Krishi, Kṛṣi: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Krishi means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṛṣi can be transliterated into English as Krsi or Krishi, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Krashi.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kṛṣi (कृषि).—The pursuit of agriculture, a duty of the Vaiśya; introduced by Pṛthu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 162; Vāyu-purāṇa 79. 71; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 13. 84.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey

Kṛṣi (कृषि, “agriculture”) is frequently mentioned in India’s ancient literature. Apart from mentions scattered in various texts, it has a large body of specialized literature as well. The texts that have survived include Kṛṣiparāśara, Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra, the Sangam literature of early Tamils, Manusmṛti, Varāhamihira’s Bṛhatsaṃhitā, Amarakoṣa, Kaśyapiyakṛṣisukti, and Surapāla’s Vṛkṣāyurveda. These texts provide information about agriculture (kṛṣi), horticulture, arboriculture and plant biodiversity. In addition, treatises on horses by Śālihotra and on elephants by Pālakāpya are also available. We get a wealth of information on agricultural practices from such texts.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Kṛṣi (कृषि) or Kṛṣigītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Kṛṣi-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kṛṣi (कृषि) refers to “farming”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The Sun presides over the people of the western half of the Narmadā, and over the people living on the banks of the Ikṣumatī. He also presides over hill-men, quick-silver, deserts, shepherds, seeds, pod-grains, bitter flavour, trees, gold, fire, poison and persons successful in battle; over medicines, physicians, quadrupeds, farmers (kṛṣi-kara), kings, butchers, travellers, thieves, serpents, forests and renowned and cruel men”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: HereNow4u: Lord Vṛṣabhanātha

Kṛṣi (कृषि, “farming”).—Having set up a system of law and order and prevention of crime, king Vṛṣabhanātha made a plan for his subjects to become self-sufficient in the affairs of the karmabhūmi (the mundane world of action). For the welfare of subjects he trained them in asi (art of government / military occupation), masi (writing) and kṛṣi (farming) and a hundred crafts.

He taught asi, masi and kṛṣi to the human society, thus saving them from consuming the inedible / inconsumable, leading a sātvika (pure) life and explained to them that if necessity led them to take up a faulty vocation, in that case, knowing it to be sin, their aim should be to move towards a virtuous life – this was indeed samyak-darśana (right view of reality / true spiritual path).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Kṛṣi (कृषि, “agriculture”) refers to a type of “civilized people who indulge in activities with attachment” (sāvadhyakarma-ārya), which itself is a division of karmārya: one of the classes of āryas without extraordinary powers (ṛddhi). These Ārya (civilized people) represent one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46. What is meant by agricultural (kṛṣi) activities? To develop expertise in plough and other instruments for agriculture to produce food and other useful material is called agricultural (kṛṣi) activities.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṛṣi (कृषि).—f (S) kṛṣikarma n (S) Husbandry or agriculture. 2 Ploughing, tilling, cultivating the soil.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṛṣi (कृषि).—f kṛṣikarma n Husbandry or agricul- ture. Ploughing, tilling.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि).—f. [kṛṣ-ik; cf. P.III.3.18 Vārt.8]

1) Ploughing.

2) Agriculture, husbandry; चीयते बालिशस्यापि सत्क्षेत्रपतिता कृषिः (cīyate bāliśasyāpi satkṣetrapatitā kṛṣiḥ) Mu.1.3; कृषिः क्लिष्टाऽवृष्ट्या (kṛṣiḥ kliṣṭā'vṛṣṭyā) Pt.1.11; Ms.1.9,3.64,1.79; Bg.18.44.

3) The harvest (kṛṣiphala); Y.1.276.

4) The earth; Mb.5.

Derivable forms: kṛṣiḥ (कृषिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि).—f.

(-ṣiḥ) 1. Husbandry, agriculture. 2. Ploughing, cultivating the soil, &c. E. kṛṣ to plough, ik Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि).—[kṛṣ + i] (kṛṣī kṛṣī, Mahābhārata 1, 7207), f. 1. Ploughing, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 76, 18. 2. Agriculture, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 90.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि).—[feminine] ploughing, agriculture, husbandry; field (also kṛṣī); harvest.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛśī (कृशी):—[from kṛśa > kṛś] a f. [gana] gaurādi ([ib. 45])

2) [from kṛś] b ind. in [compound] for śa.

3) Kṛṣi (कृषि):—[from kṛṣ] f. (exceptionally [plural] [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā iv, 10; Subhāṣitāvali]) ploughing, cultivation of the soil, agriculture (one of the Vṛttis of a Vaiśya, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] the cultivation of the soil personified, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi]

5) [v.s. ...] the harvest, [Yājñavalkya i, 275; Dhūrtasamāgama]

6) [v.s. ...] the earth (= bhū), [Mahābhārata v, 2563.]

7) Kṛṣī (कृषी):—[from kṛṣ] f. (= ṣi) field, [Mahābhārata i, 7207.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि):—(ṣiḥ) 2. f. Ploughing; husbandry, agriculture.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṛṣi (कृषि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kisi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Krishi in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṛṣi (कृषि) [Also spelled krashi]:—(nf) agriculture; farming, cultivation; —[karma] farming, cultivation; ~[kāra] farmer, cultivator; ~[jīvī] a professional farmer, one who earns his livelihood through farming; —[vijñāna/śāstra] (science of) Agriculture.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṛṣi (ಕೃಷಿ):—

1) [noun] the science and art of farming; work of cultivating the soil, producing crops; farming.

2) [noun] raising of livestock, bees, etc.

3) [noun] ಕೃಷಿ ಉಪಕರಣ [krishi upakarana] křṣi upakaraṇa any of the implements used in agriculture; an agricultural implement.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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