Turya, Tūrya: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Turya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Truy.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tūrya (तूर्य).—Generally a war-musical instrument; employed on auspicious occasions, and in temples;1 sounding of bugles in a wrestling match;2 finding Cāṇūra declining, Kaṃsa stopped the sounding of the drum when the Devas sounded divine music.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 18; Matsya-purāṇa 149. 2; 163. 105; 192. 28.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 20. 30.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 20. 71-3.
Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Tūrya (तूर्य) refers to “clarionets”, according to the Rāmāyaṇa verse 5.3.8-13. Accordingly:—“[...] Seeing the city [viz., Laṅkā] everywhere Hanuma (Hanumān) became surprised at heart. Thereafter Hanuma the monkey, became happy seeing [...] auspicious houses resounding everywhere with the sounds of clarionets (tūrya) and ornaments (ābharaṇa), [...], equalling the city of Vasvaukasārā, as though flying towards the sky. Seeing that city of Rāvaṇa, which was best among cities, a wealthy city, a beautiful and auspicious city, that powerful Hanuma thought thus”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Tūrya (तूर्य) refers to “trumpets”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The man who offers the sacrifice along with his wife, the teacher and a sculptor goes at an auspicious time with elephants, horses, and chariots to the dwellings, temples, and doors taking (with them) some things (as an offering), which bestow what is auspicious. They do this with the sounds of conches, trumpets and the like [i.e., śaṅkha-tūrya-ādi-nirghoṣa], with the sound of singing and dancing while reciting auspicious hymns and (giving their) blessings with auspicious gifts. [...] Then (after having made offerings in the directions) one should install the Liṅga and worship the teacher vigorously”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Turya (तुर्य) or Turyāvasthā refers to the “transcendent state called the Fourth”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā III.2.12.—Accordingly, “But when, through realizing [that the divine] qualities such as all-pervasiveness and eternality apply to oneself, by having the experience of the [real] “I” whose nature is [unqualified] freedom—[an experience] pointed out by the guru’s instruction and other methods that I have explained—[and] having therefore emerged as it were from [identification with] the objective knowables of the Void etc., and [as a result] abiding [in one’s real nature], then that is the [transcendent] state [called] the Fourth (turya-avasthā). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Turya (तुर्य) represents the number 4 (four) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 4—turya] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tūrya (तूर्य) refers to “(heavenly) musical instruments”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]—[...] (5). The Buddha has no non-concentrated mind.—[...] The heavenly musical instruments (divya-tūrya) make all sorts of sounds dear to the gods, and they do so while being without mind (citta) or consciousness (vijñāna) by virtue of the merits (puṇya) acquired by the gods. If these heavenly musical instruments that are without mind or consciousness do such things, how could it be said that the Buddha, who is endowed with mind, cannot preach the Dharma? This is why it is said that the Buddha does not have a non-concentrated mind”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Puṣpavarṣa (पुष्पवर्ष) refers to “celestial cymbals”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] A hundred thousand gods, having let fall the rain of flowers and played the celestial cymbals (tūrya), uttered a joyous utterance: ‘Living beings who, having heard this teaching, believe it, embrace it, practice it, and proceed to the realm of the Buddha. All the Buddha-fields, where the Awakened Lords appear, are adorned with ornaments and respected by the wise. Why is that? When the Buddhas appear, such dharma will be taught, and the good men endowed with inconceivable qualities will see it’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Turya.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘four’. Note: turya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tūrya (तूर्य).—n S A musical instrument gen.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Turya (तुर्य).—a. Fourth; N.4.123.

-ryam 1 A quarter, a fourth part.

2) (In Vedānta phil.) The fourth state of the soul in which it becomes one with Brahman.

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Tūrya (तूर्य).—[tūryate tāḍyate tūr-yat] A kind of musical instrument; तूर्यघोषैः प्रहर्षितः (tūryaghoṣaiḥ praharṣitaḥ) Manusmṛti 7.225; Kumārasambhava 7.1.

Derivable forms: tūryaḥ (तूर्यः), tūryam (तूर्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Turya (तुर्य) or Turyya.—mfn.

(-ryaḥ-ryā-ryaṃ) Fourth. E. irr. derived from catur four, with yat aff.

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Tūrya (तूर्य) or Tūryya.—mfn.

(-ryaḥ-ryā ryaṃ) Fourth: see turya. n.

(-ryaṃ) Any musical instrument, the genus of which four species are reckoned, as wind instruments, stringed instruments, &c. E. catur four, yat deriv. irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Turya (तुर्य).—i. e. catur + ya (see turīya), 1. ord. number, Fourth, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 3, 9. 2. n. A quarter, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 9, 8.

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Tūrya (तूर्य).—I. = turya, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 2, 91. Ii. m. and n. Any musical instrument, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 225.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Turya (तुर्य).—[adjective] = turīya.

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Turyā (तुर्या).—[feminine] superior strength.

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Tūrya (तूर्य).—1. [neuter] a musical instrument.

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Tūrya (तूर्य).—2. [adjective] the fourth.

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Tūrya (तूर्य).—3. v. vṛtratūrya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Turyā (तुर्या):—[from turāyaṇa > tur] f. superior power, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii, 2, 12.]

2) Turya (तुर्य):—[from turīya] a mfn. ([Pāṇini 5-2, 51], [vArttika] 1) 4th, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā; Śrutabodha]

3) [v.s. ...] forming a 4th part, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] n. the 4th state of soul (See rīya), [vii, 9, 32; Haṭha-pra-dīpikā iv, 45; Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad ii, 4, 15 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

5) [v.s. ...] mfn. being in that state of soul, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa vi f.]

6) b See [column]1.

7) Tūrya (तूर्य):—[from tūrti > tūr] a See ap-, mitraetc.

8) [from tūra] 2. tūrya n. (m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) a musical instrument, [Pāṇini; Manu-smṛti vii; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Harivaṃśa])

9) [v.s. ...] cf. sa-.

10) 3. tūrya mfn. = tur, 4th, [Rājataraṅgiṇī ii, 91]

11) m. Name of a family, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Turya (तुर्य):—[(ryyaḥ-ryyā-ryyaṃ) a.] Fourth.

2) Tūrya (तूर्य):—(ryyaṃ) 1. n. Any musical instrument. a. The fourth.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Turya (तुर्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Turia, Tūra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Turya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tūrya (तूर्य) [Also spelled truy]:—(nm) a trumpet; ~[nāda] sounding of trumpet(s).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Turya (ತುರ್ಯ):—

1) [adjective] forming a 4th part.

2) [adjective] (phil.) being in the fourth state (said of the soul).

3) [adjective] (astrol.) being in the fourth house (from one’s birth house).

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Tūrya (ತೂರ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the one following the third or three others in a series; the fourth.

2) [noun] (astrol.) the fourth house from the birth-house in one’s horoscope.

3) [noun] the Supreme Spirit.

4) [noun] the fourth state of the soul in which it becomes one with the Supreme Spirit.

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Tūrya (ತೂರ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] a kind of wind instrument.

2) [noun] any musical instrument in general.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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