Ratha: 31 definitions

Introduction:

Ratha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Ratha (रथ).—Temple cart or chariot, used during religious festival to carry the Deities.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ratha (रथ) refers to “chariots”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] At the same time, several phenomena of evil portent forboding misery and distress happened, when the son of Varāṅgī was born making the gods miserable. [...] O great Brahmin, the misty haloes around the sun and the moon in the grip of Rāhu became the harbingers of great fear and unhappiness. At that time terrifying sounds that resembled those of the chariot [i.e., ratha-nirhrāda-tulya] issued forth from cracks and crevices in the mountains. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ratha (रथ).—Of the moon, description of; sprang out of waters with ten horses, charioteer, etc., has three wheels.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 50-4.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Ratha (रथ).—Name of one of the eight kinds of recitals of the Veda Samhita by dividing it into the component words (पद (pada)) and reciting the component words by repeating them, in their regular order and reverse order too.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Ratha (रथ) refers to the “chariot [i.e., that which carries ?]” (of the sun), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Hear now the effects of the heliacal rising of Canopus (Agastya), a star sacred to Agastya who suppressed the Vindhya mountains whose soaring heights obstructed the course of the Sun [i.e., dinakara-ratha-mārga-vicchitti]; to which the pictured robes of the Vidyādhara females leaning for support on their lord’s arms and flying aloft in the sky formed beautiful flowing flags; whose caves were the abodes of lions which, having drunk of the perfumed blood of elephants in rut had their mouths covered with bees that looked like so many black flowers, and from which caves issued rivers; [...]”.

2) Ratha (रथ) is the name of a River identified with Guṇḍaka (according to Kāśyapa), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Mercury presides over the western half of the Lohitya river, the Indus, the Sarayū, the Gāmbhīrika, the Ratha, the Ganges and its tributary the Kauśi. He also presides over the countries of Videha, Kāmboja; the eastern half of Mathurā, the Himālayas, the Gomanta, the Citrakūṭa mountains, Saurāṣṭra; people living on table lands, [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Ratha (रथ) refers to a “chariot”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 5.27.—Accordingly: “Due to the power arisen from the sprinkling performed with mantras by Vasiṣṭha the course of his chariot (ratha) was not blocked on the ocean, in the sky and in the mountains, like that of a cloud helped by the wind”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Ratha (रथ) refers to a “cart” (e.g., ‘a cart pulled by a donkey’), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification caused by a aggressive ritual against Kings, occurring at the improper time, dreadful and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: [...] [the King] is so deluded that he himself forgets the dos and don’ts; in a dream he sees himself with a shaven head and clad in a dark blue garment, travelling towards the southern direction on a cart pulled by a donkey (ratharathena gardabhayujā); from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Ratha (रथ) refers to a “chariot”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.17-25ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Sūrya]—“Now, I explain that which consists of light [i.e., Sūrya]. [...] [The Mantrin] should imagine [Sūrya] with one hand [holding] a vajra [and] one a bridle. [He is] mounted on a chariot [on which are yoked] seven horses (saptāśva-rathasaptāśvaratham ārūḍhaṃ). [He] wears a serpent as a sacred thread [and] a garland of red flowers [and is] anointed with red perfume. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Ratha (रथ) in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘chariot’ as opposed to Anas, ‘cart’, though the distinction is not absolute. Of differences in the structure of the two we have no information, except that the Kha, or nave hole, in the wheel of the chariot was greater than in that of the cart.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ratha (रथ) refers to “chariots” and is mentioned among the “material benefits” granted by the Bodhisattva, according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLVI.—Accordingly, “vehicles (yāna), i.e., elephants (hastin), horses (aśva), chariots (ratha), carriages (śakaṭa), etc.”

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Ratha (रथ) refers to “chariots”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “Then the Bodhisattva Apāyajaha addressed himself to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, please pacify three evil existences’. [...] Then, the rain of gifts, such as [...] chariots (ratha), foot-soldiers, vehicles, houses, villages, cities, towns, provinces, kingdoms, capitals, gardens, pavilions, palaces, portals, windows, half-moon shaped decorations on building, thrones, palanquin, and chariots drawn by four cattle, sixteen cattle, and a thousand of good horses, poured down from the open space. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ratha (रथ) refers to “chariots”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “When Yama is an opponent of embodied souls, all elephants, horses, men, and soldiers [com.—elephants, horses, chariots and soldiers (gajāśvarathasainyāni)] and the powers of mantras and medicines become useless. While any person does not hear the merciless roaring of Yama’s lion, in that time he leaps about having pleasure in only [his own] power”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Rāṭhā is the modified form of Rāṣṭra when used in place-names. Rāṣṭra is the oldest and biggest territorial term. In the Ṛgveda and later Saṃhitās, it denotes “kingdom” or “royal territory”. It is considered to be one of the Prakṛtis (constituents) and refers to a country.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ratha.—rock-cut temples at Mahābalipuram (Journ. Mad. Univ., Vol. XXXII, p. 140). Note: ratha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Shodhganga: Vernacular architecture of Assam with special reference to Brahmaputra Valley

Ratha is an Assamese term referring to “chariot / a temple”.—It appears in the study dealing with the vernacular architecture (local building construction) of Assam whose rich tradition is backed by the numerous communities and traditional cultures.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ratha : (m.) a carriage; chariot.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Ratha, 2 (fr. ram, cp. Sk. ratha) pleasure, joy, delight: see mano°. (Page 565)

2) Ratha, 1 (Vedic ratha, Av. rapa, Lat. rota wheel, rotundus (“rotund” & round), Oir. roth=Ohg rad wheel, Lith. rãtas id. ) a two-wheeled carriage, chariot (for riding, driving or fighting S. I, 33 (ethically); A. IV, 191 (horse & cart; diff. parts of a ratha); M. I, 396; Sn. 300, 654; Vism. 593 (in its compn of akkha, cakka, pañjara, īsā etc.); J. III, 239 (passaddha° carriage slowing up); Th. 2, 229 (caturassaṃ rathaṃ, i.e. a Vimāna); Mhvs 35, 42 (goṇā rathe yuttā); VvA. 78 (500), 104, 267 (=Vimāna), PvA. 74.—assatarī° a chariot drawn by a she-mule Vv 208=438; Pv. I, 111; J. VI, 355.—Phussa-ratha state carriage J. III, 238; VI, 30 sq. See under ph.—On ratha in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 127.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

raṭha (रठ) [or रंठ, raṇṭha].—a Hard;--used of kinds of wood. 2 Hard--kinds of betelnut, unripe fruits. 3 Coarse--flour, powders. 4 Hard or rough--the tongue. 5 Hard and unyielding--a soil, or the ground from an incidental cause. 6 Hardy--a body or a person. 7 Used sometimes in the senses of raṭāla or raṭēla. See further under rāṇṭha, for of these two forms each has, in certain applications and with certain speakers, a preferableness over the other.

--- OR ---

ratha (रथ).—m (S) A war-chariot or a carriage of state, a car.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ratha (रथ).—m A war-chariot, a car.

--- OR ---

rāṭha (राठ).—a Rough, rude; hardy; harsh.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ratha (रथ).—[ramyatenena atra vā, ram-kathan; cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 2.2]

1) A carriage, chariot, car, vehicle; especially, a war-chariot.

2) A hero (for rathin); अपवातेषु पार्येषु त्रयस्तेऽभावञ् रथाः (apavāteṣu pāryeṣu trayaste'bhāvañ rathāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.2.92.

3) A foot.

4) A limb, part, member.

5) The body; cf. आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु (ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ rathameva tu) Kaṭh. 1.3.3.

6) A reed.

7) Pleasure, delight.

Derivable forms: rathaḥ (रथः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ratha (रथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) 1. A car, a war-chariot. 2. A car, a carriage in general, any vehicle or mode of conveyance. 3. A limb, a member. 4. The body. 5. A foot. 6. A sort of cane, (Calamus rotang.) E. ram to sport, Unadi aff. kthana .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ratha (रथ).— (vb. ), m. 1. A car, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 32, M.M.; a war chariot, Chr. 4, 10. 2. Any vehicle. 3. A limb. 4. A foot. 5. The body.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ratha (रथ).—1. [masculine] waggon, [especially] war-chariot, also any vehicle of the gods; charioteer, warrior, champion, hero.

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Ratha (रथ).—2. [masculine] pleasure, joy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ratha (रथ):—1. ratha m. (√4. ) ‘goer’, a chariot, car, [especially] a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the anas q.v.), any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods), waggon, cart, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (ifc. f(ā). )

2) a warrior, hero, champion, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) a limb, member, part, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Calamus Rotang, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Dalbergia Ougeinensis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) = pauruṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) 2. ratha m. (√ram) pleasure, joy, delight (cf. mano-ratha)

9) affection, love (cf. next).

10) Rāṭha (राठ):—m. Vangueria Spinosa, [Caraka] (cf. rāḍha).

11) Rātha (राथ):—1. rātha Vṛddhi form of 1. ratha, in [compound]

12) 2. rātha Vṛddhi form of 2. ratha, in [compound]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ratha (रथ):—(thaḥ) 1. m. A car; a war-car; a limb; the body; a cane.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ratha (रथ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Raha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ratha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ratha (रथ) [Also spelled rath]:—(nm) a chariot; ~[kāra] chariot-maker; -[yātrā] a celebration organized on the second day of the bright fortnight of [āṣāḍha] when the devotees take out the idols of the deities in a huge procession; ~[vān] a charioteer, one who rides a chariot.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ratha (ರಥ):—

1) [noun] a light, two or four-wheeled carriage used in ancient times; a chariot.

2) [noun] a harse-drawn, two wheeled cart used in ancient times of war, racing, etc.; a chariot.

3) [noun] a kind of multi-stepped, tall vehicle for taking the idol of the temple diety in procession.

4) [noun] a division of an army, in ancient times, in which warriors were used to stand and fight.

5) [noun] the physical body of human beings.

6) [noun] a limb, part of the body.

7) [noun] joy; pleasure; delight.

8) [noun] (archit.) a building constructed in the shape of a chariot.

9) [noun] (match.) a large number, one followed by twenty eight zeros.

10) [noun] ರಥ ಸಾಗಿಸು [ratha sagisu] ratha sāgisu to manage or carry on one’s household affairs.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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