Face, Facing, Faced: 2 definitions

Introduction:

Face means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) The Face includes minor Body Parts through which are expressed various gestures (in Sanskrit Dramas), as conveyed through Āṅgikābhinaya: one of the four divisions of Abhinaya or “ways to convey or represent one’s emotion to others”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra and the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The āṅgikābhinaya includes the histrionic representation of the limbs which is simply known as physical gestures.

The upāṅgas denote different parts of the Face. These are also six in numbers viz.,

  1. eyes,
  2. eyebrows,
  3. nose,
  4. lower
  5. lip,
  6. cheeks and
  7. chin.

2) The Face and other Limbs (in Indian Dramas) were commonly painted, as conveyed through the Aṅgaracanā division of Āhāryābhinaya.—Aṅgaracanā meaning painting of limbs of different characters, also falls under the category of makeover. [...] Applying of moustaches and beard can be called an important make-up in facial decoration. The Nāṭyaśāstra says that after painting the face and other limbs the characters are provided with beard according to their territory, profession and spiritual rites.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Facing (the highest reality) is denoted by the Sanskrit term Saṃmukha, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I will teach the practice of that, which produces absorption. [...] The Yogin, who is free from all thoughts in regard to [everything] internal and external, should meditate with [his] mind on nothing. [Then,] he becomes one who faces (saṃmukha) the highest reality. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Discover the meaning of face in the context of Yoga from relevant books on Exotic India

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