Thirty minor Upanishads

by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar | 1914 | 95,228 words

This book contains the English translation of thirty minor Upanishads.—Fourteen belonging to Vedanta, two are categorised as Physiological, three are Mantra, two are Sannyasa and the remaining nine are categorised as Yoga-Upanishads. These Upanishads are properly defined as the Aranya-portion of the Vedas (most ancient Hindu scriptures) and are so-...

Amritanada Upanishad of Krishna-Yajurveda

The wise, having studied the Śāstras and reflected on them again and again and having come to know Brahman, should abandon them all like a firebrand. Having ascended the car of Om with Viṣṇu (the Higher Self) as the charioteer, one wishing to go to the seat of Brahmaloka intent on the worship of Rudra, should go in the chariot so long as he can go. Then abandoning the car, he reaches the place of the Lord of the car. Having given up mātrā, liṅga,[1] and pada,[2] he attains the subtle pada (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by means of the letter M without the svara (accent). That is called pratyāhāra when one merely thinks of the five objects of sense, such as sound, etc., as also the very unsteady mind as the reins of Ātmā. Pratyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), dhyāna (contemplation), prāṇāyāma (control of breath), dhāraṇā (concentration), tārka[3] and samādhi are said to be the six parts of yoga. Just as the impurities of mountain-minerals are burnt by the blower, so the stains committed by the organs are burned by checking prāṇa. Through prāṇāyāmas should be burnt the stains; through dhāraṇā, the sins; through pratyāhāra, the (bad) associations; and through dhyāna, the godless qualities. Having destroyed the sins, one should think of Rucira (the shining). Rucira (cessation), expiration and inspiration—these three are prāṇāyāma of (rechaka, pūraka and kumbhaka) expiration, inspiration and cessation of breath. That is called (one) prāṇāyāma when one repeats with a prolonged (or elongated) breath three times the Gāyatrī with its vyāhṛtis and Praṇava (before it) along with the śiras[4] (the head) joining after it. Raising up the vāyu from the ākāś (region, viz., the heart) and making the body void (of vāyu) and empty and uniting (the soul) to the state of void, is called rechaka (expiration). That is called pūraka (inspiration) when one takes in vāyu, as a man would take water into his mouth through the lotus-stalk. That is called kumbhaka (cessation of breath) when there is no expiration or inspiration and the body is motionless, remaining still in one state. Then he sees forms like the blind, hears sounds like the deaf and sees the body like wood. This is the characteristic of one that has attained much quiescence. That is called dhāraṇā when the wise man regards the mind as saṅkalpa and merging saṅkalpa into Ātmā, contemplates upon his Ātmā (alone). That is called tārka when one makes inference which does not conflict with the Vedas. That is called samādhi in which one, on attaining it, thinks (all) equal.

Seating himself on the ground on a seat of kuśa grass which is pleasant and devoid of all evils, having protected himself mentally (from all evil influences), uttering ratha-maṇḍala,[5] assuming either padma, svastika, or bhadra posture or any other which can be practised easily, facing the north and closing the nostril with the thumb, one should inspire through the other nostril and retain breath inside and preserve the Agni (fire). Then he should think of the sound (Om) alone. Om, the one letter is Brahman; Om should not be breathed out. Through this divine mantra (Om), it should be done many times to rid himself of impurity. Then as said before, the mantra-.knowing wise should regularly meditate, beginning with the navel upwards in the gross, the primary (or less) gross and subtle (states). The greatly wise should give up all (sight) seeing across, up or down, and should practise yoga always being motionless and without tremor. The union as stated (done) by remaining without tremor in the hollow stalk (viz., Suṣumnā) alone is dhāraṇā. The yoga with the ordained duration of twelve mātrās is called (dhāraṇā). That which never decays is Akṣara (Om) which is without ghoṣa (third, fourth, and fifth letters from K), consonant, vowel, palatal, guttural, nasal, letter R and sibilants. Prāṇa travels through (or goes by) that path through which this Akṣara (Om) goes. Therefore it should be practised daily, in order to pass along that (course). It is through the opening (or hole) of the heart, through the opening of vāyu (probably navel), through the opening of the head and through the opening of mokṣa. They call it bila (cave), sushira (hole), or maṇḍala (wheel).[6]

(Then about the obstacles of yogi). A yogin should always avoid fear, anger, laziness, too much sleep or waking and too much food or fasting. If the above rule be well and strictly practised each day, spiritual wisdom will arise of itself in three months without doubt. In four months, he sees the devas; in five months, he knows (or becomes) Brahmaniṣṭha; and truly in six months he attains Kaivalya at will. There is no doubt.

That which is of the earth is of five mātrās (or it takes five mātrās to pronounce Pārthiva-Praṇava). That which is of water of four mātrās; of agni, three mātrās; of vāyu, two; and of ākāś, one. But he should think of that which is with no mātrās. Having united Ātmā with manas, one should contemplate upon Ātmā by means of ātmā. Prāṇā is thirty[7] digits long. Such is the position (or range) of prāṇas. That is called Prāṇa which is the seat of the external prāṇas. The breaths by day and night are numbered as 1,13,180.[8] (Of the prāṇas) the first (viz.,) Prāṇa is pervading the heart; Apāna, the anus; Samāna, the navel; Udāna, the throat; and Vyāna, all parts of the body. Then come the colours of the five prāṇas in order. Prāṇa is said to be of the colour of a blood-red gem (or coral); Apāna which is in the middle is of the colour of Indragopa (an insect of white or red colour); Samāna is between the colour of pure milk and crystal (or oily and shining), between both (Prāṇa and Apāna): Udāna is apāṇḍara (pale white); and Vyāna resembles the colour of archis (or ray of light). That man is never reborn wherever he may die, whose breath goes out of the head after piercing through this maṇḍala (of the pineal gland). That man is never reborn.

Footnotes and references:


It is said to be the subtle, gross and other microcosmic bodies. It also means sign.


It is said to be the macrocosmic bodies of Virāt, etc. It means a word or letter.


In this classification, tārka is introduced newly. It means; the examination of the mind being attracted to objects and knowing that siddhis are impediments to progress.


The vyāhṛtis are Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, etc., and the head is Om, Āpo, etc.


Lit., car-circle which is a mystical chakra or diagram for invoking the devatā; but some commentators make raṭha mean Om: and maṇḍala, the circle of Śiva.


There are four openings in the body; three from which the astral, the lower mental and the higher mental bodies escape: the last being of turya.


As measured by the width of the middle finger: Yājñavalkya says, Prāṇa is 12 digits beyond the body.


One commentator makes it thus: Taking 21,600 for each of the five Prāṇas, we get 1,08,000: for the five sub-prāṇas, 5 × 1036 is 5,180. Hence the total is 1,13,180. Another commentator makes it 21,600 alone.

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