Puraka, Pūraka: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Puraka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Pūraka (पूरक) refers to “inhaling” (of breath). It is one of the three types of ‘breath-suspension’ techniques, also known as prāṇāyāma. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 6.70)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Pūraka (पूरक, “breathing in”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the three major breaths on which prāṇāyāma is built.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Puraka (पुरक) refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the fingers (aṅguli) to be worn by females, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., puraka) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Pūraka (पूरक) refers to a “flat bracelet” and represents a type of “hand-ornaments” (hastabhūṣaṇa), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—There are a number of ornaments for hand and arms. According to Bharata, [viz., kalāpī (string of pearls), śaṅkha (bracelet of conches), hastapatra (bracelet with design of creepers), pūraka (a flat bracelet) are the ornament for hand fist and upper part of wrist; and rings are meant for fingers].

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pūraka.—(CII 3; etc.), used as a termination of the names of villages. Note: pūraka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pūraka : (adj.) one who fills; fulfils or completes; full; full of.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pūraka, (adj.) (=pāra+ka) filling (-°) Vism. 106 (mukha°). (Page 471)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pūraka (पूरक).—a S That fills, completes, satisfies, satiates.

--- OR ---

pūraka (पूरक).—m S Closing the right nostril and drawing up air through the left. A religious ceremonial.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pūraka (पूरक).—a That fills, or satisfies.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pūraka (पूरक).—a. [pūr-ṇvul]

1) Filling up, completing.

2) Satisfying, making content.

-kaḥ 1 The citron tree.

2) A ball of meal offered at the conclusion of the oblations to the manes.

3) (In arith.) The multiplier.

4) Closing the right nostril and inhaling air through the left (as a religious ceremony); cf. रेचक (recaka).

5) Flood, stream, effusion (pūra); सिञ्चाङ्ग नस्त्वदधरामृतपूरकेण (siñcāṅga nastvadadharāmṛtapūrakeṇa) (hṛcchayāgnim) Bhāg.1.29.35.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūraka (पूरक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Filling, completing, or that which fills or completes. 2. Filling up. 3. Satisfying. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A citron, (Citrus medica.) 2. The multiplier. (In arithmetic.) 3. Closing the right nostril, and drawing up air through the left, a religious ceremonial. 4. The funeral cake or cakes that must be given to complete the obsequial rites. E. pūr to fill, aff. kun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūraka (पूरक).—[pūr + aka], I. adj. 1. Filling. 2. Filling up, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 289. 3. Satisfying, Mahābhārata 1, 75. Ii. m. 1. Closing the right nostril, and drawing up air through the left, a religious observance, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 17. 2. A citron (Citrus medica). 3. The final obsequial cake.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūraka (पूरक).—[adjective] = [preceding] (—° or *[genetive]); [masculine] stream, gush, [feminine] pūrikā a sort of cake.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pūraka (पूरक):—[from pūra] mfn. filling, completing, fulfilling, satisfying (ifc. or with [genitive case]; cf. [Pāṇini 2-3, 70; Kāśikā-vṛtti]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. flood, stream, effusion, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) the multiplier

4) [v.s. ...] m. a ball of meal offered at the conclusion of the oblations to the Pitṛs, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (also -piṇḍa m., [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti v, 85])

5) [v.s. ...] m. closing the right nostril with the forefinger and then drawing up air through the left and then closing the left nostril and drawing up air through the right (as a religious exercise), [Religious Thought and Life in India 402]

6) [v.s. ...] the citron tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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