Dhyana, aka: Dhyāna; 6 Definition(s)
Dhyana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
PurāṇaCologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Dhyāna (ध्यान, “meditation”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the eight brances of yoga, also known as the eightfold-path (aṣṭānga). Also see the fifth section of the Varāha-upaniṣad.Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Yoga refers to the Ancient Indian school of philosophy combining the physical, mental and spiritual.
Dhyāna (ध्यान).—Each aspect of construction has a “theological” (oscillating between mythical and metaphysical) dimension, which the sthapati accesses through a spiritual kind of “seeing” while conducting the operation or performing the ritual. This is dhyāna, meditation (as well as contemplation). Dhyāna derives from √dhyā, “to think, contemplate”, which, etymologically, is “a perfectly normal variant of the root from √dhī [‘to see, perceive’]” (see Jan Gonda, The Vision al the Vedic Poets, “dhyānam”).
The principle behind dhyāna in artistic and architectural making is that of identification. The sthapati pierces into the metaphysical essence of the form being created and identifies himself as one with it. This is achieved through a dialectic between the “technique” (in the yogic sense) of intense contemplation that the sages employed on the one hand, and the emotional rapture of devotional love ending in ecstatic vision that the saints experienced (the latter implied in the text by the term rāga, passion, and its connotations pertinent to artistic creativity) on the other. In each of these modes, the perceptual and cognitive faculties are absorbed into the spiritual experience of union with the divine.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra
Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Dhyāna can refer to either meditation or meditative states. Equivalent terms are "Chán" in modern Chinese, "Zen" in Japanese, "Seon" in Korean, "Thien" in Vietnamese, and "Samten" in Tibetan.
As a meditative state, dhyāna is characterized by profound stillness and concentration. It is discussed in the Pāli canon (and the parallel agamas) and post-canonical Theravāda Buddhist literature, and in other literature. There has been little scientific study of the states so far.
Dhyāna in Sanskrit (Devanagari: ध्यान) or jhāna (झान) in Pāli;Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Jainism)
Dhyāna (ध्यान, “concentration of mind”).—In the Jaina tradition dhyāna generally means “concentrating the mind” on some object or mental image. According to them our thoughts, and their instrument, the mind, are restless, and their regulation and concentration is called dhyāna.
Jainism describes four kinds of dhyāna:
- ārta-dhyāna (the concentration of the mind on fulfilling worldly desires),
- raudra-dhyāna (the concentration of thoughts on violent activities),
- dharma-dhyāna (the concentration of the mind on auspicious thoughts, or on the well-being of one’s self as well as the well-being of others),
- śukla-dhyāna (here the mind gradually shortens it fields of concentration and at last becomes nirvikalpa, steady and motionless)
The author of the Jñānārṇava, in addition, elaborately expounds the process of dhyāna by classifying into:
- piṇḍastha (comprises the five forms of dhāraṇā, or ‘contemplation’),
- padastha (contemplation by means of certain mantric syllables),
- rūpastha (meditating on the divine qualities and extraordinary powers of the arahants),
- rūpātīta (meditation on the attributes of siddhātman.)
Dhyāna (ध्यान).—What is meant by ‘meditation’ (dhyāna)? Concentrating of thoughts on one object for a maximum of one Indian-hour by an ascetic with perfect body structure (uttama-sahanana-śarira) is called meditation. An ascetic with perfect body structure can meditate properly for a maximum period of an Indian-hour (48 minutes approx). An Indian-hour is equal to two ghadī. A ghadī equals 24 minutes.
The four types of meditation are:
- ārta-dhyāna (pan based or mournful),
- raudra-dhyāna (cruel),
- dharmya-dhyāna (virtuous),
- śukla-dhyāna (the pure).
What are the benefits of meditation (dhyāna)? It annihilates all karmas bonded with the soul. A correct meditation for an intra-Indian-hour (antaramuhūrta) can destroy all obscuring karmas and enable the practitioner to become an omniscient. What are the essential components for a proper meditation (dhyāna)? The four things, namely: the one who meditates, the process of meditation, the object of meditation and the period of meditation are the four components of the proper meditation.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Influx of karmas
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Search found books containing Dhyana or Dhyāna. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga Sutras with Vedanta Commentaries (by Patañjali)
Sūtras 1-3 < [Part III - Powers]
Sūtras 28-30 < [Part II - Yoga and its Practice]
Sūtras 10-15 < [Part II - Yoga and its Practice]
The Great Chariot (by Longchenpa)
Part 3c.2 - How to establish samadhi by becoming familiar with this < [B. The gradation of powers of those who meditate into high, middle, and low]
A. The instruction to train in the cause establishing dhyana < [Chapter XII - The Limbs of the Path of Skillful Means in Establishing samadhi]
Part 2b.1 - The main means of practice, shamatha and vipashyana < [B. The teaching of the three factors of immovable samadhis]
Abhidharmakośa (by Vasubandhu)
The Treatise on the Great Virtue of Wisdom, Volume II (by Nāgārjuna)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
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