The Natyashastra

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XXXII - The Dhruvā Songs

1. Listen [now] from me about those types [of songs] which have been called Dhruvās by Brāhmaṇas such as Nārada[1] and others.

2. The Ṛk[2], Pāṇikā[3] and Gāthā[4], and the Seven [traditional] Types [of songs][5] which have seven different measures, are called Dhruvās.

3. O Brāhmaṇas, I shall discuss those [songs] in different metres which being created from those types, attain the status of Dhruvās.

4-6. The five classes of Dhruvās have always the following limbs (aṅga): Mukha, Pratimukha, Vaihāyasaka, Sthita, Pravṛtta, Vajra, Sandhi, Saṃharaṇa, Prastāra, Upavarta, Māṣaghāta, Caturasra, Upapāta, Praveṇī, Śīrṣaka, Saṃpiṣṭaka, Antāharaṇa and Mahājanika.

7. Songs consisting of one, two, three and four Vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā. Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā.

8. The Dhruvā is so called, because in it words, Varṇas Alaṃkāra, tempo, Jāti and Pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another.

Dhruvās and their limbs

9. Depending on different conditions, the Dhruvās are known to be of five classes. I shall speak of the seven limbs which they consist of.

10. Limbs of the Prāveśikī Dhruvā are Upaghāta, Pravṛtta, Vajra and Śīrṣaka.

11. Limbs of the Aḍḍitā[6] Dhruvā are Prastāra, Māṣaghātā, Mahājanika, Praveṇī and Upapāta.

12. Limbs of the Avakṛṣṭā Dhruvā, are Mukha and Pratimukha, and of the Sthitā Dhruvā, limbs are Vaihāyasa and Antāharaṇa.

13. Similarly, of the Khañja-Nātkuṭā Dhruvā the limbs are Saṃhāra (Saṃharaṇa) and Caturasra, and of the Antarā Dhruvā, the limbs are Sandhi and Prastāra.

14. The limbs and the Kalās which are included in the songs, should be represented in the Dhruvās by means of [appropriate] types of metres.

15. The Tāla in a Dhruvā being Tryasra and Caturasra should, as said before, consist respectively, of six or of eight Kalās.

16. The limbs of all songs, which have been mentioned [before] are Vṛtta, Vivadha and Ekaka.

17-18. [The part of the song] which completes the Pada and the Varṇa, is called the Vidārī.[7] I shall now speak of the rules regarding their[8] application to [different] characters [in a play]. The Vṛtta class of limbs will apply to the superior characters, and the Vivadha to the middling ones, and the Ekaka to the inferior characters.

18-19. Taking into account the application (yoga) [of the Tāla] which may be Tryasra or Caturasra, one should perform the Āvasānikī Dhruvā in its [proper] measure.

19-20. The Āvasānikī Dhruvā should have feet of metres which rest between Gāyatrī and Atiśakkarī.

20-21. The Āvasāniki Dhruvā which falls between the Śakkarī and Atikṛti metres, consists of a foot and a half of these.

21-22. The foot of an Āvasānikī Dhruvā should be made up of short and long syllables, according to the rules of Yati, metre and its measurement in mātrās.

22-23. For the superior and the middling characters the Āvasānikī Dhruvā should be Caturasra, and for the inferior characters it will be Tryasrā. When the Dhruvā is full of meaning in all its parts (artha-pūrṇa-padī) Vṛtta should be applied in it. On the strength of the Vṛtta the Dhruvā should be Āvasānikī.

24. Dhruvās originating in various metres are of five kinds. According to Sentiments which they contain they are superior, middling and inferior.

25. Dhruvās are of three classes: Kaniṣṭhikāgrahā, Sannipātāgrahā, and Apagrahā.

26-27. The first Dhruvā is Prāveśīkī (entering), the second one Ākṣepikī (indicating), the third one Prāsādikī (calming), the fourth one Antarā (transitional) and the fifth one is Naiṣkrāmikī (departing). I shall describe their metres.

28. The Vastu of the Gāndharva which I have spoken of as consisting of notes, Tāla and words, will be [called] Pada[9] when it will reflect notes and Tālas.

29. All that is made up of syllables, is called the Pada It is of two kinds according as it is [regularly] composed (nibaddha) or not so composed (a-nibaddha).

30. It is again of two kinds: conforming to no time-measure (a-tāla) and conforming to a time-measure (sa-tāla).

For the purpose of the Dhruvā, it is to conform to a time-measure and is to be [regularly] composed.

31. A Pada which conforms to no time-measure and which is not regularly composed, is connected with the Karaṇas[10] and it embellishes the playing of all kinds of musical instruments.

32. That which is furnished with a fixed number of syllables and which has a metre including caesura and has a time-measure and tempo (laya) for its syllables, is called a regularly composed Pada.

33. That which has a free metre and caesura and has no fixed number of syllables and has no [prescribed] time-measure and tempo, is called an irregularly composed Pada.

34. The syllables not regularly composed will be outside the Jāti songs, and one should describe their performance along with the Karaṇas of the musical instruments.

35. The Padas which are irregularly composed and not furnished with any time-measure, are connected with the musical instruments and they are [meant] to embellish the latter.

36. But those (Padas) which are regularly composed in persuance of the [rule of] syllables in a metre, are called the Dhruvās. I shall next speak of their characteristics.

37. The three Tryasra classes [of metre] to be applied in the Sthitāpakṛṣṭā [Dhruvā] are the Atyukta, Madhyā, Pratiṣṭha and Gāyātrī.

38. The Yugma class [of metres] to be applied in the Prāsadīkī Dhruvās are the Uṣṇik, Anuṣṭup, Bṛhatī and Paṅkti.

39-40. The classes [of metre] known to be in use in the Dhruvās of speed, are the Anuṣṭup, Bṛhatī, Jagatī, Drutā, Capalā, Udgatā and Dhṛti.

40-41. Now listen about the class [of metres] for the Prāveśīkī Dhruvās in case of energetic [characters]. The class of metres applicable to such characters are Paṅkti, Triṣṭup, Jagatī, Atijagatī and Śakkarī.

42. For all these classes three kinds of syllabic metres have been prescribed. They may be mostly in long syllables or in short syllables or may equally have long and short syllables.

43. The Apakṛṣṭā Dhruvās should be in metres mostly with long syllables, and the Drutā (quick) Dhruvās should be in metres containing mostly short syllables, and the remaining Dhruvās should be in metres having short and long syllables [in almost equal numbers],

44. Metres with odd number of syllables are to be applied in the Mukha, and these when made up of short syllables of even number, are to be applied in the Drutā Dhruvās.

45. Metres which have a small number. of syllables and are considered small metres, are to be applied in the Drutā Apakṛṣṭā as well as the Ākṣepikī Dhruvās.

46. Metres beginning with long syllables are to be used in the Sthitā [Dhruvā], and those beginning with short syllables are to be made the Druta Dhruvā, and metres with odd and even numbers [in alternate feet] are to be made the Ākṣepikī Dhruvā.

47. A metre consisting of short, and even number of syllables or of odd and small number of syllables are to be applied in the Ākṣepikī Dhruvās.

48. In case their Varṇas are to be increased they should include Śamyā in their Tāla. I am now describing all the classes of metre with examples of their patterns and according to their names, extent and use. Listen about these from me.

The metres used in different Dhruvās

49. Hrī.—The metre with all syllables long in parts of gāthā feet, is called Hrī.[11]

Ex. Yo gaṅgāśṛt.[12]

50. Atyuktā—The metre which has all syllables long [in all its feet of two syllables,] is Atyuktā.

Ex. Īśaṃ devaṃ
śarvaṃ vande
.[13]

Tr. I adore the god Śarva.

51. Taṭi—When the syllable in the middle is short [in feet of three syllables, the metre is Taṭi].

Ex. Śaṃkaraḥ śūlabhṛt
pātu māṃ lokakṛt
.[14]

Tr. Let Śaṃkarā who carries the Trident and creates the world, protect me.

52. Dhṛti—When the first syllable in its feet of three syllables is short [the metre is Dhṛti].

Ex. Umeśaḥ surendraḥ
tavāyur dadātu
.[15]

Tr. Let the lord of Umā who is the lord of gods, give you [long] life.

53. Rajanī—When the two syllables are short and one long in the triad of its feet, the metre is Rajanī.

Ex. Adhikaṃ virahe
madam dahati
.[16]

Tr. Love afflicts (lit. burns) greatly when one [is] in separation [from one’s beloved].

54. This (Rajanī) is also known as Madhya. These [Dhruvās] are all of the Vṛtta (syllabic) class. I shall now speak of the characteristics [of the Dhruvā of] the Pratiṣṭhā and the Supratiṣṭhā classes.

55. Pratiṣṭhā—The metre which has in its feet of four syllables the second long, is Pratiṣṭhā.

Supratiṣṭhā—When the two more (i.e. the 3rd and the 4th syllables) are short it (Pratiṣṭhā) becomes Supratiṣṭhā.

56. Ex. (See text.)[17]

Tr. Drying up the limbs the wind blows carrying the [scent of] flowers.

57. Ex. (See text.)[18]

58-59. Bhramarī—The metre which has in its feet of four syllables the first two short and the next two long, is Bhramarī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. When the forest region is in bloom, the [solitary] elephant feels distressed.

60-61. Jayā—The metre which has in its feet of four syllables two pairs of short and long syllables (i.e. short followed by a long one) is Jayā.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. The forest region being struck with frost, the elephant is in (lit. has come to) tears.

62-63. Vījayā—When the third syllable is short in the above, it is Vijayā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. At the appearance of clouds the peacocks are dancing in their honour.

64-65. Vidyud-bhrāntā—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables all long, is Vidyud-bhrāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. Here appear the clouds which are roaring, pouring water and covering the world.

66-67. Bhūtala-tanvī—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables the second and the third short, is Bhūtala-tanvî.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. On seeing the sky overcast with clouds, the wife of a person travelling abroad, is shedding tears.

68-69. Kamala-mukhī—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables the final one long, is Kamala-mukhī.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. The rain-clouds carried away by wind, move above in the sky like serpents.

70-71. Guru—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables the first, the third and the last long, is Guru.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. Having lost light due to the colour of clouds [covering her], this moon is always pale.

72-73. Sikhā—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables the second, the fourth and the last ones long, is Sikhā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The roaring clouds are, as it were, laying seige to the sky from all sides.

74-75. Ghana-paṅkti—The metre which has in its feet of five syllables the first two short, is Ghana-paṅkti.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The sky obscured by clouds together with[19] lightning, is shedding tears, as it were, by its torrents of water.

76. These are the classes of Dhruvā known as the Supratiṣṭhā. I shall now speak of the Gāyatrī class.

77-78. Tanu-madhyā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first two and the last two long, is Gāyatrī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. With his head struck by lightning this lord of mountains sleeping under a burning heat of fever, sinks down, as it were, into the earth.

79-80. Mālinī—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first, the fourth and the last syllables long, is Gāyatrī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In this great mountain ravaged by wind and struck by lightning, the she-elephant is weeping [in distress].[20]

81-82. Makaraka-śīrsā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables two syllables in the end long, is Makaraka-śīrṣā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In this winter which excites passion, the wind is blowing in the pleasure garden.

83-84. Vimalā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the fourth and the final ones long, is Vimalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The elephant in rut, enters into the lake which is full of lotuses, and where the bees settle themselves.

85-86. Vīthi—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first three and the last one long, is Vīthi.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In the pleasant autumn, the clouds are roaring, peacocks are dancing and the bees are humming.

87-88. Girā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first three and the fifth short, is Girā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The [male] elephant on hearing the roar of clouds, trumpets in the forest; for it apprehends a rival.[21]

89-90. Jalā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first four and the last one long, is Jalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. On seeing the tree struck with frost and shorn of all leaves, the female flamingo is weeping.

91-92. Ramyā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the fourth syllable short and the remaining ones long, is Ramyā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The terrific black clouds which are roaring and covering the world, are creating an alarm.

93-94. Kantā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first, the fourth, fifth and the sixth long, is Kāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O dear one, are you in a state of daring courage? Do you wish to meet her who is angry, intoxicated [but] well-meaning?

95-96. Paṅkti—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the first three syllables and the sixth long, is Paṅkti.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This bride of swan is passionately waiting in this forest to meet her beloved.

97-98. Nalinī—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables twice two short syllables followed by a long one, is Nalinī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Young trees slightly shaken by wind at the time of flowering, are as it were, smiling.

99-100. Nīlatoyā—The metre which has in its feet of six syllables the second syllable short and the remaining four long, is Nīlatoyā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This insufferable wind scattering the cluster of clouds, is blowing to make the trees dance.

101. These are the regular syllabic metres of the Gāyatrī class. I shall now speak of those of the Uṣṇik class.

102-103. Drutagati-Capalā—The metre which has in its feet of 7 syllables, the final one long, is Drutagati-Capalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This your face with the beautiful eyes which are like the best jewels, develops passion in me.

104-105. Vimalā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the third, the fifth and the final one long, is Vimalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This breeze of the spring-time, blows pleasantly and excites passion, like a lover.

106-107. Kāminī—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables short syllables alternating with long ones, is Kāminī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. On seeing the spring arriving at a distance, the southern beeeze blows to shake the trees [in its honour].

108-109. Bhramaramālā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the first two and the last two long, is Bhramaramālā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In this autumn season, the fragrant water is beautiful to look at with swans moving about in it and with its cloth of kāśa flowers.

110-111. Bhogavatī—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the first, the fourth and the last one long, is Bhogavatī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The cakravākī[22] with her lover, is passionately moving about in water.

112-113. Madhukarikā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the first two and the final one long, is Madhukarikā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This priyaka creeper with its beautiful ornaments, has flowered in a season which inspires passion.

114-115. Subhadrā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the second, the fourth, the penultimate and the last one long, is Subhadrā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The rutting elephant comes out without its female to the forest which has been blighted by frost and which has no mud-water in it.

116-117. Kusumavatī—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the last two long and the rest short, is Kusumavatī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The elephant with its female companion, is moving about in the mountain groves which are soaked in water.

118-119. Muditā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the second, the third and the last two long, is called Muditā.

Ex. (See text)

Tr. A great canopy of clouds, fastened with the chain of cranes and roaring very terribly, has been fixed in the sky.

120-121. Prakāśitā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the fourth, the sixth and the final one long, is called Prakāśitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. A pleasant wind which carries the fragrance of flowers and is laden with particles of water, is blowing to excite love.

122-123. Dīptā—A metre which in its feet of seven syllables has the first the fifth short and the rest long, is Dīptā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In the winter the wind carrying the fragrance of flowers, blows exciting love and creating terror in me.[23]

124-125. Vilambitā—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the second, the fourth and the last two long, is Vilambitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The drying-up and [almost] waterless rivers from which birds have been scattered and the cakrkvākas are going away, do not shine.

126-127. Cañcalagati—The metre which has in its feet of seven syllables the first, the fifth and the last one long, is Cañcalagati.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The full moon free from the stain of clouds and coming out of white clouds, shines in the courtyard of the sky.

128. These are metres to be applied in the Prāsādikī Dhruvās. I shall now speak of those in the Anuṣṭubh class.

129-130. Vimalajalā—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables the third and the last ones long, is Vimalajalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. A bird is roaming about in the wide expanse of clear water where white lotuses are smiling and the bees are humming.

131-132. Lalitagatī—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables the fifth and the last one long, is Lalitagatī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This bride of the swan, is roaming about in the park of the pleasure resort which is perfumed with the smell of flowers and therefore excites passion.

133-134. Mahī—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables sixth and eighth long, is Mahī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The female swan with her male companion is roaming about in the lotus-lake which is adorned with many flowers.

135-136. Madhukarā—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables first six short and the rest long, is Madhukarā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In the autumn, the wind which passes over many forests, and is sweet-smelling on account of the [full-blown] lotuses, is blowing to awaken the kumuda flowers.

137-138. Nalinī—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables the fifth and the final long ones, is Nalinī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The female stork which dwells in the lotus-lake is moving to her dearest one’s abode on the beach of the river.

139-L40. Nadī—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables the first and the final one long, is Nadī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The female bee is roaming about in the forest where the swans are in great number and which is resounded by the noise of storks and where the bees are intoxicated [with sucking honey].

141. These are the Prāveśikī Dhruvās of the Anuṣṭubh class, and now listen about the Apakṛṣṭā ones which are to be applied in case of women of the best and the middling class.

142-143. Rucirāntā—The metre of which has in feet of nine syllables the first, the fourth, and the last two long, is Rucirāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. On learning that the moon in the sky has lost her beauty on being eclipsed by Eāhu, the stars are weeping, as it were, in great grief, and are shedding tears in [the shape of] their rays.

144-145. Pramitā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables, the third, the fifth and the last three long, is Pramitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The lightless moon thrown in amongst the clouds and obscured in her beauty due to rays of the morning sun, is not shining while she is moving in the expanse of the sky.

146-147. Gataviśokā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables the sixth and the final long is Gataviśokā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The moon which has her body covered with the canopy of the clouds and which has been robbed of beauty by the rays of the sun and which has become colourless due to the advent of the morning, is no longer chasing the darkness with her [very bright] smile.

148-149. Viślokā-jāti—The metre which in its feet of twelve syllables the first two, the fourth, the eighth and the tenth and the last one long is Viślokā-jāti.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. (The example is corrupt.)

150-151. Lalitā—The metre which in its feet of twelve syllables, the first, fourth, the eighth, the tenth and the last one long, is Lalitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The big elephant in rut with its restless head and with its feet in chains in its eagerness to follow other elephants, has become thin, and is looking to the beautiful forest which is being shaken by happy wind.

152. Vilambitā—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the eleventh and the last one long, is Vilambitā.

153. Tr. The moon rising in the evening amidst the forests which have turned black on account of the coming darkness, does not shine well, because she has thereby shortened her light and dimmed it.

154. These are the classes of metres in Dhruvās of the Prāveśīkī Sthitā class. I shall now describe those of the Ākṣepikī Apakṛṣtā class.

155. Metres of the Supratiṣṭhā class, are to be applied in the Apakṛṣṭā [Dhruvās.]

156. The arrangement of syllables and Yatis and the Pāṇis x x x[24]. It is the Apakṛṣṭā.

157. The Apakṛṣṭā should have Sthāyī Varṇas, Sthita Laya, [proper number of] syllables in its different Kalās (?) and the Sama Pāṇi and Samā Yati.

158. Syllables in the Kalās and Antara Kalās of the Apakṛṣtā Dhruvās should be according to the rules of the Vṛtta metres.

159. The Apakṛṣṭā Dhruvā should always consist of a short Vastu and Pada, and of the Prāveśīkī Dhruvā [the Vastu should be] shortened, because of its taking up Karaṇāṅga.

160. These are to be known as the metres of Vṛtta class for the Apakṛṣṭā Dhruvās. I shall now speak of metres of the Drutā Dhruvās.

161. In its beginning there should be the Toṭaka[25], and the rest should be in short syllables, or the rest may have short syllables in alternate positions.[26]

162. This Dhruvā will have metres of, the Jagatī and of the Atidhṛti classes of different type.

163-164. Vikrānta—The metre which has in its feet of twelves syllables the first nine and the last long, is Vikrāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This cloud looking like smoke, is roaring, and with its lighting is, as it were, piercing the earth, and like a terrible elephant, it is pouring quickly masses of water to cover the entire world.

165-160. Vidyun-mālā—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables the first eight and the final long, is Vidyun-mālā.

(The example is corrupt)

167-168. Bhūtala-tanvī Skhalita-gati—The metre which has in its feet of fourteen, syllables the first five, the eighth, the ninth and the last long, is Bhūtala-tanvi Skhalita-gati.

Ex. i (See text.)

Tr. The lovely crescent moon free from clouds and possessing bright rays, shines above with its attractive body, and it has been thrown up, as it were, by Śiva (lit. the carrier of Gaṅgā) for sport, and thus in the month of Jaiṣṭha under the asterism Mūlā, it rises and dwells in the sky with a larger (?) body.

Ex. ii (See text.)

Tr. Among the stars the moon free from clouds, has bright rays, and looks silver-like, and spreading the beauty of light it moves sportfully in the sky.

169-170. Vibhramā—The metre which has in its feet of fourteen syllables the ninth, the twelfth, the thirteenth and the last long, is Vibhramā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O beautiful lady, the moon which is the friend of full-blown kumuda flowers, and is ever shining and is near the silver mountain, and is your heart’s delight, is rising up in the sky where the dense darkness being gone, bright stars have appeared,

171-172. Bhūtala-tanvī—The metre which has in its feet of fifteen syllables the first, the fourth the fifth, the sixth, the ninth, the tenth and the last long, is Bhūtala-tanvī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The strongly blowing wind, shaking the tree-tops with constant rustle, moving about at the foot of the mountain and raising up dusts red and brown, is running along like one very angry.

173. Sukumārā—The metre which has in the feet of sixteen syllables the first, the fourth, the seventh the tenth and the last long, is Sukumārā.

174. Ex. (The passage is fragmentary).

175. Skhalita-vibhramā—The metre which has in its feet of sixteen syllables the third, the fourth, the seventh, the eighth, the ninth, the twelfth, the thirteenth, and the last long, is Skhalita-vibhramā.

177. Ex. (The passage is corrupt).

178. Rucira-mukhī—The metre which has in its feet of seventeen syllables the fifth, the eighth, the eleventh, the twelfth and the last long, is Rucira-mukhī.

179. Ex. (The passage is corrupt).

180-181. Druta-capalā—The metre of which has in its feet of eighteen syllables the fifth, the eighth, the thirteenth and the last long, is Druta-capalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The water of the lake in which the lotuses have been turned down by wind, and to which the petals [of those lotuses] have given sweet smell, and in which the moving waves have broken the kumuda flowers, is sending forth a call, as it were, by the cries of birds which have been agitated.

182-183. Kanaka-latā—The metre which has in its feet of nineteen syllables the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the last long, is Kanaka-latā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. 0 fair one, the beautiful moon of silver colour, surrounded by the bright planets, and free from the scattered clouds, dispelling darkness by its cluster of rays, is moving about like Balarāma (lit. the plough-bearer) in the autumn sky.

184-185. Mukha-capalā—The metre which has in its feet [of nineteen syllables] the fifth, the twelfth and the last syllables long, is Mukha-capalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Look at the sky where moves the young heavenly damsel (=lightning) who changes her face quickly and has made it beautiful by her passion.

186. These eight are the principal classes of metre for Dhruvās. From these have come out the metres of even and of odd number of syllables (in the feet), and metre of these two kinds mixed up.

187. These are the classes of metre for Dhruvās of the Drutā types, and they relate to the comparison of gods and kings.

188. Kṣiptakā—The metre which has in its feet [of seventeen syllables] the third, the fifth, the eighth, the eleventh, the seventeenth long, is Kṣiptakā.[27]

189. (This passage is corrupt.)

190. These classes of metres are Dvipadā Tryasrā. I shall speak hereafter about those which are Dvipadā Caturasra.

191-192. Mālā—The metre which has in its feet of sixteen syllables all long, is Mālā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The clouds covering the earth, roaring loudly, giving fourth lightning and pouring water, are up [in the sky].

193-194. Prabhāvatī—(The definition of the metre and its example are both corrupt.)

196-196. Citrā—(The definition is corrupt).

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Excited on hearing the roaring of clouds the elephant surrounded by its female companions, is rushing through the forest and is smashing the trees.

197-198. Mālakitā—(The definition of this metre is corrupt).

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The forest which has been maddened by the song of cuckoos, is dancing, as its were, on being shaken by the wind of the early winter.

199-200. (The definition of this metre and its example are corrupt).

201. These are the Caturāsra classes of metre for the Vilambitā Dhruvās I shall now speak of the classes of metre for the Drutā Dhruvās.

202-203. Manojña-gamanā—(The definition of this metre is corrupt).

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In the autumn, the female swan is bathing in the water of the sweet-smelling lotus-lake, and is sporting with her beloved before her.

204-205. Lalita-gati—The metre which has in its two feet of twenty-three syllables, five sa-s followed by one ja, and the last syllable long and the rest short, is called Lalita-gati.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. (The example is corrupt).

206. Rati—The metre which has in its feet, the sixth, the tenth, the thirteenth, the sixteenth and the last long, is Rati.

207. (The example is corrupt).

208-209. Bhujaga-mukhī—(The definition is corrupt).

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O friend, this sweet-smelling wind which has come along with clouds, and has been made restless by the god of love, creates passion, kills sleep and is [therefore] helpful to women.

210-211. Druta-padagā—(The definition is corrupt).

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The humming of the bees declares, as it were, that the lotus-lake which has just now opened beautifully its lotus-face, is shining while it is surrounded by lovers of lotuses.

212. These are the Caturāsra classes of metres prescribed for Drutā Dhruvās. I shall now speak of metres for the Uddhatā Dhruvās.

213-214. Kanaka-latākṣiptā—The metre which in its feet of nine syllables, has the first two, and the last three long, is Kanaka-latākṣiptā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O friend, I see in the sky a terribly big cloud which is roaring and is drenching the earth with a new shower of water.

215. Surucira-citrā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables the first two and the last three long, is Surucira-citrā.

216. (The example is corrupt).

217-218. Śaśi-rekhā—The metre which has in its feet of nine syllables the fifth and the last long, is Śaśi-rekhā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The cluster of clouds driven by strong wind, moves about like mountain-elephants, and roars like the agitated sea.

219-220. Śalabha-vicalitā—The metre which has in its feet of nine syllables, the sixth and the final [two] long, is Śalabha-vicalitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The night which has the rays of the moon as the necklace, the stars as the head-ornaments and the planets as the ornaments of other limbs, looks beautiful (lit. shines) like a youthful lady.

221-222. Maṇigaṇa-nikara-kṛtā—The metre which has in its feet of nine syllables, the first eight short, is Maṇigaṇa-nikara-kṛta.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The night with stars as her flower [ornaments] and planets as the tilakā[28] marks on her face, is going to the moon.[29]

223-224. Siṃhākrāntā—The metre which has in its feet of nine syllables, the first four and the last long, is Siṃhākrāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This cloud with its wealth of waters, and glimmer of lightning, is moving on, shaking the surface of the earth as well as the dome of the sky.

225. These are the metres of the Bṛhatī class, suitable for the Prāveśikī (entering) Dhruvās. I shall speak hereafter about the metres of the Paṅkti class.

226-227. Sura-dayitā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the first, the fourth, and last long, is Sura-dayitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The young couple of swans which are as white as kunda flowers and the moon, is moving about in the clear water of the lotus-lake, and the cranes are following them.

228-229. Kusuma-samuditā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the first three and the last long, is Kusuma-samuditā or Kumudinī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair lady, now has come the joyous evening of the spring which is full of sweet-smelling flowers, and which causes emaciation of one who is separated from the lover.

230-231. Vṛtta (?)—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the first, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh and the last long, is Vṛtta.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here the elephant on hearing the peals of thunder arising in the sky, is burning in anger and is moving about [restlessly] in the forest.

232-233. Kṛtoddhatā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the first three, the sixth, the ninth and the last, is Kṛtoddhatā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The sky covered with rain-clouds, fringes of which are lighted up by the flash of lightning, is maddening the herd of elephants which being lashed by storm, are shivering [in cold].

234-235. Puṣpa-samṛddhā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables, the first four, the fifth, the sixth and the last long, is Puṣpa-samṛddhā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The elephant on seeing the masses of cloud which are [occasionally] brightened up with the flash of lightning, and against which the rows of cranes are flying, has become enraged and are running amidst the birch forest with great trumpeting.

236-237. Vipula-bhujā—The metre which has in its feet of ten syllables the fifth, the eighth and the ninth and the last long, is Vipula-bhujā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The elephant which is restless due to the flow of ichor, has become perturbed on hearing the peal of thunder, and is rushing in anger to the forest, and is moving on with violently proud steps.

238. These are in brief the metres of [the Paṅkti class]. I shall now speak of those of the Triṣṭubh class.

239-240. Capalā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the first two, and the last long, is Capalā.

Ex. (See text)

Tr. Here have appeared in the sky, terrible clouds which are like mountains, which make sounds like drums and which look like [large] birds of blue and black colour.

241-242. Rucira-mukhī[30]—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the two middle ones (the fifth and the sixth) and the last long, is Rucira-mukhī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The moon which is a friend of the stars and is the lover of kumuda flowers, is shaking (?) the path of rays, and is ascending the eastern mountain, before appearing in the sky.

243-244. Drutapāda-gati—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the fifth, the eighth and the last long, is Drutapāda-gati.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here appears in the sky the moon which is adorned with thousands of rays and which is going to traverse the path of heavens, after pushing aside the screen of clouds.[31]

245-246. Ati-capalā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the two middle ones the fifth and the sixth) and the last long, is Ati-caplā.

Ex. (See text)

Tr. Here in the early autumn when there open many flowers, the wind perfumed with their smell, is making the trees dance, and is roving about among the lotus flowers of the pleasure-garden.

247-248. Vimalā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the third, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh and the last long, is Yimalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The elephant in rut, is moving about in the clear water of the lake which is full of lotus plants and which is strewn with flowers, and bees also are buzzing about the flowers in the lake where the [aquatic] birds are enjoying themselves.

249-250. Rucirā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the fourth, the fifth, the penultimate and the last long, is Rucirā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The wind which is moving the canopy of clouds, is shaking the host of kumuda flowers, and is scattering the masses of water, is blowing on quickly like one who is angry.

251-252. Laghu-gati Ati-capalā—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables, the last one long, is Laghu-gati Aticapalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This sun of unparallelled brightness which is the crown of the eastern mountain, and is adored by Brahmins and the Munis is moving about in the sky.

253-254. Mada-kalitā—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables the fifth, and the last two long, is Mada-kalitā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This is the moon which is like the silver mountain and is as bright as a mass of crystal, and is ascending the dome of the sky, has graced the new autumn.

255-256. These are the Triṣṭubh metres. Now listen about those of the Jagatī class.[32]

Kamala-locanā—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables, the ninth and the last long, is Kamala-locanā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here arises in the sky the sun the lamp of the world. He is clad with myriads of rays, and his warmth is adored by the Brahmins and the Munis.

257-258. Apara-vaktra—The metre which has in its feet [of eleven syllables] the seventh, the ninth and the final long, is Apara-vaktra.[33]

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This great cloud moving about near the mountain side, is shaking the earth with a peal of thunder and is coming down quickly with cleverly made music.

259. These are the metres to be used in the Entering Dhruvās of the quick (drutā,) variety. I shall now speak about the Vardhamānā metres[34].

260. Definition of all these beginning with Pratiṣṭhā metre have been given before regularly with a description of their feet.

261. Pratiṣṭhā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. On hearing the clap of thunder in the early autumn, the big elephant has become angry.

262. Supratiṣṭhā

Ex (See text.)

Tr. The starless sky having been beaten by wind with whips of lightning, is weeping incessantly.

263. Gāyatrī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This sky in which the luminaries have been covered, and the sun has been obscured, weeps as it were, after being perturbed by peals of thunder.

264. Uṣṇik.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The swan surrounded by its female companions, is roaming about in the pleasure-garden where trees in flower are being shaken by fragrant wind.

265. These are the Vardhamānā metres of the Tryasra kind. I shall now describe those of the Caturasra kind. Listen about them.

266. Anuṣṭubh.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here arises in the sky after throwing aside the curtain of clouds, the moon which is the illuminator of the night, the friend of the stars, and is adorned with myriads of rays.

267. Bṛhatī. Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The bird-couple which is accustomed to roam about in the very fragrant forest, is flying about in the garden of Sumeru where the gods and the Siddhas sing their songs.

268. Paṅkti.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair one, the forest-wind which has been perfumed by the ichor of elephants, is blowing on to shake the tree-tops, and to make the garden-trees dance.

269. Triṣṭubh.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here rises in the sky the moon of clear rays. It adorns the kumuda flowers, throws aside the the curtain of clouds and climbs the eastern mountain.

270. Jagatī.

Ex. (See text)

Tr. This sun whose body is as brilliant as molten gold, and which is praised by Brahmins and Munis, is quickly ascending the dome of the sky and will be roaming there very soon.

271. These are the metres of the Caturasra-vivardhitā class. I shall speak below of metres on the basis of mora.

272-273. The final foot of Supratiṣṭhā metres, is to consist of two gaṇas and a half, while their four feet will contain only six gaṇas. Similarly the Apakṛṣtā [Dhruvās] should have the final foot consisting of two gaṇas and a half, and [the entire song] should consist of ten gaṇas.

274. In case of the Aḍḍitā [Dhruvā] the final foot will consist of three gaṇas and a half, while the entire song will consist of fourteen gaṇas.

275. The Dvipadas of the Tryasra class should have its final foot consisting of six gaṇas and half while the entire the song should have eleven gaṇas.

276. The [final] foot of the Caturasra Dvipadas should consist of eight gaṇas and a half, while the entire song should consist of fifteen gaṇas.

277. In the first feet of the Caturasras the gaṇas containing one long and one short, should be not less than two, and more than nine.

278. In the Tryrasra such gaṇas should not be less than five and more than nine, and in the Caturasra such gaṇas should not be less than seven and more than ten.

279. Gaṇas if they consist of heavy syllables, should be in Caturasra not less than five, and more than nine if they are all short. Or they may be not less than seven if they are all long, and more than thirteen if they are all short.

280. These are the accounts of the total number of syllables in case of all Dhruvās. I shall now speak of the different parts of the Dvipada and number of gaṇas they are to contain.

281. In the Tryasra Dhruvās, the first foot will consist of eleven and the final foot of twenty-one gaṇas which are made up of a long syllable followed by a short one.

282. In the Caturasra Dhruvās the first foot will consist of sixteen and the last foot of twenty gaṇas made up of a long syllable followed by a short one.

283. Śīrṣakas have no rule of their feet. They are to consist of two long syllables in the beginning, the middle and the end, followed by a short syllable.

284. In the Tryasra Dhruvās the Sannipāta should be of five gaṇas [in length], and in the Caturasra Dhruvā the Sannipāta should be of eight gaṇas.

285. The two pādas are the Sannipāta of the Dhruvās. They are Druta and Śīrṣaka, and besides these there are other two.

286. Gaṇas in the Tryasra are not less than five and more than nine, and in the Tryasra they are not less than eight and more than eighteen.

287. Gaṇas if they consist of long syllable should be in the Caturasra Dhruvā not less than five and more than nine, if they are all short. Or they may consist of not less than eight and more than thirteen.

288. These are the gaṇas to be known by the expert in Dhruvās. I shall now speak of the distribution of gaṇas and mātrās in the Drutā Dhruvās.

289. The Sannipāta of the Drutā Dhruvās is to consist of six gaṇas and a half, and these are to be made up of twenty-two mātrās in long and short syllables.

290. In the Śīrṣakas these should be rules regarding their pādas, and they are to be made up of different metres.

291. In them there should be gaṇas beginning with long syllables or with short syllables or having all short syllables, and they will vary from the precious metre (?).

292. The Śīrṣaka will have pādas consisting of seven gaṇas and a half, and they will include their mātrās in pādas of even or odd number of syllables.

293. In the Śīrṣaka there should be not less than twenty-one and more than twenty-six syllables in each foot.

294. In the four feet there should be even and odd number of syllables mixed up, and according to rule there should be collection of short syllables in the Śīrṣaka.

295. If there are three short gaṇas in the beginning, three such in the end, and two long gaṇas in the middle, then the Capalā will be called Śīrṣaka.

296. In the first half there should always be four short and four mixed gaṇas, and the rest will be collection of short syllables.

297. Pauses (virāma) of the Dhruvās to be made by the Prāsādikī, Antarā and Ākṣepikī Dhruvās should have duration of one, two, three, four, six or eight Kalās.

298. The Pause in the Tryasra Dhruvā will be of three Kalās, and in the Caturasra it will be of four Kalās. This is the rule in the Prāveśīkī as well as the Naiṣkrāmikī Dhruvās.

299. The Pause in the Antarā Dhruvā is of two Kaläs duration, and the Pause in the Antarā is at the end of a pāda.

300. In the Sthitā and the Prāsādikī Dhruvās the pause will be at the end of half of the pāda, and the Kalās will be as described above increased by half a Kalā, and they will consist of short and long syllables.

301. The Sthitā Dhruvā should have mostly long syllables, and the Drutā Dhruvā mostly short syllables and the Prāsādikī and the Antarā Dhruvās an admixture of short and long syllables [in equal measure].

302. Thus should be made metres of the Dhruvās originating in the Vṛtta class. I shall next speak of definition of the various Śīrṣakas.

304-305. Śyenī—The metre which in its feet of twenty-one syllables, the first, the third, the fifth, the seventh, the eighth and the last long, is Śyenī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair one, this pleasant wind moving on swiftly like a chariot, in shaking the sea, striking the king of mountain, creating a unique terror amongst the trees, and raising dust to soften the sharp rays of the sun, is moving on, exciting the passion in men.

308-307. Krauñcā—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-two syllables, the first five, the eighth, the ninth, and the last long, is Krauñcā recited by Brahmins and Munis.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair one, this clean-bodied moon has become the illuminator and the joy of the world after tossing the darkest screen of black clouds, and is moving about in the sky with stars and planets following it, and is covering the palaces with great white sheets, and is gladdening the worlds far and near.

308-309. Puṣpa-samṛddhā - The metre which has in its feet of twenty-three syllables, the first six, the ninth, the tenth and the last long, is Puṣpa-samṛddhā recited by the Brahmins and the Munis.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair one, the forest wind is moving on violently and with great noise among the trees at the foot of the mountain, and is driving away the clouds, raising a canopy of flowers, scattering lotus-petals and is giving rise to a murmuring sound in the water of lakes.

310-311. Sambhrāntā—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-four syllables, the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, the tenth and the last long, is Sambhrāntā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. In the early autumn, there rises in the sky the moon who is the lover of Rohiṇī[35], and the brother of planets. It illumines the world, and is as white as a mass of kumuda flowers, and has a lovely white lustre like that of crystal gems, and is followed by stars and other luminaries, and is scattering its thousands of rays and is waking up the kumuda flowers whose friend it is.

312-313. Mattākrīḍā-Vidyun-mālā—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-three syllables, the first eight, and the last long, is Mattākrīḍā-Vidyun-mālā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This rain-cloud being like [a mass of] collyrium is making sounds like thunder, Murajas and shrill Paṭahas, and being lighted up by many a flash of lightning, followed by [other] clouds, and wearing a heap of lovely flowers of various colours as its tāṭaṅka, it is moving about like a mobile mountain.

313-316. Skhalita—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-four syllables, the first, the fourth, the seventh, the tenth, the eleventh and the last long, is Skhalita.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The sea on which the wind has raised ripples and waves, which has its water as bright as crystal gems, has become very noisy due to the succession of waves, has its birds scared by swiftly blowing wind, has more waves due to perturbed fishes, has the sound of agitated clouds, suddenly appears now to be angry at the moment on being surrounded by high mountains.

317-318. Capalā—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-five syllables, the fifth, the eight, the eleventh, the twelfth and the last long, is Capalā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. O fair lady, the sun with the body as bright as highly heated gold, after removing the very dark screen of heavens, is rising to wake up the masses of lotus flowers and to give joy to the world with its myriads of rays, and the Yatis and Munis are singing its praise, and the Munis and thousands of other worshippers are augmenting its rays [by their sacrificial offerings].

319-320. Vegavatī—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-six syllables the fifth, the twelfth, the thirteenth and the last long, is Vegavatī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. Here appears the light of the world (the moon) with rays as white as masses of kumuda flowers, ascending the dome of the sky with all the stars and planets in its train. And its body is comparable to a silver mountain, and it spreads a coverlet of its rays [all over the world] and looks as white as the face of Balarāma (lit. the carrier of plough), and is a friend of young women and causes intoxication to all.

321. These eight are the metres for the Śīrṣakas. Now listen about that of the Natkuṭas.

322. Eight are the basic metres for the Natkuṭas. Listen now about their definitions and examples.

323. They are Rathoddhatā, Budbuda(ka), Udgatā, Vaṃśa-patraka[36], Pramitākṣarā, Ketumatī, Haṃsāsya and Toṭaka.

324-325. Rathoddhatā—The metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the first, the third, the seventh and the last long, is Rathoddhatā.

Ex. (See text.)

TV. The female bee having her [temporary] abode in the interior of the lotus, has her feet beautifully coloured with flower-pollen, and she is now flying over the lake with an affectionate humming in quest of [her mate].

326-327. Budbuda—The metre which has in its feet of thirteen syllables, the third, the tenth, the eleventh and the last long, is Budbuda.

Ex. (It is very corrupt).

328-330. Udgatā—The metre which has in its feet of sixteen syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the twelfth, the fourteenth and the last long, is Udgatā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. At the approach of autumn, this lake the abode of full-blown lotuses and of cabling geese (kala - haṃsa) becomes like the sea polluted by herds of big elephants, and it is now softly giving rise to constant sounds, in harmony with the humming of bees [flying over its flowers].

331-332. Vaṃśa-patra-patita—The metre which has in its feet of seventeen syllables, the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, and the last long, is Yaṃśa-patra-patita.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. This cuckoo which has always a voice sweet to ears, is roaming about in the vernal forest where the Cūta (mango), Tilaka, Kuruvaka and Aśoka trees have flowered and attracted humming bees, is creating intoxication in young damsels.

333-335. Pramitākṣarā—The metre which has in its feet of twelve syllables, the third, the fifth, the ninth and the last long, is Pramitākṣarā.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The young swan roaming for a long time with his young consort and drinking āsava (honey) from her mouth, is now in the autumn, swimming in the lotus-lake redolent with the smell of flowers.

O fair one, the bee after roaming for a long time in the lotus-lake, is now flying through the sweet smelling Cūta forest adorned by spring, and it has a desire for tasting the āsava (honey) from of the mouth of its female companion.

336-337. Ketumatī—The metre which has in its first foot fourteen mātrās, and in each of the remaining feet sixteen mātrās, is Ketumatī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. When the young elephant after smashing the [forest]-bower went to the lake where lotuses have blown, the young bee with its female companions left the lotuses to roam about [elsewhere].

338-339. Dhvajinī—The metre which has in in its first (three) feet of ten syllables, the fifth, and the last long, and in the last foot of ten syllables, the fourth and the sixth syllables long, is Dhvajinī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The female bee tempted by flowers, is sporting among the lotuses, and after swiftly drinking honey she is becoming restless [for joy].

340-341. Haṃsāya—The metre which has in its feet of twelve syllables, the second, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth and the last long, is Haṃsāsya.[37]

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The sweet-smelling wind blowing over the beautiful lake with its waves and full-blown lotuses, is tempting bees as well as birds.

342-344. Haṃsāsya—The metre which has in its feet of twelve syllables the third, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh, the tenth and the last long, is Haṃsāsya.[38] It belongs to the Natkuṭa class of Dhruvās.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. A swarm of bees after constant flying in quest of honey of flowers, over the lotus-lake where swans and other birds have come, is now moving among the lotus-leaves.

345-346. Toṭaka—The metre which has in its feet of twelve syllables the third, the sixth, the the ninth, and the last long, is Toṭaka.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. At the close of night the terrible owl which had a fearful hooting, has behind it [a group of] chasing crows, and it is [now] hastily searching after its own hollow [of the tree].

347-348. These in brief are metres for the Natkuṭa [Dhruvās]. I shall now speak of the metres for the Khañjaka [Dhruvās]. Prameda, Khañjaka and Matta-ceṣṭita are the three metres for the Khañjaka [Dhruvās].

349-350. Pramoda—The metre which has in its feet of twenty-two feet, the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, the sixth and the last long, is Pramoda.

Ex. (Very corrupt.)

351-352. Bhāvinī—The metre which has in its feet of nine syllables the first, the third, the fifth and the seventh and the last long, is Bhāvinī.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The bee coming out from the flowers smeared with a beautiful clay, is swiftly running about shaking its wings [to cleanse them].

353-354. Matta-ceṣṭita—The metre which has in its feet of eight syllables the first, the third, the fifth, and the seventh short, is Matta-ceṣṭita.

Ex. (See text.)

Tr. The cuckoo comes to the forest where other birds have [already] come to adorn it and where the trees are in flowers and the bees are singing.

355. These are the primary (lit. original) classes of the Natkuṭa, and from these come out others having even or odd [number of syllables in their feet or having feet of] unequal [number of syllables].[39]

356. Dhruvās have sixty-four primary classes some of which are made up of equal number of syllables [in then-feet] and different from this [are made up of] unequal [number of syllables].

357. Dhruvās of three kinds having even or odd number of syllables or having even and odd or unequal [number of syllables in their feet] may be of various metres.

358. Dhruvās having even [number of syllables in their] metrical feet are two hundred and eighty five in number, and those having partially even number are one hundred and ten, and similar is the number of Dhruvās which are having uneven [number of syllables in their feet.]

359. Dhruvās of unequal length in feet or with unequal number of feet, are [also] generally made, and the names to these metres may be given according to one’s will[40].

Five Aspects of Dhruvās

360. These are the classes [of Dhruvās] arising out of various metres. I shall now speak of their [different] aspects due to five causes.

361. These five causes are: Class (Jāti), Occasion (sthāna), Variety (prakāra), Measure (pramāna) and Name (nāma).

362. The number of syllables in the metre of a Dhruvā constitute its Class (Jāti).[41]

Such numbers being odd or even, will give rise to its Variety (prakāra).

363-364. The Tāla of six or eight Kalās observed in Dhruvās will constitute their Measure (pramāṇa),[42] and just as Names are applied to men according to their clan (gotra) family (kula) and customs (ācāra), so they are applied to Dhruvās according to their depending on an Occasions (sthāna).

Five occasions for Dhruvās

364. Occasions in connexion with. Dhruvās are five, viz. entrance (praveśa), diversion (ākṣepa), departure (niṣkrāma) calming (prāsādana) and transition (antara).[43]

365. Themes of various Sentiment sung at the entrance of persons [into the stage] are called the Prāveśīkī Dhruvā.

366. When in a [dramatic] performance at the end of Acts songs are sing at the exit of characters to indicate their going out, they are Naiṣkāmikī Dhruvās.

367. When the experts, in disregard of the rules, have a Dhruvā of medium or of slow tempo sung in a quick tempo, it is called the Antarā Dhruvā.

368. The song which after [sudden] distraction calms the audience (lit. auditorium) who are enjoying a different Sentiment, is called a Prāsādikī Dhruvā because it calms (prasādayati) their feeling.

369-370. The Antarā Dhruvās are those songs which are sung at the time of the [principal] characters being gloomy, absent-minded, angry, asleep, intoxicated, or their enjoying other’s company, being under heavy weight, or being in a swoon, or their fainting due to poisoning, or being in error, or their adjusting or fixing up clothes and ornaments, and in covering any of their faults [in acting],

371. I shall now speak about the Occasions (sthāna) together with the Sentiments and States where all the Dhruvās are to be sung carefully.

372. The Occasions are of two kinds, viz., relating to others and relating to one’s own-self. Listen now from me about that [Occasion] which is connected with diversion (ākṣepa).

373. When one is captured, obstructed, fallen, attacked with illness, or is dead or in a swoon, there the Apakṛṣṭā Dhruvā in the Pathetic Sentiment should be sung.

374. Where one is in [a state of] impatience, dissimulation, anxiety, lamentation, weariness, depression and dispair, a Dhruvā in a slow tempo should be sung.

375. In these States and in pathetic reports the Dhruvā should be sung in a quick tempo furnished with a rapid movement.

376. Where there is any sorrow from seeing before one’s own eyes any one killed or wounded, the Dhruvās there should be in a slow tempo and in the Pathetic Sentiment.

377-378. In case of seeing any calamity, of intolerance, seeing anything supernatural, being in despair, in carelessness and in anger, and in showing one’s spirit, and in a direct report of anything in Furious, Heroic, Terrible and such other Sentiments, and in agitation and in hurry, the Dhruvā should be sung in a quick tempo.

379-380. In propitiating, requesting or recollecting any one or in an exggerated speech or in meeting [of lovers] for the first time, in joy, in begging or in seeing anything strange in connection with love-making the Dhruvā should be of the Prāsādikī class and in a medium tempo.

381. In physical distress and in anger and in aiming a missile [against any one] the Antarā Dhruvā should be made continuous.

382. No Dhruvā should be sung when there is any entry of weeping or singing persons, and when there is any hurry in their coming or when they announce anything, or any calamity or surprise occurs [at the time].

383. Dhruvās should be thus applied after taking into consideration the rule regarding themes, places, times and seasons [involved], the characters [in the play] and indication of the States.

384. Dhruvās are of six kinds, viz. Śīrṣaka, Uddhatā, Anubandha, Vilambitā, Aḍḍitā and Apakṛṣṭā.

385. A Dhruvā which is at the position of śīrṣa (head) is called the Śīrṣaka.

A Dhruvā is called Uddhatā because it is sung in an uddhata (elevated) manner.

386. A Dhruvā which is begun in a playlike (?) manner and which adopts a tempo meant for it, is called Anubandha.

387. The Vilambitā Dhruvā is that which according to the dramatic convention, moves always slowly or not very quickly.

388. When a Dhruvā arises in connexion with the Erotic Sentiment and has some extraordinary quality, it is pleasant and is called Aḍḍitā.

389. A Dhruvā which for the reason of its being sung (lit. drawn up) in other States (?) for reasons [other than that with which it began] is called the Apakṛṣṭā.

390. The Excited Prāveśikī Dhruvā, when the movement has been arrested (?) or delayed, should be applied in case of male characters.

391. The Pāsādikī Dhruvā in case of females will be [of] the Aḍḍitā [class], and when it is in a slow tempo it will be Apakṛṣṭā and that which is not Drutā will be Vilambita.

392. As tempo, instrumental music, pause, words, letters and syllables accompany a song, these six are called its entering aspects.

393. Śīrṣaka and Aḍḍitā belong to kings and gods. Aḍḍitā is to be applied in case of women of divine, royal and Vaiyśa origin.

394. At the entrance of middling characters the Dhruvā should be of the Druta-Vilambita [class], and in case of inferior characters it should be of the Natkuṭā and Khañjaka [classes].

395. The Khañjaka and Natkuṭa will be for bringing joy to the occasion. Why is it so? Because these two belong to Comic and Erotic Sentiments.

396. In case of inferior characters and of any one dead, there should be Anubandha with [proper] tempo. In case of women of the Kṣatriya and Vaiśya classes there should be Apakrīṣṭā Dhruvā in proper tempo.

397. The Prāveśikī Dhruvā should have Tāla with four Sannipātas. The remaining ones are to have two Sannipātas, and the Śīrṣakas are to have six pādas.

398. Aḍḍitā with a slow tempo, is not to be sung in case of inferior characters. In their movements relating to all the States, one should sing the Natkuṭa Dhruvā.

399. These (the inferior characters) have only three States, viz. Comic, Pathetic and Terrible. One should apply Dhruvā to them with a view to this fact.

400. The wise should apply the Dhruvā after taking into consideration the theme (vastu), performance (prayoga), characters (prakṛti), in a play, Sentiments, States, seasons, age, locality, time and mental condition (apasthā),

401. The theme (vastu) arises from a locality, and may relate to a city or a forest. The performance (prayoga) relates to divine and human beings.

402. The characters in a play (prakṛti) are of three kinds, viz. superior, inferior and middling. Sentiments and States have already been described before. The season (ṛtu) occurs due to the flux of time.

403. Infancy, youth and old age are the three ages.

Locality relates to the Zonal and other divisions of various kinds.[44]

404. The time is fixed by day and night, and by months and seasons. The [mental] condition relates to joy and sorrow.

405. These are always the features in different situations. The wise should apply all these [in a play] after taking the Sentiments and the States into consideration.

406. Those things which cannot be expressed in speech should be presented in a song; for through songs only, the strength and ripeness comes to the meaning of words (vakyàrtha).

Contents of Dhruvās

407. Dhruvās in case of men and women of superior inferior or middling class, should relate to [objects] comparable to them in quality.

408. In case of gods and kings the comparable objects are the moon[45], fire, the sun[46] and the wind,[47] and in case of Daityas and Rākṣasas they are clouds,[48] mountains[49] and seas.[50]

409. In case of Siddhas, Gandharvas and Yakṣas, comparable objects are the planets, stars[51] and bulls, and for all these persons engaged in practice of austerities (tapas) comparable objects are the sun[52], fire and wind.[53]

410. For all Brahmins and and other persons engaged in austerities, the comparable object is fire, and for their wives the comparable object will be the same.

411. Lightning[54], meteor, and the sun’s rays are objects comparable to the heavenly beings, and objects comparable to gods, apply to the case of kings also.

412. Elephants[55], lions and bulls are not comparable to heavenly beings, and elephants, serpents and lions are to be compared with kings.

413. Mischievous beings like the Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and Bhūtas are comparable to the buffalo, ruru deer, lions and other carnivorous animals.

414. A rutting elephant[56] and a swan[57] are compared with superior characters in connection with various Sentiments.

415. Cranes[58] (sārasa), peacocks[59], krauñca, ruddy geese[60], and lakes with kumuda flowers, have quality [enough] to be compared with middling characters.[61]

416. The cuckoo[62], bee[63], crow, osprey[64], owl[65] and crane, pigion and kādamba are comparable to inferior characters.

417. Now listen about the objects comparable to wives of superior, inferior and middling characters.

418. The night[66], earth, moonlight, lotus-lake[67], female elephant, and the river have qualities enough to be compared with wives of kings.

419. A lake[68], osprey, creeper[69], female crane[70], pea-hen and female deer are always to be compared with wives of middling characters as well as with courtezans.[71]

420. A hen, bee, crow, cuckoo and owl of female species are to be mentioned in the Dhruvās connected with wives of inferior characters.

421. Comparison about going, and any other movement [should be indicated by] the Prāveśikî and Naiṣkrāmikī Dhruvā.

Dhruvās to suit time and occasion

422. The Prāveśikī Dhruvā is to be sung to indicate anything happening in the forenoon. And the Naiṣkrāmikī Dhruvā may serve [in general] for anything occurring throughout day and night.

423. Gentle Dhruvās are to be sung to indicate the forenoon, and excited (diptā) Dhruvās are to be sung to indicate the noon, whereas pathetic Dhruvās are to be sung in case of afternoon and evening.

424. Any report about going is to be expressed by the Prāveśikī Dhruvā, and that which relates to anything stationary is to be have recourse to the Ākṣepikī Dhruvā.

425. The Ākṣepikī Dhruvās are all to be sung in a quick as well as in a slow tempo. Thus will be these Dhruvās when they arise in connexion with anger and intolerance, and are in the Pathetic, Marvellous and Terrible Sentiments.

426. All objects existing in the earth in connexion with a dead body or with a god, are to be mentioned in the [Dhruvā] song with suitable comparison.

Dhruvās to indicate movements

427. Comparable objects in case of stationary things should be stationary, and in case of their moving they should be compared with moving objects, and their States due to jöy and sorrow should be related to qualities in their objects of comparison.

428. In case of chariots, horses, elephants, deer, birds, palanquins and aerial cars, the experts should make Dhruvās with a view to their movement and progress.

429-430. In case of chariots, arrows, horses, elephants, heavenly cars, swings and birds as vehicles, the expert should compose the Dhruvā with words and syllables which can be uttered quickly. In case of bulls, elephants, lions and bears, the Dhruvā should be made up of heavy syllables that can be uttered with force.

430-431. In case of crows, monkeys, swans, and peacocks, the Dhruvās should be made up of light syllables with swift movement, and of heavy syllables with their slowness.

This being the case one should apply swift [Dhruvās] after knowing the States [in their connexion].

Metres for Dhruvās

432-433. Words of a song cannot be without a metre. Hence after considering [contents of] the Dhruvā song, one should put it in a suitable metre.[72] Hence a Dhruvā to express the movement of a vehicle, should be made up of [suitable] syllables, so that the different limbs of the song may agree with the instrumental music.

434. The metre which is prescribed for the foot of a Dhruvā in connexion with the movement of a vehicle, should also be available in the instrumental music, and it should be also agreeing with the movement of all the limbs [of a song].

435. The song should be taken up first, then the instrumental music, and the dance will be taken up afterwards. A combination of song and instrumental music [with dance] is called a performance (prayoga).

436. The State which is in one’s heart, should be depicted by means of histrionic representation in all its limbs and with Sūcā of the Nivṛtyaṅkura[73] [class].

437. The Prāsādikī Dhruvā arising from the quality of giving joy, should be applied when there is a man in the sky and speaking to the sky.[74]

438-439. The Dhruvā in this case connected with speaking, should [completely] suit the meaning of its name, when the Dhruvā connected with pleasing or jealousy and anger, attains the Erotic Sentiment, it should be suited to the meaning [of it name].

And when there are occasions of pleasing, Dhruvās connected with the [different] Sentiments, should be made Prāsādikī to suit the meaning [of their names].

The Language of Dhruvās

440. The language in the application of Dhruvās should be Śūrasenī.[75] Sometimes it may be Māgadhī[76] when [the Dhruvās of] the Natkuṭa [class] are to be made by the wise.

441. Sanskrit songs[77] have been prescribed by the authorities in case of heavenly beings; and in case of human beings half-Sanskrit[78] [songs] should be used.

442. Listen about their treatment if the gods who have been made objects of comparison, makes entrance in a play in course of its action.

443. That which is their Sāttvika State and constitutes a narration of their deeds, should be expressed through a song according to the authoritative rules.

Metres of Dhruvās

444. Songs in case of heavenly beings are desired to be in metres of [suitable] measure (size). This should relate to their praise or a narration of their exploits. In the feet of Dhruvās one should describe that which relates to the qualities of comparison.

445. [In this connexion] the metres [like] Mālā, Vaktra, Puṭavṛtta Viślokā, Cūlikā, Udgatā and Aparavaktra should be used by the producers.

446-447. I have described their structure (lit. rules of metre) before.[79] In case of gods, these (i.e. Dhruvās) should include words expressing victory or blessing, and for them (i.e. gods), Ṛc, Gāthā and Pāṇikā, will be understood as their form (lit. measure). As these are pleasing to hear they should be put in tune (lit. applied in songs).

448. The Jātis including Gāndhāra, Ṣaḍja, Madhyama, Pañcama and Dhaivata should be reckoned as the [suitable] form of these songs.[80]

449. Their form to suit the four occasions should be such as Prāsādikī, Sthitā, Naiṣkrāmikī and Prāveśikī.

450. In the various acts of gods when there is no obstacle, Sanskrit should often be used in the Anuṣṭubh metre.

451. The metres like Mālā, Vaktra, and Aparavaktra are suited to Prāveśikī Dhruvā, and Puṭa and Culikā are meant for Naiṣkrāmikī Dhruvās.

452. Udgatā (metre) is applicable in the Prāsādikī Dhruvā and Anuṣṭubh in the Vilambitā Dhruvā. These occasions are to be expressed by one who is an expert in measures.

453-454. The song which is in the Anuṣṭubh metre, and is in a slow tempo, and relates to a fall due to curse, suffering from anxiety, and abounds in heavy syllables, notes of pathetic expression, and long-drawn-out Varṇas, should have the Sthita Sthāna.

455. For the excitement of human beings, and for their roaming [over different places], heavenly beings are to resort to songs in the Anuṣṭubh metre.

456. In relating the memory of those of heavenly beings who are born amongst mortals, one should resort to suitable songs expressing heavenly States.

457. And suitable songs relating to the sorrow of these very beings when these are meant to kill sorrow and anxiety, are to deal with a change due to afflicted conditions.

Dhruvās to suit occasions

458. Listen now what are generally to be done for the rule of Dhruvās occurring to their division of occasions.

459. When the instruments of music have been placed in order, and the three Sāmans have been uttered, one should apply the Āśrāvaṇā[81] included in the Bahirgītā.[82]

460. After performing the Bahirgīta one should perform the Pūrvaraṅga[83] and the Pūrvaraṅga having been undertaken one should perform the Raṅgadvāra.[84]

461. In connexion with the entrance of characters, one should sing the Dhruvā indicating movement and also the Parivarta.

462. By taking steps upon the stage while singing or due to [some other] need, one should make six Parivartas.[85]

463-464. The Dhruvā in this case should be made as in the case of gods, and the Pātas there, should be twenty-one in number. The Dhruvā in its application in drama should be of the Tryasra or of the Caturasra type. In case of the Tryasra the Pāda-pāta will consist of three Kalās, while in the Caturasra the Pāda-pāta will consist of four Kalās.

465-466. The Dhruvā in case of superior characters will be Caturasra and in case of the middling characters Tryasra type, and in case of the inferior characters it will be of the Khañja and the Natkuṭa class. This will be the rule about tunes in connexion with the movement of feet.

467. In case of hurry, calamity and anger it will consist of one Kalā or half of a Kalā. And the movement of feet will consist of three, two, one or of four Kalās.

468. At that time there should be a harmony of dance with the instrumental music and not with song. There should be no pause in Dhruvā of one or two Kalās in dance. So, there should be a harmony [of dance] with the instrument and not with the song

469. One should know the setting of feet in case of the State mentioned before, depending on the slow or the quick tempo, and should make harmony with the instrumental music.

470. The entrance after tossing the curtain, on account excessive joy, sorrow and anger, should be made simultaneous with the divisions (?).

The Rule of Graha

471. These are the rules about Parivarta[86] in a play. I shall now describe the Grahas[87] in connexion with the instruments.

472. The song should start its Parivarta without any [music of the] instrument, and in the fourth Parivarta there should be the Graha of the instrument.

473. Sometimes there should be Sannipāta Graha, sometimes Tarjanī Graha and sometimes Ākāśa Graha In the Dhruvā songs.[88]

474. As the Graha in the Dhruvā is regulated by Kalā, Tāla and tempo (laya), it should be observed in the movements and walks, by means of instruments.

475. In the Śīrṣaka of the Uddhata classes of Dhruvās, the Graha should be by the Pradeśinī, and in the Vilambitā Aḍḍitā Dhruvā, it should be by the Sannipāta and the third [finger].

476-477. In Natkuṭa, Aḍḍitā and Prāsādikī Dhruvās the Graha will be in Sannipāta and in Drutā (quick) Dhruvās the Graha will be from above,[89] and in Naiṣkrāmikī and Anubandha Dhruvās the Graha will be with the instruments. And for songs, there should not be made any repetition by the experts.

478. Natkuṭa Dhruvās should have four Grahas such Sannipāta, Śamyā, Tāla and Ākāśa.

479. In the entrance [of any character] with hurry, excitement and joy, there should be the Graha with the song, and such a Graha is called Udghātya.

480. In case of falling of ornaments, clothes or of any disorder, any loss of memory, fatigue, and in the [general] covering of faults, there should be the Udghātya Graha of the Antarā [Dhruvā].

Application of songs

481. Producers should in this manner apply in their proper places, the Dhruvās required for dance and drama.

482. Just as a well-built dwelling house[90] does not become beautiful without any colour, so without any song the drama does not attain [the capacity of giving] joy.

483. The rule regarding songs have been mentioned in connection with [the formalities of] the Pūrvaraṅga (Preliminaries), and the worship of gods has also been mentioned there.[91]

484. Hence notes in the two Grāmas as well as the Overlapping [note],[92] should be applied to plays (lit. poetical compositions) which express the various States.

485-486. In the Opening[93] of the drama there should be the songs of the Madhyama Grāma, Ṣaḍja in the Progression, the Overlapping in the Development, Pañcama(mī) in the Pause, and Kaiśika(kī) in the conclusion. These songs depending on the Junctures and metres, should be of suitable Sentiments and States.

487. Dhruvās depending on the context and made to express Sentiments suited to the situation, embellish the drama just as the stars illumine the sky.

488. The Māgadhī is the first Gītī, then Ardhamāgadhī [the second], Saṃbhāvita the third and Pṛthulā the remaining one (i.e. the fourth).[94]

489. Māgadhī is known by the repetition of its pādas [in different tempo] and it is in the Citra [Vṛtti].[95] Similar is the Ardamāgadhī, which has recourse to repetition twice.

490. Saṃbhāvitā depending mostly on heavy syllables is applied in the Vārtika (Vṛtti), and Pṛthulā consisting of light syllables in the instrumental music, is to be applied in the Dakṣiṇa Vṛtti.

491. These four Gītis are everywhere to be applied in songs by singers. These consisting of appropriate syllables are applied in Dhruvās also.

492. That which includes full notes, Varṇas, is embellished by instruments, relates to the three voice-registers, has three Yatis and three Mātrās, gives joy, is harmonious (sama) and delicate, contains Alaṃkāras, is performed with ease, and has sweetness, is called a song [per excellence ].

493. One should first of all bestow care on songs. For songs have been called the resting place (lit. bed) of the drama. The song and the playing of musical instruments being well-executed, the performance of the drama does not encounter any risk.[96]

Qualities of singers and players of instruments

494. I have thus spoken properly of the characteristics of Dhruvās. I shall now speak of [requisite] qualities of singers and players of musical instruments.

495. Knowledge proceeds from qualities, and mind gets repulsed due to faults. Hence one should carefully know in brief the qualities and faults.

496. The singer should be of young age, have a loving nature and a throat full of sweet voice. He should thoroughly know about tempo, Tāla, division of Kalās, their measure and application.[97]

497-498. A woman possessing a good physique, brilliance, courage and sweetness, also a voice which is soft, sweet and has a charming resonance, and is harmonious, and auspicious, and who can properly observe a pause, is never nervous, and is an expert in songs together with their Tāla and tempo, and can regulate her Karaṇas according to musical instruments, and is young, is known as a female singer[98] [per excellence ].

Characteristics of a Vīṇā player

499-500. The two Vīṇā players should be properly conversant with the use of Pāṇi,[99] tempo and Yati[100] properly alotted [to different parts of a song], should have nimble hands in producing sweet sounds, and should have the qualities of [good] singers. They should be attentive in mind and be able to sing well in accompaniment of other instruments and clearly produced Karaṇas[101] and should be industrious, and should have a pleasing voice, much experience and should be experts in playing instruments in Vṛttis like Citra etc.

Characteristics of a flute-player

501. The flute-player should be strong and careful, should properly know songs and their tempo, and be able to sing well in accompaniment of other instruments, and to produce a note which is voluminous as well as sweet and pleasing, and should possess a strong breath.

502. The music of a flute should thus be steady, continuous, expressive of Varṇa and Alaṃkāra, and be sweet, pleasing and able to cover the faults [of a performance].

Difference between male and female song and recitation

503. Generally songs are naturally suited to women, and recitatives are similarly suited to men. For women’s voice is naturally sweet and that of men are [naturally] strong.

504. The good quality in women’s recitation and sweetness in men’s songs, should be considered their adventitious qualities (lit. ornament) [and no part of their nature].[102]

505. If men lead [in songs] and the songs possess good characteristics, but have no sweetness, then these, do not impart any beauty [to the performance].

506. Hence women’s songs are naturally successful and so are men’s recitatives.[103] When these are not (indiscriminately) attempted by one another, they become easy to perform.

507. Dānavas, Asuras, Rākṣasas, Yakṣas and Uragas (Nāgas) as males and females, have many actions and speeches.

508. [In such cases] women are to play men’s parts [very] carefully. For women are naturally able to make graceful movements [only].[104]

509. Men acquire Sauṣṭhava[105] by regular exercise and practice, and women’s movement of limbs are naturally pleasing.

510. With an eye to this fact, (lit. thus) men are to instruct women in songs, musical instruments and recitatives relating to different characters.

511. There may be [allowed] a loss of proper note in women’s songs and playing of musical instrument. But this will not be sweet to the ear in case of men.

Qualities of a teacher

512. The six qualities which a teacher should have, are memory, intelligence (medhā), judgement (mati), reasoning positive and negative (ūhāpoha), and ability to train pupils.

Qualities of a disciple

513. The six qualities which a disciple should have, are intelligence, memory, willingness to serve (ślāghā), devotion [to work], spirit of emulation (saṃgharṣa), and enthusiasm.

Qualities of voice

514. The six qualities of voice are that it should be loud, compact, smooth, sweet, careful, and distinctly related to the three voice-registers.[106]

515. That which is heard from a distance, is called loud (śrāvaka). The loud voice which is sweet but not diffused, is called compact (ghana).

516. The voice which being loud does not become harsh, is smooth (snigdhā). If at the highest point of the voice-registers, there occurs no discordance, then the voice is called sweet (madhura).

517-518. The voice which does not lapse into excess or defficiency, is called careful (avadhānavān).

The voice which striking the head, the throat [and the chest] become sweet with reference to three places, provides always sweetness to the three voice-registers, is considered distinctly related to voice-registers (tristhānaśobhī).

Faults of a singer

519. The five faults of a singer are that his voice (lit. he) may be Kapila, unsteady, Sandaṣṭa (bitten), Kākī (crow-like), and Tumbakī (nasal).[107]

520. When the voice is unnatural, and there is a gurgling sound, it is called Kapila. The voice of one who has phlegm in the throat, is also called Kapila.[108]

521. When there is an irregular excess or want of volume in voice, it is called unsteady. A lean voice is also given this name.

522-523. Voice produced by [unduly] using teeth, is called Sandaṣṭa (bitten) by good masters.

The voice which in its enunciation does not properly touch its due voice-register, and which is harsh, is called Kākī (crow-like).

The voice connected with the nose is called Tumbakī (nasal).

524. These are the essential facts about the qualities, and faults of voice, related by me. I shall next speak about the covered (avanaddha) instruments.

525. This is the Gāndharva[109] which I have now described. This was formerly described by Nārada.

A man (lit., son of Manu) who will cause this to be performed, will receive the highest honour in this world.

Here ends the Chapter Thirty-two of the Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of the Dhruvā Songs.

Footnotes and references:

1.

An old authority on music.

2.

The recitation of Ṛk stanzas.

3.

This term is otherwise unknown.

4.

The Sāman chants. See MH (Ch. X).

5.

See XXXL. 220ff,

6.

This is perhaps a non-Aryan word.

7.

The definition of the Vidārī is probably misplaced.

8.

‘Their’ relates to limbs mentioned in 16 above.

9.

The meaning of pada as ‘song’ which is available in New Indo-Aryan, probably goes back to this.

10.

Karaṇas here relate musical instruments.

11.

This def. is not dear.

12.

This example is in Sanskrit and so are those in 50, 51, 52 and 53.

13.

See note on 49.

14.

ibid.

15.

ibid.

16.

ibid.

17.

Examples from here are in the Prakrit For avoiding prolixity they are not given here.

18.

The passage is corrupt.

19.

lit. lighted up with.

20.

It is probably because she misses her male companion.

21.

Cf. Bhaṭṭikāvya. II. 9.

22.

lit. bride of one who has cakra as his name-sake.

23.

These are the words of a separated lover.

24.

There is a lacuna here. For Apakṛṣṭā Dhruvā see 12 before.

25.

It has not been defined before. This is possibly the name of a metre.

26.

lit. in places designated by even and odd numbers.

27.

Its ex. is missing.

28.

Tilakā here means alakā-tilakā (decorating spots made on the face).

29.

The night is here conceived as an abhisārikā.

30.

There is a Ruciramukhi in 187.

31.

Here the moon has been compared with a dancer.

32.

It seems that some verses are missing from here. (257-258)

33.

It seems that this metre has been misplaced.

34.

These metres have respectively one, two and three syllables more in their second, third and fourth syllables than in regular metre of the same name.

35.

Rohinī was the most beloved among Candra’s twenty-seven wives who were daughters of Dakṣa and they became stars,

36.

This is the shortened form of Vaṃśapatrapatita, See 331 below.

37.

This belongs to the longer recension.

38.

This belongs to the shorter recension.

39.

The meaning of this and the four succeeding couplets, is not quite clear.

40.

This passage is corrupt.

41.

This relates to syllabic metres.

42.

See above Ch. XXXI on Tāla.

43.

See above 26-27.

44.

See XIV. 3ff.

45.

See 145, 147, 153, 168, 170, 183, 242, 244, 254, 266, 269, 307, 311, 320 above.

46.

See 252, 256, 270, 318 above.

47.

See 56, 82, 121, 172, 209, 224, 246, 250, 268, 309 above.

48.

See 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 92, 100, 119, 164, 192 above.

49.

See 78, 80 above.

50.

See 207, 316 above.

51.

See 143 above.

52.

See 252, 256, 270, 318 above.

53.

See note 3 (on 408) above.

54.

See 185 above.

55.

See 115, 117, 121, 151, 194, 231, 235, 237, 248, 261, above.

56.

See 115, 117 above.

57.

See 135, 134, 203, 227, 264, 334 above.

58.

See 138 above.

59.

See 63 above.

60.

See 90, 111 above.

61.

See 181 above.

62.

See 332 above.

63.

See 140, 324, 335, 337, 339, 341, 344, 350, 352 above.

64.

See 346 above.

65.

See note 1 (on 415) above.

66.

See 220, 222 above.

67.

See 211 above.

68.

See 181, 330 above.

69.

See 113 above.

70.

See 138 above.

71.

See 140, 324 above.

72.

See 94ff above.

73.

See XXIV. 48 above.

74.

See XXVI. 83-85 above.

75.

This is the well-known Śaurasenī. Though Ś. has been included in the list of seven major dialects mentioned earlier (XVIII. 47), we are not sure of its characteristics as envisaged by the author of the NŚ. The Prakrit described in XVIII. 8-23 may be Śaurasenī. See note on XVIII. 47 above.

76.

Māgadhī though mentioned in the NŚ (loc. cit) has not been described there.

77.

This probably points to the very early development of the Sanskrit drama. For further discussion about this see the Introduction.

78.

This term probably indicates a language like that of the metrical portions of the Mahāvastu.

79.

See XXXII. 49ff above.

80.

See XXVIII. 103ff, above.

81.

See V. 18.

82.

See V. 30-31ff.

83.

For Pūrvaraṅga and its different parts see V. 7ff.

84.

See V. 26-27 and 116-119.

85.

See V. 65ff, and the note on 471 below.

86.

This term probably means ‘a single performance of a song’ when it is repeated.

87.

See XXXIII. 180ff below.

88.

See above note 1 to 471.

89.

i.e. Ākāśa Graha.

90.

citraṃ niveśanaṃ.

91.

See V. 60-63ff.

92.

See XXVIII. 35 above.

93.

See XXI. 58ff.

94.

See XXIX. 77ff above.

95.

Vṛtti= gati-vṛtti. See XXIX. 102ff.

96.

This shows that songs were indispensable in producing plays.

97.

See SR. III. 13-22.

98.

See SR. III. 23.

99.

See XXXI. 494-495.

100.

See XXI. 489-493.

101.

i.e., Karaṇas produced by the dancer.

102.

This shows that good singing was once supposed to be a monopoly of women. So Maitreya in the Mṛcch. (III) does not approve of Cárudatta’s praise for Revila’s singing (mama dâva duvehiṃ jjeva hassaṃ jāadi, itthiāe sakkaaṃ paṭhantie, maṇusseṇa a kāaliṃ gāanteṇa). Cārudatta too continues his compliments to Revila by saying ‘had he been out of sight (i.e. behind a screen), I might have taken him for a woman’ (antarhito yadi bhaved vaniteti manye).

103.

See note 1 above.

104.

The movements of Dānavas and Asuras etc., are mostly energetic.

105.

For the meaning of Sauṣṭhava see XI. 91. Generally it means ‘beauty and grace of the body in its movement’.

106.

See SR. III. 49-63.

107.

See SR. III. 24-37.

108.

It may be that the word is a wrong reading for *Kaphala.

109.

This is the Gāndharva which the Ceṭa in Mṛcch. (III) speaks about (kā vi velā ajja-Cārudatteśśa gandhavvaṃ śuṇiduṃ gadaśśa).