaḍja and Pañcama, of Ṛṣabha and Pañcama, and of Gāndhāra and Niṣāda in the ṣaḍja-grāma, two tānas devoid of Ṛṣabha and Dhaivata, and of Gāndhāra and Niṣāda in the madhyama-grāma. Thus these being worked in all, the pentatonic mūrchanās in the two grāmas will give rise to thirty-five tānas.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Tana (तन).—Personal ending for त (ta) of the second pers. pl. Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature e.g जुजुष्टन (jujuṣṭana) for जुषत (juṣata) cf. Kas. On P VII. 1.45;

2) Tana.—tad. affixes टयु (ṭayu) and टयुल् (ṭayul) i.e. अन (ana) which, with the augment त् (t), in effect becomes तन (tana) e.g. सायंतन, चिरंतन (sāyaṃtana, ciraṃtana), etc.: cf. P. IV. 3.23.

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Tāna (तान).—One uniform accent or tone एकश्रुति (ekaśruti), as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; cf. तानलक्षणमेकं स्वरमाहु-र्यज्ञकर्मणि (tānalakṣaṇamekaṃ svaramāhu-ryajñakarmaṇi) V. Pr. I.130; cf. also P.I. 2.34.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Tāna (तान) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Tānī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Tāna] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Tāna (तान) refers to a “melodic figure”, of which there are 49;—Fox-Strangways (Music of Hindostan, p. 82)  also says (p. 287) that it = “‘division’ in our eighteenth century sense of the word.”

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tāna.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘fortynine’; but sometimes used to indicate ‘thirtyfour’. Note: tāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tāṇa : (nt.) protection; refuge; shelter.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tāṇa, (nt.) (from Vedic root trā, variation of *ter in tarati. Orig. bringing or seeing through) shelter, protection, refuge, esp. as tt. of shelter & peace offered by the Dhamma. Mostly in combination with leṇa & saraṇa (also dīpa & abhaya), in var. contexts, esp. with ref. to Nibbāna (see Nd2 s. v.): D. I, 95 (°ṃ, etc. gavesin seeking refuge); A. I, 155; S. IV, 315 (maṃtāṇa, etc. adj. protected by me, in my shelter).—S. I, 2, 54, 55, 107 (°ṃ karoti); IV, 372 (°gāmī maggo); A. IV, 184; Sn. 668 (°ṃ upeti); Dh. 288; J. I, 412 (=protector, explained by tāyitā parittāyitā patiṭṭhā); Sdhp. 224, 289. Cp. tātar & tāyati. (Page 298)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṭāṇa (टाण).—Properly tāṇa &c.

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ṭāṇā (टाणा).—Properly tāṇa &c.

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taṇa (तण).—n (tṛṇa S) Grass or straw; but esp. used of the straw of rice. 2 Weeds and wild-growing grass.

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tana (तन).—f n Commonly tanū. The body &c.

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tana (तन).—n (tṛṇa) Grass or straw. 2 Weeds and wildgrass.

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tāṇa (ताण).—m (tana S) The state of being stretched or strained; stretchedness or strain (as of a rope, cloth &c.) v dē, basa, bhara. 2 fig. Intense anger, a rage, a passion. v . Ex. varmācī gōṣṭa kāḍhatāñca kasā tāṇa ālā. 3 m n Vigorous and unremitting exertion or application: also the exhausted or wearied state arising from it. 4 Pressing hard; dunning rigorously; galloping violently; urging and reducing to great straits: also the harassed or spent state induced; pressure, press, stress, straitness, sense of urgency, embarrassment, or want gen.: v bhara, lāga, basa: also scarcity as occasioning the pressure or straitness; as dāṇyācā- pikācā -pāvasācā -paikyācā-tāṇa. v paḍa. 5 Holding up (of rain). v . Ex. pāvasānēṃ cāra divasa tāṇa dilhā mhaṇajē laśakara bāhēra paḍēla. 6 n The exact time or season; the very nick or critical moment. Ex. bharatīcē tāṇāvara mahāgirī hakāra. tāṇa tōḍaṇēṃ (with vara) To discharge a fit of passion upon. tāṇa dēṇēṃ To prolong the time of. tāṇēṃ tāṇēṃ With furious, vehement, or lively action. v jā, uṭha, māra, uḍa.

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tāṇā (ताणा).—m (tāṇaṇēṃ) The warp. 2 A scandent or creeping plant gen. 3 Stock or breed (esp. of cattle). 4 A tendril or clasper. 5 The long lines of a spider's web.

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tāna (तान).—f (S) A tune. 2 Tuning the voice; running over the notes. 3 A strain, lit. fig. as gā- ṇyācī tāna, śivyāñcī tāna, māraṇyācī-bōlaṇyācī &c. v ghē, jhāḍa. 4 Thirst. 5 fig. Thirst after, itching, longing, hankering. 6 A disease incidental to children, arising from morbid heat. 7 A particular creeping plant. 8 m Better tāṇa which see in the five first senses. tāna ghālaṇēṃ or dharaṇēṃ To use remedies (apply cooling leaves &c.) to expel the disease tāna. tāna dēṇēṃ To prolong the time of.

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tāna (तान).—a Of strong texture, stout--cloth. 2 (In nandabhāṣā) High-priced, dear: opp. to khōñca Low of price, cheap. 3(Usually tānhā) Sucking or suckling.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṭaṇa (टण) [-kan-kara-dinī-diśī, -कन्-कर-दिनी-दिशी].—ad Imit. of the sound of a people &c. rebounding from a hard body.

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taṇa (तण).—n Grass. Weeds and wild-growing grass.

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tana (तन).—f The body. n Grass.

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tāṇa (ताण).—m The state of being stretched Fig. A strain, tension, as on the mind A rage m n Vigourous exertion wearied state. Pressure. f Outdoing excelling. n The season; the critical moment. tāṇa dēṇēṃ To prolong the time of, tāṇēṃ tāṇēṃ With furious, lively action

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tāṇā (ताणा).—m The warp. Breed. A creeping plant.

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tāna (तान).—f A tune. Tuning the voice. Fig. A train. Thirst. A disease incidental to children. a Stout. Dear, high-priced.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tana (तन).—Ved. A descendant.

-nā, -nam Offspring, posterity; आ वो मक्षू तनाय कम् (ā vo makṣū tanāya kam) Rv.1.39.7.

Derivable forms: tanaḥ (तनः).

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Tāna (तान).—[tan-ghañ]

1) A thread, fibre.

2) (In music) A protracted tone, a key-note; यथा तानं बिना रागः (yathā tānaṃ binā rāgaḥ) Bv. 1.119; तानप्रदायित्वमिवोपगन्तुम् (tānapradāyitvamivopagantum) Ku.1.8. (the number of tānas is said to be 49).

3) A monotonous tone.

-nam 1 Expanse, extension.

2) An object of sense.

Derivable forms: tānaḥ (तानः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāna (तान).—m.

(-naḥ) A tune. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Expanse, extension. 2. An object of sense. E. tan to extend, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāna (तान).—i. e. tan + a, m. 1. A thread, [Suśruta] 1, 93, 17. 2. A musical tone, Mahābhārata 2, 133.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tana (तन).—[neuter] ā [feminine] offspring, child.

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Tāna (तान).—[masculine] thread, fibre; [neuter] expanse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tanā (तना):—[from tan] a ind. (tanā, once tanā, [x, 93, 12]) [instrumental case] in uninterrupted succession, one after another, continually, [Ṛg-veda i, 3; 38; 77; ii, 2, 1; viii ff.]

2) Tana (तन):—[from tan] n. offspring, posterity, [i, 39, 7; viii, 18, 18 and 25, 2; Atharva-veda vii, 73, 5] (nāyā for nāya)

3) Tanā (तना):—[from tana > tan] b f. sg. or [Vedic or Veda] n. [plural] idem, [Ṛg-veda iii, 25, 1 and 27, 9; ix, 62, 2.]

4) Tāna (तान):—m. (√3. tan) a fibre, [Suśruta i, 25]

5) a tone, [Mahābhārata ii, 133 and 391; xiii, 3888; Kumāra-sambhava i, 8]

6) a monotonous tone (in reciting, eka-śruti), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra i, 8, 18; Vaitāna-sūtra; Bhāśika-sūtra; Nyāyamālā-vistara; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

7) an object of sense (or = tātparya), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. eka-)

8) ([τόνος.])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāna (तान):—(naḥ) 1. m. A tune. n. Expanse, extension; object of sense.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tana (तन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Taṇua, Tāṇa, Viralla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Ṭana (टन) [Also spelled tan]:—(nm) (a measure of weight) ton; (nf) a tinkling/twanging sound; ~[ṭana] ding-dong; ting, peal.

2) Tana (तन) [Also spelled tan]:—(nm) body; —[kī -tapana bujhānā] to quench the thirst of one’s physical needs, to attain physical gratification; —[badana kī sudha na rahanā] to transcend one’s physical being, to be beyond oneself; -[badana meṃ āga laganā] to get one’s goat; -[mana se] wholeheartedly, with all physical and mental resources; -[mana-dhana se] with all physical, mental and material resources; -[mana se sevā karanā] to serve somebody hand and foot.

3) Tanā (तना):—(nf) a stem, trunk; bole.

4) Tāna (तान) [Also spelled taan]:—(nf) a musical note; fast rhythmic movement; tone; stay; ~[] tonicity; —[cheḍanā] to strike up a melodious tune; to commence a disagreeable talk/an unending talk.

5) Tānā (ताना):—(nm) a taunt, sarcasm, gibe; the warp; -[bānā] warp and woof; the whole structure; ~[rīrī] discordant note, useless talk; —[denā/—māranā] to taunt, to gibe.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Taṇa (तण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Tan.

2) Taṇa (तण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Tṛṇa.

3) Tāṇa (ताण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Trāṇa.

4) Tāṇa (ताण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Tāna.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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