Bhagavad-gita with four Commentaries [sanskrit]

140,673 words | ISBN-10: 8189564072 | ISBN-13: 9788189564070

The Sanskrit edition of the Bhagavad Gita with four commentaries: (1) The Subodhini by Shridhara (Sridhara Swami), (2) The Gudharthadipika by Madhusudana (Saraswati), (3) The Sararthavarshini by Vishvanatha (Vishwanath Chakravarti) and (4) The Gitabhushana by Baladeva (Vidyabhushan). Original titles: Bhagavadgītā (भगवद्गीता), Śrīdhara (श्रीधर), Madhusūdana (मधुसूदन), Viśvanātha (विश्वनाथ), Baladeva (बलदेव)

ātmaupamyena sarvatra samaṃ paśyati yo'rjuna |
sukhaṃ yadi duḥkhaṃ sa yogī paramo mataḥ ||32||

The Subodhinī commentary by Śrīdhara

evaṃ ca māṃ bhajatāṃ yogināṃ madhye sarvabhūtānukampī śreṣṭha ityāha ātmaupamyeneti | ātmaupamyena svasādṛśyena | yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkhaṃ cāpriyaṃ tathānyeṣāṃ apīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukhameva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati | na tu kasyāpi duḥkham | sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimata ityarthaḥ ||32||

The Gūḍhārthadīpikā commentary by Madhusūdana

evamutpanne'pi tatvabodhe kaścinmanonāśavāsanākṣayayorabhāvājjīvanmuktisukhaṃ nānubhavati cittavikṣepeṇa ca dṛṣṭaduḥkhamanubhavati so'paramo yogī dehapāte kaivalyabhāgitvāt | dehasadbhāvaparyantaṃ ca dṛṣṭaduḥkhānubhavāt | tattvajñānamanonāśavāsanākṣayāṇāṃ tu yugapadabhyāsāddṛṣṭaduḥkhanivṛttipūrvakaṃ jīvanmuktisukhamanubhavan prārabdhakarmavaśātsamādhervyutthānakāle kiṃ syāt? ityucyata ātmaupamyeneti |

ātmaivaupamyamupamā tenātmadṛṣṭāntena sarvatra prāṇijāte sukhaṃ yadi duḥkhaṃ samaṃ tulyaṃ yaḥ paśyati svasyāniṣṭaṃ yathā na sampādayati evaṃ parasyāpyaniṣṭaṃ yo na sampādayati pradveṣaśūnyatvāt, sa nirvāsanatayopaśāntamanā yogī brahmavitparamaḥ śreṣṭho mataḥ pūrvasmāt, he arjuna | atastattvajñānamanonāśavāsanākṣayāṇāmakramamabhyāsāya mahān prayatna āstheya ityarthaḥ |

tatredaṃ sarvaṃ dvaitajātamadvitīye cidānandātmani māyayā kalpitatvānmṛṣaivātmaivaikaḥ paramārthasatyaḥ saccidānandādvayo'hamasmīti jñānaṃ tattvajñānaṃ pradīpajvālāsantānavadvṛttisantānarūpeṇa pariṇamamānamantaḥkaraṇadravyaṃ mananātmakatvānmana ityucyate | tasya nāśe nāma vṛttirūpapariṇāmaṃ parityajya sarvavṛttinirodhinā nirodhākāreṇa pariṇāmaḥ | pūrvāparaparāmarśamantareṇa sahasotpadyamānasya krodhādivṛttiviśeṣasya hetuścittagataḥ saṃskāraviśeṣo vāsanā pūrvapūrvābhyāsena citte vāsyamānatvāt | tasyāḥ kṣayo nāma vivekajanyāyāṃ cittapraśamavāsanāyāṃ dṛḍhāyāṃ saty
api bāhye nimitte krodhādyanutpattiḥ | tatra tattvajñāne sati mithyābhūte jagati naraviṣāṇādāviva dhīvṛttyanudayādātmanaśca dṛṣṭatvena punarvṛttyanupayogānnirandhanāgnivanmano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi saṃskārodbodhakasya bāhyasya nimittasyāpratītau vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ vāsanāyāṃ hetvabhāvena krodhādivṛttyanudayānmano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi śamadamādisampattyā tattvajñānamudeti | evamutpanne tattvajñāne rāgadveṣādirūpā vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ ca vāsanāyāṃ pratibandhābhāvāttattvajñānodaya iti parasparakāraṇatvaṃ darśanīyam |

ataeva bhagavān vasiṣṭha āha

tattvajñānaṃ manonāśo vāsanākṣaya eva ca |
mithaḥ kāraṇatāṃ gatvā duḥsādhyāni sthitāni hi ||
tasmādrāghava yatnena pauruṣeṇa vivekinā |
bhogecchāṃ dūratastyaktvā trayametatsamāśraya || iti |
pauruṣo yatnaḥ kenāpyupāyenāvaśyaṃ sampādayiṣyāmītyevaṃvidhotsāharūpo nirbandhaḥ | viveko nāma vivicya niścayaḥ | tattvajñānasya śravaṇādikaṃ sādhanaṃ manonāśasya yogaḥ vāsanākṣayasya pratikūlavāsanotpādanamiti | etādṛśavivekayuktena pauruṣeṇa prayatnena bhogecchāyāḥ svalpāyā api haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmeveti nyāyena vāsanāvṛddhihetutvāddūrata ityuktam |

dvividho hi vidyādhikārī kṛtopāstirakṛtopāstiśca | tatra ya upāsyasākṣātkāraparyantāmupāstiṃ kṛtvā tattvajñānāya pravṛttastasya vāsanākṣayamanonāśaayordṛḍhataratvena jñānādūrdhvaṃ jīvanmuktiḥ svata eva sidhyati | idānīṃtanastu prāyeṇākṛtopāstireva mumukṣurautsukyamātrātsahasā vidyāyāṃ pravartate | yogaṃ vinā cijjaḍavivekamātreṇaiva ca manonāśavāsanākṣayau tātkālikau sampādya śamadamādisampattyā śravanamanananididhyāsanāni sampādayati | taiśca dṛḍhābhyastaiḥ sarvabandhavicchedi tattvajñānamudeti | avidyāgranthibrahmatvaṃ hṛdayagranthiḥ saṃśayāḥ karmāṇyasarvakāmatvaṃ mṛtyuḥ punarjanma cetyanekavidho bandho
jñānānnivartate | tathā ca śrūyate yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ so'vidyāgranthiṃ vikiratīha somya [] brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati []

bhidyate hṛdayagranthiśchidyante sarvasaṃśayāḥ |
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare || [MuṇḍU 2.2.8]

satyaṃ jñānamanantaṃ brahma | yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ parame vyoman | so'śnute sarvān kāmān saha [TaittU 1.1] tameva viditvātimṛtyumeti [ŚvetU 3.8]

yastu vijñānavān bhavati samanaskaḥ sadā śuciḥ |
sa tu tatpadamāpnoti yasmādbhūyo na jāyate || [KaṭhU 1.3.8]

ya evaṃ vedāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] ityasarvatvanivṛttiphalamudāhāryam | seyaṃ videhamuktiḥ satyapi dehe jñānotpattisamakālīnā jñeyā | brahmaṇyavidyādhyāropitānāmeteṣāṃ bandhānāmavidyānāśe sati nivṛttau punarutpattyasambhavāt | ataḥ śaithilyahetvabhāvāttattvajñānaṃ tasyānuvartate | manonāśavāsanākṣayautu dṛḍhābhyāsābhāvādbhogapradena prārabdhena karmaṇā bādhyamānatvācca savātapradeśapradīpavatsahasā nivartete | ata idānīṃtanasya tattvajñāninaḥ prāksiddhe tattvajñāne na prayatnāpekṣā | kiṃ tu manonāśavāsanākṣayau prayatnasādhyāviti | tatra manonāśao'samprajñātasamādhinirūpaṇena nirūpitaḥ
prāk | vāsanākṣayastvidānīṃ nirūpyate |

tatra vāsanāsvarūpaṃ vasiṣṭha āha

dṛḍhabhāvanayā tyaktapūrvāparavicāraṇam |
yadādānaṃ padārthasya vāsanā prakīrtitā ||

atra ca svasvadeśācārakuladharmasvabhāvabhedatadgatāpaśabdasuśabdādiṣu prāṇināmabhiniveśaḥ sāmānyenodāharaṇam | ca vāsanā dvividhā malinā śuddhā ca | śuddhā daivī sampat | śāstrasaṃskāraprābalyāttattvajñānasādhanatvenaikarūpaiva | malinā tu trividhā lokavāsanā śāstravāsanā dehavāsanā ceti | sarve janā yathā na nindanti tathaivācariṣyāmītyaśakyārthābhiniveśo lokavāsanā | tasyāśca ko lokamārādhayituṃ samartha iti nyāyena sampādayitumaśakyatvātpuruṣārthānupayogitvācca malinatvam | śāstravāsanā tu trividhā pāṭhavyasanaṃ bahuśāstravyasanamanuṣṭhānavyasanaṃ ceti krameṇa bharadvājasya durvāsaso nidāghasya ca prasiddhā | malinatvaṃ cāsyāḥ kleśāvahatvātpuruṣārthānupayogitvād
darpahetutvājjanmahetutvācca | dehavāsanāpi trividhā ātmatvabhrāntirguṇādhānabhrāntirguṇādhānabhrāntirdoṣāpanayanabhrāntiśceti | tatrātmatvabhrāntirvirocanādiṣu prasiddhā sārvalaukikī | guṇādhānaṃ dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | samīcīnaśabdādiviṣayasampādanaṃ laukikaṃ, gaṅgāsnānaśālagrāmatīrthādisampādanaṃ śāstrīyam | doṣāpanayanamapi dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | cikitsakoktairauṣadhairvyādhyādyapanayanaṃ laukikaṃ, vaidikasnānācamanādibhiraśaucādyapanayanaṃ vaidikam | etasyāśca sarvaprakārāyā malinatvamaprāmāṇikatvādaśakyatvātpuruṣārthānupayogitvātpunarjanmahetutvāc
ca | tadetallokaśāstradehavāsanātrayamavivekanāmupādeyatvena pratibhāsamānamapi vividiṣorvedanotpattivirodhitvādviduṣo jñānaniṣṭhāvirodhitvācca vivekibhirheyam |

tadevaṃ bāhyaviṣayavāsanā trividhā nirūpitā | ābhyantaravāsanā tu kāmakrodhadambhadarpādyāsurasampadrūpā sarvānarthamūlaṃ mānasī vāsanetyucyate | tadevaṃ bāhyābhyantaravāsanācatuṣṭayasya śuddhavāsanayā kṣayaḥ sampādanīyaḥ | taduktaṃ vasiṣṭhena

mānasīrvāsanāḥ pūrvaṃ tyaktvā viṣayavāsanāḥ |
maitryādivāsanā rāma gṛhāṇāmalavāsanāḥ || iti |

tatra viṣayavāsanāśabdena pūrvoktāstisro lokaśāstravedavāsanā vivakṣitāḥ | mānasavāsanāśabdena kāmakrodhadambhadarpādyāsurasampadvivakṣitā | yadvā śabdasparśarūparasagandhā viṣayāḥ | teṣāṃ bhujyamānatvadaśājanyaḥ saṃskāro viṣayavāsanā | kāmyamānatvadaśājanyaḥ saṃskāro mānasavāsanā | asmin pakṣe pūrvoktānāṃ catasṛṇāmanayorevāntarbhāvaḥ | bāhyābhyanaravyatirekeṇa vāsanāntarāsambhavāt | tāsāṃ vāsanānāṃ parityāgo nāma tadviruddhamaitryādivāsanotpādanam | tāśca maitryādivāsanā bhagavatā patañjalinā sūtritāḥ prāksaṃkṣepeṇa vyākhyātā api punarvyākhyāyante
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cittaṃ hi rāgadveṣapuṇyapāpaiḥ kaluṣīkriyate | tatra sukhānuśayī rāgaḥ [YogaS 2.7] | mohādanubhūyamānaṃ sukhamanuśete kaściddhīvṛttiviśeṣo rājasaḥ sarvaṃ sukhajātīyaṃ me bhūyāditi | tacca dṛṣṭādṛṣṭasāmagryabhāvātsampādayitumaśakyam | ataḥ sa rāgaścittaṃ kaluṣīkaroti | yadā tu sukhiu prāṇiṣvayaṃ maitrīṃ bhāvayetsarve'pyete sukhino madīyā iti tadā tatsukhaṃ svakīyameva sampannamiti bhāvayatastatra rāgo nivartate | yathā svasya rājyanivṛttāvapi putrādirājyameva svakīyaṃ rājyaṃ tadvat | nivṛtte ca rāge varṣāvyapāye jalamiva cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā
duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ [YogaS 2.8] duḥkhamanuśete kaścddhīvṛttiviśeṣastamo'nugatarajaḥpariṇāma īdṛśaṃ sarvaṃ duḥkhaṃ sarvadā me bhūditi | tacca śatruvyāghrādiṣu satsya na nivārayituṃ śakyam | na ca sarve te duḥkhahetavo hantuṃ śakyante | ataḥ sa dveṣaḥ sadā hṛdayaṃ dahati | yadā tu svasyeva pareṣāṃ sarveṣāmapi duḥkhaṃ bhūditi karuṇāṃ duḥkhiṣu bhāvayettadā vairyādidveṣanivṛttau cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā ca smaryate

prāṇā yathātmano'bhīṣṭā bhūtānāmapi te tathā |
ātmaupamyena bhūteṣu dayāṃ kurvanti sādhavaḥ || iti |

etadevehāpyuktam ātmaupamyena sarvatretyādi | tathā prāṇinaḥ svabhāvata eva puṇyaṃ nānutiṣṭhanti pāpaṃ tvanutiṣṭhanti | tadāhuḥ

puṇyasya phalamicchanti puṇyaṃ necchanti mānavāḥ |
na pāpaphalamicchanti pāpaṃ kurvanti yatnataḥ || iti |

te ca puṇyapāpe akriyamāṇakriyamāṇe paścāttāpaṃ janayataḥ | sa ca śrutyānūditaḥ kimahaṃ sādhu nākaravaṃ kimahaṃ pāpamakaravamiti | yadyasau puṇyapuruṣeṣu muditāṃ bhāvayettadā tadvāsanāvān svayamevāpramatto'śuklakṛṣṇe puṇye pravartate | taduktaṃ karmāśuklakṛṣṇaṃ yoginastrividhamitareṣāmayogināṃ trividhaṃ śuklaṃ śubhaṃ kṛṣṇamaśubhaṃ śuklakṛṣṇaṃ śubhāśubhamiti | tathā pāpapuruṣeṣūpekṣāṃ bhāvayan svayamapi tadvāsanāvān pāpānnivartate |

tataśca puṇyākaraṇapāpakaraṇanimittasya paścāttāpasyābhāve cittaṃ prasīdati | evaṃ sukhiṣu maitrīṃ bhāvayato na kevalaṃ rāgo nivartate kiṃtvasūyerṣyādayo'pi nivartante | paraguṇeṣu doṣāviṣkaraṇamasūyā | paraguṇānāmasahanamīrṣyā | yadā maitrīvaśātparasukhaṃ svīyameva sampannaṃ tadā paraguṇeṣu kathamasūyādikaṃ sambhavet | tathā duḥkhiṣu karuṇāṃ bhāvayataḥ śatruvadhādikaro dveṣo yadā nivartate tadā duḥkhitvapratiyogikasvasukhitvaprayuktadarpo'pi nivartate | evaṃ doṣāntaranivṛttirapyūhanīyā vāsiṣṭharāmāyaṇādiṣu
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tadevaṃ tattvajñānaṃ manonāśo vāsanākṣayaśceti trayamabhyasanīyam | tatra kenāpi dvāreṇa punaḥ punastattvānusmaraṇaṃ tattvajñānābhyāsaḥ | taduktam

taccintanaṃ tatkathanamanyonyaṃ tatprabodhanam |
etadekaparatvaṃ ca brahmābhyāsaṃ vidurbudhāḥ ||
sargādāveva notpannaṃ dṛśyaṃ nāstyeva tatsadā |
idaṃ jagadahaṃ ceti bodhābhyāsaṃ viduḥ param || iti |

dṛśyāvabhāsavirodhiyogābhyāso manonirodhābhyāsaḥ | taduktam

atyantābhāvasampattau jñāturjñeyasya vastunaḥ |
yuktyā śāstrairyatante ye te'pyatrābhyāsinaḥ sthitāḥ || iti |

jñātṛjñeyormithyātvadhīrabhāvasampattiḥ | svarūpeṇāpyapratītiratyantābhāvasampattistadartham | yuktyā yogena |

dṛśyāsambhavabodhena rāgadveṣāditānave |
ratirghanoditā yāsau brahmābhyāsaḥ sa ucyate ||

iti rāgadveṣādikṣīṇatārūpavāsanākṣayābhyāsa uktaḥ | tasmādupapannametattattvajñānābhyāsena manonāśābhyāsena vāsanākṣayābhyāsena ca rāgadveṣaśūnyatayā yaḥ svaparasukhaduḥkhādiṣu samadṛṣṭiḥ sa paramo yogī mato yastu viṣamadṛṣṭiḥ sa tattvajñānavānapyaparamo yogīti ||32||

The Sārārthavarṣiṇī commentary by Viśvanātha

kiṃ ca, sādhanadaśāyāṃ yogī sarvatra samaḥ syādityuktam | tatra mukhyaṃ sāmyaṃ vyacaṣṭe ātmaupamyeneti | sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ veti yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkhamapriyaṃ, tathaivānyeṣāmapīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukhameva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati, na tu kasyāpi duḥkham, sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimataḥ ||32||

The Gītābhūṣaṇa commentary by Baladeva

sarvabhūtahite rataḥ iti yatprāguktaṃ, tadviśadayati ātmaupamyeneti | vyutthānadaśāyāmātmaupamyena svasādṛśyena sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca yaḥ sarvatra samaṃ paśyati | svasyeva parasya sukhamevecchati, na tu duḥkham, sa svaparasukhaduḥkhasamadṛṣṭiḥ sarvānukampī yogī mama paramaḥ śreṣṭho'bhimataḥ | tadviṣamadṛṣṭistu tattvajño'pyaparamayogīti bhāvaḥ ||32||

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