Uluka, Ulūka, Ūlūka, Ulūkā: 32 definitions
Uluka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Uluk.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ulūka (उलूक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “owl”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Ulūka is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Ulūka (उलूक)—Sanskrit word for a bird corresponding to “owl”. This animal is from the group called Prasaha (‘carnivorous birds’). Prasaha itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Ulūka (उलूक) (lit. “one which makes shrill outcry”) refers to the Brown fish owl (Bubo Zeylonensis), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Ulūka (उलूक).—The son of Śakuni. He was killed by Sahadeva during the battle of Kurukṣetra. (Śalya Parva in Mahābhārata)
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Ulūka (उलूक).—The son of Śakuni. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 25). It is stated in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 182, Stanza 22, that Ulūka was present at the Svayaṃvara (the Bride choosing a husband) of Draupadī. In the Bhārata Battle Ulūka was sent as a messenger to the camp of the Pāṇḍavas by Duryodhana. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161). After that he returned to Duryodhana with the message of the Pāṇḍavas. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 163). He combated with the King of Cedi on the first day of the battle. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45). After that Sahadeva attacked Ulūka. (Mahābhārata Bhīsma Parva, Chapter 72, Stanza 5). Arjuna defeated Ulūka. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 171, Stanza 40). After the death of the teacher Droṇa, Ulūka fled from the battle-field. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 193, Stanza 14). It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Karṇa Parva, Chapter 25, Stanzas 9 to 11, that Ulūka defeated Yuyutsu. Next fight was between Sahadeva and Ulūka in which Sahadeva killed Ulūka. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 28, Stanzas 32 and 33). The following are the synonyms of Ulūka, given in the Mahābhārata:—Śākuni, Kaitaka, Saubalyasuta and Kaitavya.
2) Ulūka (उलूक).—A Yakṣa (a demi-god). It is stated in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 32, that Garuḍa and this Yakṣa fought with each other.
3) Ulūka (उलूक).—A son of Viśvāmitra. He became a hermit. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 51). It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Stanza 11, that this Ulūka visited Bhīṣma on his Bed of arrows.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Ulūka (उलूक) refers to “owls”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] At the same time, several phenomena of evil portent forboding misery and distress happened, when the son of Varāṅgī was born making the gods miserable. [...] Within villages, inauspicious vixens howled hideously vomitting fires; as it were, through their mouths along with the hissing and twanging sounds of the hootings and howlings of owls and jackals [i.e., sṛgāla-ulūka-ṭaṅkāra]. Lifting up their necks, the dogs barked in diverse ways producing sounds of singing or lamenting here and there. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Ulūka (उलूक).—The son of Bala, and a righteous person; Father of Vajranābha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 205.
1b) A son of Hiraṇyākṣa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 14.
1c) A son of Sahiṣṇu of the 26th dvapara.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 213.
1d) A son of Somaśarma; an avatār of the Lord.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 216.
1e) A Vidyādhara chief in the Veṇumanta hill.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 38.
Ulūka (उलूक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.28.19, I.60.55) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Ulūka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Ulūka (उलूक) is the name of a Dānava who was reborn as Śubhaṅkara: one of the minister of Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 45. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Maya, Sunītha and Sūryaprabha: “... and the other Asuras, who were your companions, have been born as his friends; for instance,... the Dānava named Ulūka is now his companion named Śubhaṅkara”.
The story of Ulūka was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Ulūka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Ulūka (उलूक) refers to the bird “Owl” (Bubo bubo).—Birds have been described in several ancient Sanskrit texts that they have been treated elaborately by eminent scholars. These birds [viz., Ulūka] are enumerated in almost several Smṛtis in context of specifying the expiations for killing them and their flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites. These are elaborated especially in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [chapter VI], Gautamasmṛti [chapter 23], Śātātapasmṛti [II.54-56], Uśānasmṛti [IX.10-IX.12], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.172-I.175], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.28-51.29], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.16].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Ulūka (उलूक) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Pūrṇagiri or Pūrṇapīṭha (which is located in the northern quarter), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight servants: Pulinda, Śavara, Unmatta, Palāśana, Ulūka, Mārīca, Sumatta, Bhayaṃkara.
2) Ulūka (उलूक) refers to a “flag bearing an owl”, according to the Jayadrathayāmala 2.19.—Accordingly, “Recollect the eternal (nityā) Kālarātrī, who is very horrific. Her face is black (kālavaktrā) and she instills fear. She is adorned with a flag bearing an owl (ulūka-dhvaja-saṃdīptā). Naked, she is very fierce. Transported by that (owl) and naked, she eats blood”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
1) Ulūka (उलूक) refers to an “owl”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] The Devīs are white, red, yellow, and black, four-faced, four armed, three eyed, and in [their] hands bear golden hatchets, sticks and rosaries. [...] Mounted on a corpse, Jayā Devī shines forth [in white]; four-armed, four-faced, three-eyed, red Vijayā holds grass, a bow, a shield and a sword, [while] standing upon an owl (ulūka-upari—hyulūkopari saṃsthitā), O Devī. [...] [When one] worships and meditates on [the Devīs, as they] stand in the cardinal directions, [the Devīs grant the practitioner] the fruits of siddhi. [...]”.
2) Ulūka (उलूक) refers to an “owl” (i.e., ‘riding on owls in dreams’), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.21-27, while describing inauspicious dreams]—“[...] [He dreams of] the destruction of houses, palaces, beds, clothes, and seats; defeat of oneself in battle and theft of ones things. [He] ascends or is amongst donkeys, camels, dogs, jackals, and herons, vultures, and cranes. [He rides on] buffalos, owls (ulūka), and crows, eats cooked meat, [wears a] red garland, and ointment for the body. [...]”
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Ulūka (उलूक): 'An owl.' Son of Kitava. He was king of a country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Pandavas.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Ulūka (उलूक, “owl”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. If delusion (moha) is abundant, they [people] are reborn as [for example] an owl (ulūka).Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture
Ulūka (उलूक) refers to “owls” (responsible for crop-destruction, etc.), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches a pacification ritual]: “[...] All stinging insects, mosquitos, ants, flying insects, bees, quivering bees, bumble bees, worms, ones with a sting, vātālikas, owls (ulūka), mice, long-mouthed ones and so on and various sorts of pests perish. They will not appear. They will be destroyed. All crows, large birds, sparrows, cañcaṭikas, pigeons, surikas, owls, wagtails, parrots, mynas and so on perish. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Ulūkā (उलूका) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ulūkā).Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Ulūka (उलूक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Ulūkī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Ulūka] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Ulūka, (Sk. ulūka; cp. Lat. ulucus & ulula owl, ululāre to howl, Ger. uhu; onomat. *ul, as in Gr. o)lolu/zw, Sk. ululi, Lith. ulůti) an owl Vin. I, 186 (°camma, sandals of owl’s skin); III, 34; A. V, 289 sq.; J. II, 208, 352 (as king of the birds); Miln. 403; DhA. I, 50 (kāka° crows & owls).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ulūka (उलूक).—m S An owl.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ulūka (उलूक).—m An owl.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Ulūka (उलूक).—1 An owl; नोलूकोप्यवलोकते यदि दिवा सूर्यस्य किं दूषणम् (nolūkopyavalokate yadi divā sūryasya kiṃ dūṣaṇam) Bhartṛhari 2.93; त्यजति मुदमुलूकः प्रीतिमांश्चक्रवाकः (tyajati mudamulūkaḥ prītimāṃścakravākaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 11.64. cf. also कथमुलूकशब्द उलूकवचनः । रल्योः समान- वृत्तित्वात् (kathamulūkaśabda ulūkavacanaḥ | ralyoḥ samāna- vṛttitvāt) | ŚB. on MS.9.4.22.
2) Name of Indra.
3) Name of a Muni (perhaps identical with kaṇāda, whose vaiśeṣika- darśana is called ālūkya-darśana).
4) (pl.) Name of a country and its king who was an ally of the Kurus.
-kam 1 Name of the reed Saccharum Cylindricum; see उलप (ulapa).
2) Fat; वनिष्टुसन्निधानादुरूकेण वपाभिधानम् (vaniṣṭusannidhānādurūkeṇa vapābhidhānam) | (v. l.) MS.9.4.22.
-jit A crow.
-yātuḥ A demon in the shape of an owl; उलूकयातुं शुशुलूकयातुम् (ulūkayātuṃ śuśulūkayātum) Ṛgveda 7.14.22.
Derivable forms: ulūkaḥ (उलूकः).
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Ūlūka (ऊलूक).—= उलूक (ulūka) q. v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Uluka (उलुक).—v.l. for Huluka, q.v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ) 1. An owl. 2. A name of Indra. 3. One of the heroes of the Mahabharata. n.
(-kaṃ) A kind of reed, (Saccharum cylindricum.) E. bal to be strong, ūka aff.
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(-kaḥ) An owl. E. bal to be strong, and ūka affix; ba become ū.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ulūka (उलूक).—m. 1. An owl, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 89. 2. A name of Indra,
— Cf. [Latin] ulula, [Anglo-Saxon.] and [Old High German.] ūla.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ulūka (उलूक).—[masculine] owl; [Epithet] of Indra, [plural] [Name] of a country & people.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ulūka (उलूक):—m. (√val, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 41]), an owl, [Ṛg-veda x, 165, 4; Atharva-veda vi, 29, 1; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.
2) Name of Indra, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti]
3) of a Muni (in the [Vāyu-purāṇa] enumerated together with Kaṇāda, but perhaps identical with him, as the Vaiśeṣika system is called Aulūkya-darśana in the [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha])
4) of a Nāga, [Suparṇādhyāya]
5) of a king of the Ulūkas
6) Name of a people, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
7) n. a kind of grass (= ulapa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) cf. [Latin] ulula; [Greek] ὀλ-ολυγ-αία; Old High [German] ūla; [Anglo-Saxon] ūle; [modern] [German] Eule; [English] owl; Fr. hulotte.
9) Ūlūka (ऊलूक):—ūvaṭa vv.ll. for ulupin, ulūka, uvaṭa, qq.v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ulūka (उलूक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. An owl; Indra.
2) Ūlūka (ऊलूक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. An owl.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Ulūka (उलूक) [Also spelled uluk]:—(nm) see [ullū].
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] any of nocturnal birds of prey, of Strigiformes order, with a large head and eyes, short hooked bill, strong talons, and soft fluffy often mottled brown plumage; owl.
2) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.
3) [noun] Indra, the lord of gods.
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1) [noun] a man who has disappeared, is absconding.
2) [noun] (dial.) a man not eager or willing to work or exert oneself; an indolent, lazy man.
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1) [noun] any of nocturnal birds of prey, of Strigiformes order, with a large head and eyes, short hooked bill, strong talons, and soft fluffy often mottled brown plumage; owl.
2) [noun] (myth.) a name of a hell.
3) [noun] Lord Indra, the lord of gods.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+7): Uluka Bacca, Uluka Jataka, Ulukaceti, Ulukadhvaja, Ulukadutagamanaparva, Ulukajit, Ulukakalpa, Ulukakapotashantiprayoga, Ulukalam, Ulukalu, Ulukamukha, Ulukapaka, Ulukapakkha, Ulukapakkhika, Ulukapaksha, Ulukapakshika, Ulukapuccha, Ulukari, Ulukarohana, Ulukasana.
Ends with (+25): Adhikaranaculuka, Antshunduluka, Auluka, Cauluka, Chuluka, Cittuluka, Culuka, Devamuluka, Diluluka, Gamtumuluka, Gugguluka, Gumdumuluka, Hinguluka, Hittuluka, Huluka, Jhuluka, Kimshuluka, Kinculuka, Kolumuluka, Kshudroluka.
Full-text (+83): Uluga, Aulukya, Kaitava, Kaitaveya, Uruka, Ulupin, Auluka, Kshudroluka, Ulukaceti, Koluka, Kharacchada, Kumbholuka, Pratyuluka, Ulukayatu, Uluka Bacca, Huluka, Luka, Ulukapuccha, Ulukapaka, Kanada.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Uluka, Ulūka, Ūlūka, Ulūkā, Uḷuka, Uḷūka; (plurals include: Ulukas, Ulūkas, Ūlūkas, Ulūkās, Uḷukas, Uḷūkas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section XXVI < [Digvijaya Parva]
Section CLXIV < [Uluka Dutagamana Parva]
Section 25 < [Karna Parva]
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
Chapter 5 - The Colossal Armies Moved to Kurukshetra < [Udyoga Parva]
Chapter 5 - Lord Krishna Benedicts the Imprisoned Kings < [Sabha Parva]
Chapter 1 - The Death of Salya < [Salya Parva]
The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system (by Babu C. D)