Bhagavad-gita with four Commentaries [sanskrit]

140,673 words | ISBN-10: 8189564072 | ISBN-13: 9788189564070

The Sanskrit edition of the Bhagavad Gita with four commentaries: (1) The Subodhini by Shridhara (Sridhara Swami), (2) The Gudharthadipika by Madhusudana (Saraswati), (3) The Sararthavarshini by Vishvanatha (Vishwanath Chakravarti) and (4) The Gitabhushana by Baladeva (Vidyabhushan). Original titles: Bhagavadgītā (भगवद्गीता), Śrīdhara (श्रीधर), Madhusūdana (मधुसूदन), Viśvanātha (विश्वनाथ), Baladeva (बलदेव)

śrībhagavānuvāca
abhayaṃ sattvasaṃśuddhirjñānayogavyavasthitiḥ |
dānaṃ damaśca yajñaśca svādhyāyastapa ārjavam ||1||
ahiṃsā satyamakrodhastyāgaḥ śāntirapaiśunam |
dayā bhūteṣvaloluptvaṃ mārdavaṃ hrīracāpalam ||2||
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucamadroho nātimānitā |
bhavanti saṃpadaṃ daivīmabhijātasya bhārata ||3||

The Subodhinī commentary by Śrīdhara


āsurīṃ sampadaṃ tyaktvā daivīmevāśritā narāḥ |
mucyanta iti nirṇetuṃ tadviveko'tha ṣoḍaśe ||

pūrvādhyāyāstu etadbuddhvā buddhimān syātkṛtakṛtyaśca bhāratetyuktam | tatra ka etattattvaṃ budhyate | ko na budhyate | ityapekṣāyāṃ tattvajñāne'dhikāriṇo'nadhikāriṇaśca vivekārthaṃ ṣoḍaśādhyāyasyārambhaḥ | nirūpite hi kāryārthe'dhikārijijñāsā bhavati | taduktaṃ bhaṭṭaiḥ

bhāro yo yena voḍhavyaḥ sa prāgāndolitā yadā |
tadā kaṇḍasya voḍheti śakyaṃ kartuṃ nirūpaṇam || iti |

tatrādhikāriviśeṣaṇabhūtāṃ daivīṃ sampadamāha abharamiti tribhiḥ | abhayaṃ bhayābhāvaḥ | sattvasya cittasya saṃśuddhiḥ suprasannatā | jñānayoga ātmajñānopāye vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭhā | dānaṃ svabhojyasya annāderyathocitaṃ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriyasaṃyamaḥ | yajño yathādhikāraṃ darśapaurṇamāsādiḥ | svādhyāyo brahmayajñādiḥ | japayajño | tapa uttarādhyāye vakṣyamāṇaṃ śārīrādi | ārjavamavakratā ||1||

kiṃ cāhiṃseti | ahiṃsā parapīḍāvarjanam | satyaṃ yathādṛṣṭārthabhāṣaṇam | akrodhastāḍitasyāpi citte kṣobhānutpattiḥ | tyāga audāryam | śāntiścittoparatiḥ | paiśunaṃ parokṣe paradoṣaprakāśanam | tadvarjanamapaiśunam | bhūteṣu dīneṣu dayā | alolupatamalolupatvaṃ lobhābhāvaḥ | avarṇalopa ārṣaḥ | mārdavaṃ mṛdutvamakrūratā | hrīrakāryapravṛttau lokalajjā | acāpalaṃ vyarthakriyārāhityam ||2||

kiṃ ca teja iti | tejaḥ prāgalbhyam | kṣamā paribhavādiṣu utpadyamāneṣu krodhapratibandhaḥ | dhṛtirduḥkhādibhiravasīdataścittasya sthirīkaraṇam | śaucaṃ bāhyābhyantaraśuddhiḥ | adroho jighāṃsārāhityam | ātimānitā ātmanyatipūjyatvābhimānaḥ | tadabhāvo nātimānitā | etānyabhayādīni ṣaḍviṃśatiprakārāṇi daivīṃ sampadamabhijātasya bhavanti | devayogyāṃ sāttvikīṃ sampadamabhilakṣya tadābhimukhyena jātasya | bhāvikalyāṇasya puṃso bhavantītyarthaḥ ||3||

The Gūḍhārthadīpikā commentary by Madhusūdana

anantārādhyāye adhaśca mūlānyanusantatāni karmānubandhīni manuṣyaloke [Gītā 15.2] ityatra manuṣyadehe prāgbhavīyakarmānusāreṇa vyajyamānā vāsanāḥ saṃsārasyāvāntaramūlatvenoktāstāśca daivyāsurī rākṣasī ceti prāṇināṃ prakṛtayo navame'dhyāye sūcitāḥ | tatra vedabodhitakarmātmajñānopāyaānuṣṭhānapravṛttihetuḥ sāttvikī śubhavāsanā daivī prakṛtirityucyate | evaṃ vaidikaniṣedhātikrameṇa svabhāvasiddharāgadveṣānusārisarvānarthahetupravṛttihetubhūtā rājasī tāmasī cāśubhavāsanāsurī rākṣasī ca prakṛtirucyate | tatra ca viṣayabhogaprādhānyena rāgaprābalyādāsurītvaṃ hiṃsāprādhānyena dveṣaprābalyād
rākṣasītvamiti vivekaḥ | samprati tu śāstrānusāreṇa tadvihitapravṛttihetubhūtā sāttvikī śubhavāsanā daivī sampat | śāstrātikrameṇa tanniṣiddhaviṣayapravṛttihetubhūtā rājasī tāmasī cāśubhavāsanā rākṣasyāsuryorekīkaraṇenāsurī sampaditi dvairāśyenaśubhāśubhavāsanābhedaṃ dvayā ha prājāpatyā devāścāsurāśca ityādiśrutiprasiddhaṃ śubhānāmādānāyāśubhānāṃ hānāya ca pratipādayituṃ ṣoḍaśo'dhyāya ārabhyate | tatrādau ślokatrayenṇādeyāṃ daivīṃ sampadam |

śāstropadiṣṭe'rthe sandehaṃ vinānuṣṭānaniṣṭhatvamekākī sarvaparigrahaśūnyaḥ kathaṃ jīviṣyāmīti bhayarāhityaṃ vābhayam | sattvasyāntaḥkaraṇasya śuddhirnirmalatā tasyāḥ samyaktā bhagavattattvasphūrtiyogyatā sattvasaṃśuddhiḥ paravañcanamāyānṛtādiparivarjanaṃ | parasya vyājena vaśīkaraṇaṃ paravañcanam | hṛdaye'nyathā kṛtvā bahiranyathā vyavaharaṇaṃ māyā, anyathādṛṣṭakathanamanṛtamityādi | jñānaṃ śāstrādātmatattvasyāvagamaḥ | cittaikāgratayā tasya svānubhavārūḍhatvaṃ yogaḥ | tayorvyāvasthitiḥ sarvadā tanniṣṭhatā jñānayogavyavasthitiḥ | yadā
tvabhayaṃ sarvabhūtābhayadānasaṅkalpapālanam | etaccānyeṣāmapi paramahaṃsadharmāṇāmupalakṣaṇam | sattvasaṃśuddhiḥ śravaṇādiparipākeṇāntaḥkaraṇasyāsambhāvanāviparītabhāvanādimalarāhityam | jñānamātmasākṣātkāraḥ | yogo manonāśavāsanākṣayānukūlaḥ puruṣaprayatnastābhyāṃ viśiṣṭā saṃsārivilakṣaṇāvasthitirjīvanmuktirjñānayogavyavasthitirityevaṃ vyākhyāyate tadā phalamūrtaiva daivī sampadiyaṃ draṣṭavyā | bhagavadbhaktiṃ vināntaḥkaraṇasaṃśuddherayogāttayā sāpi kathitā |

mahātmānastu māṃ pārtha daivīṃ prakṛtimāśritāḥ |
bhajantyananyamanaso jñātvā bhūtādimavyayam ||13||

iti navame daivyāṃ sampadi bhagavadbhakteruktatvācca | bhagavadbhakteratiśreṣṭhatvādabhayādibhiḥ saha pāṭho na kṛta iti draṣṭavyam |

mahābhāgyānāṃ paramahaṃsānāṃ phalabhūtāṃ daivīṃ sampadamuktvā tato nyūnānāṃ gṛhasthādīnāṃ sādhanabhūtāmāha dānaṃ svasvatvāspadānāmannādīnāṃ yathāśakti śāstroktaḥ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriyasaṃyama ṛtukālādyatiriktakāle maithunādyabhāvaḥ | cakāro'nuktānāṃ nivṛttilakṣaṇadharmāṇāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | yajñaśca śrauto'gnihotradarśapaurṇamāsādiḥ | smārto devayajñaḥ pitṛyajño bhūtayajño manuṣyayajña iti caturvidhaḥ | brahmayajñasya svādhyāyapadena pṛthagukteḥ | cakāro'nuktānāṃ pravṛttilakṣaṇadharmāṇāṃ
samuccayārthaḥ | etattrayaṃ gṛhasthasya | svādhyāyo brahmayajño'dṛṣṭārthamṛgvedādyadhyayanarūpaḥ | yajñaśabdena pañcavidhamahāyajñoktisambhave'pyasādhāraṇyena bramacāridharmatvakathanārthaṃ pṛthaguktiḥ | tapastrividhaṃ śārīrādi saptadaśe vakṣyamāṇaṃ vānaprasthasyāsādhāraṇo dharmaḥ | evaṃ caturṇāmāśramāṇāmasādhāraṇān dharmānuktvā caturṇāṃ varṇānāmasādhāraṇadharmānāha ārjavamavakratvaṃ śraddadhāneṣu śrotṛṣu svajñātārthāsaṃgopanam ||1||

prāṇivṛtticchedo hiṃsā tadahetutvamahiṃsā | satyamanarthānanubandhi yathābhūtārthavacanam | parairākrośe tāḍane kṛte sati prāpto yaḥ krodhastasya tatkālamupaśamanamakrodhaḥ | dānasya prāguktestyāgaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ | damasya prāgukteḥ śāntirantaḥkaraṇasyopaśamaḥ | parasmai parokṣe paradoṣaprakāśanaṃ paiśunam, tadabhāvo'paiśunam | dayā bhūteṣu duḥkhiteṣvanukampā | aloluptvamalolupatvamindriyāṇāṃ viṣayasaṃnidhāne'pyavikriyatvam | mārdavaṃ akrūratvaṃ vṛthāpūrvapakṣādikāriṣvapi śiṣyādiṣvapriyabhāṣaṇādivyatirekeṇa
yodhayitṛtvam | hrīrakāryapravṛttyārambhe tatpratibandhikā lokalajjā | acāpalaṃ prayojanaṃ vināpi vākpāṇyādivyāpārayitṛtvaṃ cāpalaṃ tadabhāvaḥ | ārjavādayo'cāpalāntā brāhmaṇasyāsādharaṇā dharmāḥ ||2||

tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ strībālakādibhirmūḍhairanabhibhāvyatvam | kṣamā satyapi sāmarthye paribhavahetuṃ prati krodhasyānutpattiḥ | dhṛtirdehendriyeṣvavasādaṃ prāpteṣvapi taduttambhakaḥ prayanaviśeṣaḥ | yenottambhitāni karaṇāni śarīraṃ ca nāvasīdanti | etattrayaṃ kṣatriyasyāsādhāraṇam | śaucamābhyantaramarthaprayogādau māyānṛtādirāhityaṃ na tu mṛjjalādijanitaṃ bāhyamatra grāhyaṃ tasya śarīraśuddhirūpatayā bāhyatvenāntaḥkaraṇavāsanātvābhāvāt | tadvāsanānāmeva sāttvikādibhedabhinnānāṃ daivyāsuryādisampadrūpatvenātra pratipipādāyiṣitatvāt | svādhyāyādivatkenacidrūpeṇa vāsanārūpatve tadapyādeyam
eva | drohaḥ parajighāṃsayā śastragrahaṇādi tadabhāvo'drohaḥ | etaddvayaṃ vaiśyasyāsādhāraṇam | astyarthaṃ mānitātmani pūjyatvātiśayabhāvanātimiānitā | tadabhāvo nātimānitā pūjyeṣu namratā | ayaṃ śūdrasyāsādhāraṇo dharmaḥ | tametaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena [BAU 4.4.22] ityādi śrutyā vividiṣaupayikatayā viniyuktā asādhāraṇāḥ sādhāraṇāśca varṇāśramadharmā ihopalakṣyante | ete dharmā bhavanti niṣpadyante daivīṃ śuddhasattvamayīṃ sampadaṃ vāsanāsantatiṃ śarīrārambhakāle puṇyakarmabhirabhivyaktāmabhilakṣya jātasya puruṣasya taṃ
vidyākarmaṇī samanvārabhete pūrvaprajñā ca [BAU 4.4.2], puṇyaḥ puṇyena karmaṇā bhavati pāpaḥ pāpena [BAU 4.4.5] ityādi śrutibhyaḥ | he bhārateti sambhodayn śuddhavaṃśodbhavatvena pūtatvāttvametādṛśadharmayogyo'sīti sūcayati ||3||

The Sārārthavarṣiṇī commentary by Viśvanātha

ṣoḍaśe sampadaṃ daivīmāsurīmapyavarṇayat |
sargaṃ ca dvividhaṃ daivamāsuraṃ prabhurakṣayāt ||

anantarādhyāye ūrdhvamūlamadhaḥśākhamityādinā varṇitasya saṃsārāśvatthavṛkṣasya phalāni na varṇitānītyanusmṛtyāsminnadhyāye tasya dvividhāni mokacāni bandhakāni ca phalāni varṇayiṣyan prathamṃ mokaānyāha abhayamiti tribhiḥ | tyaktaputrakalatrādika ekākī nirjane vane kathaṃ jīviṣyāmīti bhayarāhityamabhayam | sattvasaṃśuddhiścittaprasādaḥ | jñānayoge jñānopāye'mānitvādau vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭhā | dānaṃ svabhojyānnāderyathocitaṃ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriyasaṃyamaḥ | yajño devapūjā | svādhyāyo vedapāṭhḥ | ādīni spaṣṭāni | tyāgaḥ putrakalatrādiṣu yamatātyāgaḥ
| aloluptvaṃ lobhābhāvaḥ | etāni ṣaḍviṃśatirabhayādīni daivīṃ sāttvikīṃ samapdamabhilakṣya jātasya sāttvikyāḥ sampadaḥ prāptvyañjake kṣaṇe janma labdhavataḥ puṃso bhavanti ||13||

The Gītābhūṣaṇa commentary by Baladeva

daivīṃ tathāsurīṃ kṛṣṇaḥ sampadaṃ ṣoḍaśe'bravīt |
pādeyatvaheyatve bodhayan kramatastayoḥ ||

pūrvatra aśvatthamūlānyanusantatāni ityādinā prācīnakarmanimittāḥ śubhāśubhavāsanāḥ saṃsārataroravāntaramūlatvenoktāḥ | etā eva navame daivyāsurī rākṣasī cetei prāṇināṃ prakṛtayo nigaditāḥ | tatra vaidikārthānuṣṭhānahetuḥ sāttvikī śubhavāsanā mokṣopāyoginī daivī prakṛtiḥ | saiveha daivī sampattarorupādeyaṃ phalam | svābhāvikarāgadveṣānusāriṇī sarvānarthahetū rājasī tāmasī cāśubhavāsanā āsurī rākṣasī ca prakṛtinirayanipātopayoginī | cāsurasampattayorheyaṃ phalamityetadbodhayituṃ ṣoḍaśasyārambhaḥ |

atra daivīṃ sampadaṃ bhagavānuvāca abhayamityādinā trikeṇa | caturṇāmāśramāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ ca dharmāḥ kramādiha kathyante | sannyāsināṃ tāvadāha abhayaṃ nirudyamaḥ kathamekākī jiviṣyāmīti bhayaśūnyatvam | sattvasaṃśuddhiḥ svāśramadharmānuṣṭhānena manonairmalyam | jñānayoge śravaṇādau jñānopāye | vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭheti trayam ||

atha brahmacāriṇāmāha svādhyāyo brahmayajñaḥ śaktimato bhagavataḥ pratipādako'yamapauruṣeyo'kṣararāśirityanusandhāya vedābhyāsaniṣṭhatetyekam |

atha vānaprasthānāmāha tapa iti | tacca śarīrāditribhedamityaṣṭādaśe vakṣyamāṇaṃ bodhyamityekam |

atha varṇeṣu viprāṇāmāha ārjavaṃ sāralyam | tacca śraddhāluśrotṛṣu svajñātārthāgopanaṃ jñeyam | ahiṃsā prāṇijīvikānucchedakatā | satyamanrthānanubhandiyathādṛṣṭārthaviṣayaṃ vākyam | akrodho durjanakṛte svatiraskāre'bhyuditasya kopasya nirodhaḥ | tyāgo durukterapi tatrāprakāśaḥ | śāntirmanasaḥ saṃyamaḥ | apaiśunaṃ parokṣe parānarthakārivākyāprakāśanam | bhūteṣu dayā tadduḥkhāsahiṣṇutā | aloluptvaṃ nirlobhatā | palopaśchāndasaḥ | mārdavaṃ komalatvaṃ satpātrasaṅgavicchedāsahanam | hrīrvikarmaṇi lajjā | acāpalaṃ vyarthakriyāviraha iti dvādaśa |

atha kṣatriyāṇāmāha tejastucchajanānabhibhāvyatvam | kṣamā satyapi sāmartheysvāsamānaṃ paribhāvakaṃ prati kopānudayaḥ | dhṛtiḥ śarīrendriyeṣvapi taduttambhakaḥ prayatno yena teṣāṃ nāvasādaḥ syāditi trayam |

atha vaiśyānāmāha śaucaṃ vyāpāre vāṇijye māyānṭrādirāhityam | adrohaḥ parajighāṃsayā khaḍgādyagrahaṇamiti dvayam |

atha śūdrānāmāha nātimānitā ātmani pūjyatvabhāvanāśūnyatā viprādiṣu triṣu namratetyekamiti ṣaḍviṃśatiḥ |

ete tatra tatra pradhānabhūtā bodhyā anuktānāmapyupalakṣaṇārthāḥ | dehārambhakālonmukhaiḥ sukṛtairvyaktāṃ daivīṃ śubhavāsanāmabhilakṣīkṛtya jātasya puruṣasya bhavanti udayante puṇyaḥ puṇye karmaṇā bhavati pāpaḥ pāpena iti śruteḥ | devāhkhalu pareśānuvṛttiśīlāsteṣāmiyaṃ sampadanayā tatprāpakajñānabhaktisambhavātsaṃsāratarorupādeyaṃ phalametat ||13||

__________________________________________________________

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: