### Manasara (English translation)

by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words

This page describes “the bases of columns (adhishthana)” which is Chapter 14 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.

# Chapter 14 - The bases of columns (adhiṣṭhāna)

1. I shall now briefly give an account of the bases (*adhiṣṭhāna*) of columns in this science (of architecture).

2-4. The twelve varieties should begin from thirty *aṅgulas* (of three-fourths inch, each) and increasing by six *aṅgulas* ead at four cubits: these should be used respectively in buildings of one to twelve storeys.

5-9. The height of the base (of a column) should be four cubits in the buildings of the Brahmans, three cubits in those of the Kings (Kṣatriyas), two and a half cubits in those of the crown princes, two cubits in those of the Vaiśyas, and one cubit in those of the Śūdras: these heights are stated to be proportionate to the heights of the (respective) buildings; and the height of the base is said to be (measured) from its plinth to the fillet at the top.

## Four kinds op Pādabandha:

10-22. The height (of the base) being (once) divided into twenty-four (equal) parts, the plinth (*vapraka*) should be of eight parts; the height of the astragal (*kumuda*) should be made of seven parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) of one part; the height of the ear (*karṇa*) should be three parts, and above that the fillet (*kampa*) one park; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be three parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part. The height (of the base) being preferably-divided into twenty-nine (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that (i.e. two parts); the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the rest should be as stated before. Again, the height of the base being divided into twenty-seven (equal) parts, the plinth (*janman*) should be made of one part; and the remaining parts of the height are directed to be exactly as before. The height (of the base) (lastly) being divided into twenty-eight parts, the plinth (*janman*) should be made of two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the cavetto (*vapra*) above one part; the dado (*kandhara*) is said to be made according to one’s discretion, and the rest should be known to be as aforesaid: these are said to be the four varieties of the *Pāda-Bandha* (class of) bases.

## Four kinds of Uragabandha:

23-40. The height of the base being divided into eighteen (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*vapra*) should be seven parts, and that of the astragal (*kumuda*) six parts; the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) should be equal to that (i.e. one part); the fillet (*paṭṭa*) together with the bands (*paṭṭikā*) should be two parts, and the fillot (*kampa*) should be made of one part. The height (of the base) being otherwise divided preferably into twenty parts (lit. into those parts increased by two more), the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and below that the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; below the latter the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the rest should be made as stated before. Of the same (height of the base being divided into) parts increased by two (i.e., twenty-two), the fillet (*kampa*) above the pitcher (*kumbha*) especially should be one part, so also the car (*karṇa*), and above that the fillet (*kampa*) one part; the beam (*gopānaka*) above should be two parts, and the remainder should be its cavotto (*prativājana*). The same height being otherwise divided into twenty-four (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*vapra*) should be seven parts, and that of the astragal (*kumuda*) six parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) should be equal to that (i.e. one part); above that the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the height of dado (*kandhara*) three parts; the speciality of that region is that it should be decorated with sharks (*makara*) etc.; above that the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampana*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the remainder its cavetto (*prativājana*): these are known to be the four varieties of *Uraga-*(snako) *bandha* (type of bases),

41-42. It (this type of base) should be shaped like the face of the snake and be furnished with two crescent mouldings (*prati*) at the top; all these four types should be made circular (like) the pitcher (*kumbha*).

43. These (bases) should be employed in the buildings of the gods, the Brahmans, and the kings (Kṣatriyas),

## Four kinds of Pratikrama:

44-62. Of the twenty-one (equal) pares in the height (of the base), the small plinth (*kṣudropāna*) should be one part; the cyma (*padma*) should be two parts and a half, and above that the fillet (*kampa*) one part and a half; the cavetto (*vapra*) above should be seven parts, and the supporting pitcher (*dhārā-kumbha*) six parts; the fillet; (*āliṅga*) should be one part, and the interval (*antarita*) equal to that (i.e. one part); the cyma (*padma*) and the fillet (*kampa*) together, or else the band (*paṭṭa*) should be two parts: this (type of base) should be decorated with (the images of) elephants, horses, lions, crocodiles, etc. (Again) of the twenty-two parts (of height of the base), the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be employed above the astragal (*kumuda*) especially, the fillet (*āliṅga*) should be one part and the fillet (*vājana*) one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be two parts, aud the band (*paṭṭikā*) and the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part each: these parts should be adorned with the images of the aforesaid (animals), and all ornaments; and the rest should be made as before. Then, the same (height of the base) should be again divided into one part more (i.e., twenty-three); (of these) the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be one part as before, and the fillet (*kampa*) above should be made of one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, and above that the fillet (*kampa*) one part; above the latter the ear (*karṇa*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*vajana* [*vājana?*]) one part: this (type of base) should be decorated as before. The same height (of the base) being divided into one parts more (i.e. twenty-four), the fillet (*kampana*) and the interval (*antara*) at the upper and the lower regions should be one part each; the three-fold band (*tripaṭṭa*) and above that the interval (*antara*) should be two parts (together), the same interval (*antara*) and the fillet (*vājana*) should be made of one part each; the rest should be made as staled before; and it should be decorated as before.

63-64. This (type of base) should be employed in the buildings of gods, and the twice born (three higher castes) in order: this is the type (of base) named *Prati-krama*, and this is stated to be of four varieties.

## Kumuda-Bandha:

65-71. The height (of the base) from the plinth (*janman*) to the fillet (*vājana*) should be divided into twenty-seveu (equal) parts; (of these) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cyma (*ambuja*) equal to that (i.e. two parts): the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the cavetto (*vapra*) six parts; the cyma (*padma*), the ear (*karṇa*), and so also the cyma (*padma*) should be one part each; the height of the astragal (*kumuda*) should be three parts, and that of the cyma (*padma*) one part; the cyma (*padma*) up to the ear (*karṇa*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*), and the cyma, (*abja*) one part each; the baud (*paṭṭa*) should be two parts, the cyma (*abja*) one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part.^{[1]}

72-78. Again the measurement of the height (of the base) being as before, the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be (the same) in particular (i. e. one part); the beam (*gopāna*) above should be made of two parts and beautifully ornamented; according to some (architects) a throe-fold band should be made in place of the astragal (*kumuda*); bands (*paṭṭa*) are the peculiarity of the middle part (of this base) (which are) adorned with flowers and jewels; or this (middle) part) may be supplied with a declivity (*kaṭaka*), or made plain (and) circular; and the astragal (*kumuda*) may be triangular or hexagonal; similarly it may be made octagonal when it (the base) is called *Padma-kesara*.

79. This (type of base) is fit for all kinds of buildings: the best architect should employ it (for that purpose).

80-88. The height larger than that of the former type (of base) should be divided into twenty-nine (equal) parts; of those the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cavetto (*vapra*) four parts; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be half a part, and the dado (*kandhara*) should be equal to that (i.e. a half part); the cyma (*padma*) above should be equal to the same (i.e. a half part), and the height of the astragal (*kumuda*) one part; the cyma (*padma*) should be one-and-a-half parts, so also the fillet (*kampa*), and the height of the ear (*karṇa*) two parts; the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, so also the cyma (*padma*), and the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be two parts; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) above equal to that (i. e. one part); the height of the plinth (*janman*) may otherwise be half a part, and the fillet (*kampa*) above otherwise half a part; the rest should be made as before except these above-mentioned peculiarities.

89-92. (Of the same height of the base in another variety) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) half a part; the rest should be made as before except a little alteration (mentioned below): namely, that a corona (*kapota*) may be in place of the band (*paṭṭikā*), and the rest should be discreetly made: these are said to be the four varieties (of bases).

## Four kinds of Puṣpa-puṣkala:

92-94. The type (of bases) named *Puṣpa-puṣkala* (are described now): they are suited to all those (kinds of) buildings; they should be made by the best architect for buildings of one to twelve storeys and of the smallest, the intermediate, and the largest sizes.

95-107. (Of one of these varieties) the height from the plinth (*janman*) to the fillet (*vājana*) being divided into thirty-two (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part; the large cyma (*mahapadma*) should be seven parts, the ear (*karṇa*) one part, and so also the (large) cyma (*ambuja*); the pitcher (*kumhha*) above should be four parts, and the cyma (*padma*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the dado (*gala*) three parts; the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, the dado (*gala*) one part, and the beam (*gopāna*) four parts; the fillet (*āliṅga*) above should be one part, and the interval (*antarita*) also one part; the face-like ornament (*prati-mukha*,) should be two parts, and the fillet (*vājana*) above one part. (Again of the same height) the (small) cyma (*padma*) above the large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) should be one part more. The cyma (*padma*) above the plinth (*janman*) may otherwise be greater by one part over the (original) one part. Likewise (in the fourth variety) the fillet (*kampa*) below the large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) should be made of one part; that large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) should be six parts, and the rest should be made as stated before: thus are stated the four varieties.

## Four kinds of Śrībandha:

107-121. The type of bases named *Śrībandha* (is described here): (they are) suited to the palaces of the universal monarchs (*Cakravartin*) and the temples of Viṣṇu and Śiva. (Of the first variety) of twenty-six parts of the height, one part is said to be the plinth (*janman*); the height of the cavetto (*vapra*) should be six parts, and the height of the astragal (*kumuda*) six parts; the (one) ear (*karṇa*,) should be one part, (another) ear (*karṇa*) four parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) one part; above that the fillet (*padma*) should be one part, and the height of the beam (*gopāna*) three parts, the fillet (*āliṅga*) above should be one part, and the interval (*antarita*) likewise one part; the face-like ornament (*prativaktra*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part. (In the second variety of this type) the plinth (*janman*) may, otherwise, be two parts, and its face-like ornament (*pratika*) one part; the rest should be made as before. (In the third variety of this type) the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) above the plinth (*janman*) should be one part; the beam (*gopāna*) above should be half a part, and the fillet (*āliṅga*), and the interval (*antarita*) one pare each; its face-like ornament (*prativaktra*) should be one part, and the half-fillet (*ardhavājana*) should be half a part. Again (i.e. in the fourth variety) the plinth (*janman*) should be one part, and the small cyma (*abjaka*) also equal to that (*i.e*. one part); above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the rest should, be made as stated before: these are said to be the four varieties.

## Four kinds of Mañcabandha:

121-142. The *Mañcabandha* (type of bases) will (now) be described: they should be made for the buildings of gods and of kings. (The height of the first variety) from the plinth (*janman*) to the fillet (*vājana*) being divided into twenty-six (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part and a half, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) two parts; the fillet (*kampa*,) should be the same (i.e. two parts), the cavetto (*vapra*) as stated before six parts, and the pitcher (*kumbha*) two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, the band (*paṭṭa*) two parts, and its projection (*kṣepaṇa*) one part; the fillet (*āliṅga*) above should be made of one and a half parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) of one part; the face-ornament (*prati*) should be one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) too should be one part and a half; it (this type) should be decorated with the images of leographs, lions, crocodiles, etc. (In the second variety, of the same number of parts) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the cyma (*ambuja*) should be equal to that (i.e. two parts); the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be one part, and the height of the cavetto (*vapra*) sis parts; the height of the torus (*kumuda*) should be four parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) should, be made of one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) above that one part; the ear (*karṇa*) should be made of one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) of one part; the face-ornament (*prati*) should be of one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part. (In the third variety) the torus (*kumuda*) and the face-ornament (*prati*) may otherwise be furnished with the three-fold band (*tripaṭṭa*); the rest should be made as before, and the minor ornaments should be as before. (In the fourth variety, of the same twenty-six parts) the band (*paṭṭikā*) above should be the same (*i*.*e*. one part), and the dado (*kandhara*) one part; the rest should be as stated before, and it should be tastefully decorated; these are said to be the four kinds.

## Four kinds of Śreṇibandha:

142-167. The *Śreṇibandha* (type of bases) is similarly described: the wise (architect) should make (them) also for the temples of all the gods. (In the first variety) of eighteen parts of the height, the plinth (*janman*) should be one parts and a half; th,e small fillet (*kṣudra-kampa*) should be half a part, and its large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) five parts; the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, the cyma (*abja*) one part, and the pitcher (*kumbha*) three parts; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the fillet (*āliṅga*) above the latter one part; the fillet (*vājana*) above should be one part, the face-ornament (*prati*) two parts, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part. (The height of the base being again.) divided into twenty-two (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts; the small corona (*kṣudra-kṣepaṇa*) should be half a part, and the cyma (*ambuja*) four parts and a half; the dado (*kandkara*) above should be one part, and the cyma (*abja*) should be equal to that (i.e. one part); the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be three parts, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be two parts, the cyma (*padma*) one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part. (The same height) being divided into one part more (i.e. twenty-three parts), the plinth (*pādukā*) should be two parts and a half; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half a part, and the large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) of five parts; the dado (*kandhara*) should be made of one part, and the cyma (*padma*) of one part; the height of the torus (*kumuda*) should be three parts, and above that the cyma (*padma*) one part; the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) should be equal to that (i.e. one part); the fillet (*vājana*) above should be equal to that (i.e. one part), and similarly the interval (*antarita*) three parts; the face-ornament (*prati*) attached to it should be made of (two) parts, and the fillet (*vājana*) of one part. (The same height) being divided into one part; more than that (i.e. into twenty-four parts), the height of the plinth (*janma*) should be one part; the height of the small cyma (*kṣudra-padma*) should be one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) above that one part; the large cyma (*mahā-padma*) should be made of five parts, and the petal (*dala*) of one part at its top; the rest should be as before; (all the mouldings) above should be decorated with crocodiles and lions, etc.; these are known to be the four varieties (of the *śreṇibandha* bases).

## Four kinds of Padmabandha:

167-193. The *Padmabandha* (type of bases) will (now) be described: they are fit for temples of all gods, goddesses, and of Śiva (in particular); they should be employed (in buildings) as they ensure all success, beauty, and good lack. (In the first variety) the height (of the whole base) being divided into twenty-one parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part; the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be five parts, and the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be one part; the lower cyma (*padma*) should be three parts, and the ear (*karṇa*) above one part; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be equal to that (i.e. one part), and the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) one part; above that the band (*paṭṭa*) should symmetrically be made of two parts. Of the same number of parts (i.e. twenty-one) of the height, the plinth. (*sopāna*) is said to be three parts; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the height of the torus (*kumuda*) five parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) four parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and above the latter the dado (*gala*) of two parts; the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) above that one part. (Of the same number of parts of the height of the base), the cyma (*abja*) in its place should be as before, and the fillet (*kampa*) one part; above that the ear (*karṇa*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) above it one part; the interval (*antarita*) above should be two parts, and the face-ornament (*prati*) one part; above that the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the rest (of this variety) should be constructed as aforesaid. (Of the same number of parts of the height of the base) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be three parts, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) above one part; the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be five parts, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the ear (*karṇa*) above the latter of one part; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the height of the corona (*kapota*) one part: the fillet (*āliṅga*) should be one part, and the interval (*antarita*) also one part; and the duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*) should be made of one part.

## Four kinds of Kumbhabandha:

194-239. The four (five) varieties of *Kumbhabandha*: (in these) the (suitable) parts should be tastefully decorated with crocodiles and lions, etc. (In the first variety) the height (of the base) should be divided particularly into twenty-four (equal) parts; (of these) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the ear (*karṇa*) three parts; above the latter the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) one part; above the latter the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the cyma (*padma*) below of one part; the ear (*karṇa*) above should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; above the latter the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be three parts, and the cyma (*padma*) one part; above the latter the drip (*nimna*) should be one part, and above that the fillet (*kampa*) one part; above the latter the drip (*nimna*) should be equal to it, and the face-ornament (*prati*) above one part. (In the second variety) of the same height (divided into parts) as before, the cyma (*padma*) and the ear (*karṇa*) should be in particular of the same measures (as before); the pitcher (*kumbha*) at the middle should be one part, and above that the drip (*nimnaka*) one part; (and) the rest should be made as before. (In the third variety) of particularly the same parts of the height (of the whole base), the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) equal to that; above the latter the drip (*nimna*) should be one part, and the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) one part; above the latter the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) one part; above the latter the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) above should be equal to that (i.e. one part); the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part; above the latter the cyma (*padma*) should be one part and a half, and the drip (*nimna*) should be made of one part; above the latter the cyma (*padma*) should be one part and a half, and the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) one part: above the latter the cyma (*padma*) should be one part and a half, and the drip (*nimna*) should be made of one part; above that the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be one part, and the drip (*nimna*) equal to that (i.e. one part); above that the face-ornament (*prati*) with all its characteristics should be made of one part. As an alternative (i.e. of the same number of parts of the height), the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that; the dado (*kandhara*) is said to be one part, and the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) one part; above that the drip (*nimna*) should be one part, and the small band (*kṣudrapaṭṭa*) and the small cyma (*kṣudra-abja*) one part each; the oorona (*kapota*) above should be two parts, and above that the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) one part; above the latter the cyma (*padma*) should be one part and a half, and the dado (*kandhara*) equal to that; the cyma (*padma*) above should be equal to that, and the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) three parts; the lower cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and above that the dado (*kandhara*) one part; the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the small cyma (*kṣudra-abja*) one part and a half; the corona (*kapota*) above should be half a part, and the remainder should be the duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*). (In the fifth variety) the height (of the base) from the plinth. (*janman*) to the top fillet (*vājana*) being divided into twenty-six (equal) parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) equal to that; above the latter the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be two parts, and above that the cyma (*padma*) one part; the fillet (*āliṅga*) above should be one part, and the upper cyma (*padma*) one part; the height of the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be three parts, and the cyma (*padma*) abovo that one part; above the latter the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, the cyma (*abja*) one part, and the height of the corona (*kapota*) one part; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be one part, and the rest should be discreetly constructed. All these (bases) should be decorated with the images of the crocodiles, etc., and the small vestibule (*kṣhudra-nāsi*) and such other ornaments; these are said to be the five varieties; the rule about the (shape of the) pitcher-parts (in those bases) is that they should be made circular or furnished with three-fold bands (*tripaṭṭa*), or with ring-like ornaments (*kaṭaka*) to serve as a receptacle; this type (of bases) named *Kalaśa-Bandha*, is suitable for the buildings of the gods (i.e. temples) and of the kings (i.e. palaces).

## Vapra-Bandha:

240-248. The height of the base called *Vapra-Bandha* being divided into thirty-one (equal) parts, the plinth (*janman*) in height should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half a part; the cyma (*padma*) should be one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) above that half a part; the height of the cavetto (*vapra*) should be three parts and a half, the cyma (*padma*) half a part, and the fillet (*kampa*) half a part; the height of the dado (*kandhara*) should be two parts, the fillet (*kampa*) half a parft, and the cyma (*padma*) half a part; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be one part, the cyma (*padma*) half a part, and the fillet (*vājana*) half a part; the height of the car (*karṇa*) should, be four parts, the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) one part, and the cyma (*ambuja*) half a part; the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*) one part; the *Vaprabandha* is thus described.

## Vajra-Bandha:

248-259. The *Vajra-Bandha* (base) is described here: (in this) of the height of same number of parts (i.e. thirty-one), the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, and the height of cyma (*padma*) one part and a half; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be half a part, and the dado (*kandhara*) equal to that (i.e. half part); above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half a part, and cyma (*padma*) of half a part; the round pitcher (*vajra-kumbha*) should be two parts, and above that the cyma (*saroruha*) half a pare; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be hall a part, and the height of the ear (*karṇa*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, and the cyma (*ambuja*) equal to that (i.e. half a part); the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*) one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be two parts, and the filet (*kampa*) and the cyma (*padma*) one part (jointly); the round band (*vajrapaṭṭa*) should be two parts, and the cyma (*padma*) and the fillet (*kampa*) (jointly) one part; the *Vajra-Bandha* is thus described.

## Two kinds of Śrī-bhoga:

259-280. The *Śrī-bhoga* (type of base) is described here: (of this) the height being divided into twenty-seven parts, the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts and a half; the small fillet (*kṣudra-kampa*) should be half a part, and the height of the cyma (*ambuja*) three parts; the small cyma (*kṣudra-padma*) should be half a part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half a part; above that the ear (*karṇa*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be constructed of half a part; the small cyma (*kṣudra-abja*) should be equal to that (i.e. half a part), and the height of the torus (*kumuda*) three parts; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be half a part, and the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be equal to that; the height of the ear (*karṇa*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half a part; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that, and the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) one partt; the cyma (*padma*) is desired to be half a part, the fillet (*kampa*) half a part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; the fillet (*kampa*) and the cyma (*padma*) should be one part each, and the small torus (*kapotaka*) two parts; above that the fillet (*āliṅga*) and the interval (*anta* for *antara*), etc., should be made of two parts. As an alternative, (i.e. in the second variety of this type the height being divided into same number of parts, i.e., twenty-seven), the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and the small plinth (*kṣudropāna*) one part; the large cyma (*mahāmbuja*) should be one part, and the small cyma (*kṣudra-paṅkaja*) half a part; the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, the ear (*karṇa*) two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) and the cyma one part each; the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the height of the dado (*gala*) one part; the duplicate fillet (*prativājana*) should be one part, and the height of the dado (*gala*) two parts; the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, the fillot (*kampa*) one part, and the height ol the band (*paṭṭikā*) two parts; the height of the dado (*gala*), the fillet (*vājana*), and the fillet (*kampa*) above should be (together) one part and a half; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that (i.e,, one and half parts), and the corona (*kapota*) two parts and a half; and the face-ornament (*pratima*) should be two parts; (these make) the height of twenty-seven parts; these are stated to be the two varieties of *Śrībhoga*; they should be furnished with all ornaments.

## Ratnabandha:

281-296. The base (called) *Ratnabandha* should be divided into twenty-six parts: (of these) the plinth. (*janman*) should be one part and a half, and the small fillet (*kṣudra-vājana*) half a part; the cavetto (*vapra*) should be one part, the cyma (*padma*) one (?) part, and the plinth (*āsana*) half a part; the bejewelled cavetto (*ratna-vapra*) should be made of four parts, and the cyma (*abja*) should be made symmetrical of half a part; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be equal to that (i.e. half a part), and the drip (*nimna*) should be made of half a part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, and above the latter the cyma (*abja*) half a part; the bejewelled fillet (*ratna-kampa*) should be two parts, and above that the cyma (*ambuja*) half a part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, and the dado (*kandhara*) two parts; the (combined.) fillet and cyma (*kampa-padma*) should be one part, and the bejewelled band (*ratnapaṭṭa*) one part; above that the (combined) cyma and fillet (*padma-kampa*) should be constructed of one part; the ear (*karṇa*) should be one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) above half a part; above that the cyma (*abja*) should be half a part, and the corona (*kapota*) two parts; the fillet (*āliṅga*) should be half a part, and the remainder should be its duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*); those parts (where they are usually carved) should be adorned with the images of leographs and crocodiles, etc., and all the other parts should be decorated with lotuses and jewels, etc.; this type (of base) should be constructed for the temples of Śiva and Viṣṇu; the *Ratnabandha* is thus described.

## Paṭṭabandha:

297-804. The height from the plinth (*janman*) to the top fillet (*vājana*) should he divided into same number of parts (i.e., twenty-six); (of these) the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be two parts, and above that the fillet (*vājana*) half a part; the large cyma (*mahā-abja*) should be two parts and a half, and the cyma and fillet (*padma-kampa*) together one part; the drip (*nimna*) and the fillet (*kampa*) together should be one part, and above the latter the cyma (*padma*) one part; the large band (*mahāpaṭṭa*) should be two parts, and the cyma and fillet (*padma-kampa*) together one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, and the (combined) corona and cyma (*kṣepaṇa-abja*) five parts; the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the remainder should be its duplicate fillet (*prati-vājana*); thus is described the *Paṭṭabandha* (type of base); it should be decorated with all kinds of ornaments.

## Four kinds op Kukṣibandha:

305-346. The height of it (i.e., the first variety) should be (divided into) eighteen parts, (of which.) the height of the plinth (*janma*) should be two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be half a part, and the large cyma (*mahāmbuja*) two parts and a half; the cyma (*padma*) and the fillet (*kampa*) together should be one part, and the drip (*nimna*) and the interval (*antarita*) together one part; the face-ornament (*prati*) should be one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part; the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, and the fillet and the cyma (*kampa-padma*) together one part; the circular pitcher (*vṛtta-kumbha*) should be two parts, and the cyma and corona (*padma-kṣepaṇa*) together one part; above that the ear (*karṇa*) should be one part, and the (combined) fillet and the cyma (*kampa-padma*) one part; the corona (*kapota*) should be one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) above half a part; this (variety) should be furnished with all ornaments, and be decorated with the images of leographs and crocodiles, etc. (In the second variety), tho height being (divided into the same number of parts) increased by one (i. e., nineteen), the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be half a part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of half apart; the large cyma (*mahā-ambuja*) above should be two parts, and the cyma-drip (*padma-nimna*) one part; above that the cyma (*abja*) should be half a part, and the height of the astragal (*kumuda*) oae part and a half; the cyma (*abja*) should be half a part, so also the ear (*karṇa*), and the cyma (*abja*) above the latter half a part; the height of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should be one part and a half, and the (combined) cyma and fillet (*padma-kampa*) one part; the small drip (*nimnaka*) above should be half a part, and the interval *antarita*) equal to that; the face-ornament (*prati*) above should be one part, and the fillet (*vājana*) half a part; the dado (*kandhara*) is said to be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be constructed of half a part; the cyma (*padma*) should be half a part, the corona (*kapota*) one part and a half, and the fillet (*vājana*) one part; there should be one face-band (*pratibandha*), and thus is stated to be the second variety; the rest should be made as before, and it should be decorated with all ornaments. (In the third variety) the height being divided into twenty-six parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be one part; the small plinth (*kṣudropāna*) should be one parb, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) one part; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*,) two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the artragal (*kumuda*) should be ten parts, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*gala*) two parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be two parts, and the remainder should be its duplicate face-ornament (*prati-vājana*); the (combined) band and fillet (*paṭṭa-kampa*), the corona (*kapota*), and the two bands (*paṭṭa*) may otherwise be circular; the lower parts of the two ears (*karṇa*) should be adorned with, the images of leographs, etc. (In the fourth variety) the height being divided into twenty-four parts, the height of the plinth (*janman*) should be three parts; the fillet (*kampa*) above should be one part, and the drip (*nimna*) should be constructed of one part; above that the perches (*bhadra*) should be made of five parts each; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the small drip (*nimnaka*) should be equal to that; the interval (*antarita*) above should be equal to that, and the face-ornament (*prati*) should be made of one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) above equal to that; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) should be made of one part; the height of the corona (*kapota*) should be three parts, and the dado (*kandhara*) one part; the face-ornament (*prati*) above should be equal to that, and the pitcher (*kumbha*) eight parts; in the corona (*kapota*) part there should be the projecting band (*bhadrapaṭṭa*), and also the leaf-band (*patrapaṭṭa*): these are said to be the four varieties (of the *Kukṣibandha* type of base).

## Kampabandha:

346-358. The *Kampa-Bandha* (type of bases) is now described: the height from the plinth (*janman*) to the top fillet (*vājana*) being divided into thirty-six parts, the (large) plinth (*janman*) should be four parts, and the small plinth (*upāna*) one part; the large cyma (*māhābja*) should be five parts, and the small cyma (*khudra-abja*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part, and the chip (*nimna*) of one part; above that the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the cyma (*padma*) above equal to that (i.e., one part); the pitcher (*kumbha*) should be equal to the height of the large cyma (*māha-abja*) (i.e. five parts), and above that the cyma (*abja*) one part; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the fillet (*āliṅga*) above one part; above that the interval (*antarita*) should be one part, and the face-ornament (*prati*) should be made of two parts; above that the fillet (*vājana*) should be one part, and the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) one part; above that the dado (*kandhara*) should be one part, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the height of the corona (*kapota*) throe parts; the fillet (*āliṅga*) above should be one part, and the face-ornament (*prati*) should be constructed of one part.

## Śrīkānta:

359-372. (In this type) the hand (*paṭṭa*), especially on the pitcher (*kumbha*) part, should be circular; the *Śrīkānta* (type of base) is said to be of that characteristic; it is decorated with all ornaments (as before): its height being divided into thirty-eight parts, the height of the plinth (*upāna*) should be throe parts; the small plinth (*kṣudropāna*) should be one part, and the large cyma (*mahāmbuja*) eight parts; the small cyma (*kṣudrābja*) should be one part, and the dado (*kandhara*) should be equal be that; above that the cyma (*padma*) should be one part, and the height of the small baud (*paṭṭikā*) three parts; the small fillet (*kṣudra-kampa*) should be one part, and the height of the cyma (*padma*) four parts; the height of the small cyma (*ksudrābja*) should be one part, and the drip (*nimna*) above one part; the cyma (*padma*) above should be equal to that, and the pitcher (*kumbha*) above three parts; above that the fillet (*kampa*) should be one part, and the corona (*kṣepaṇa*) should be made equal to that; the dado (*kandhara*) should be two parts, and the fillet (*kampa*) should be made of one part; the height of the cyma (*padma*) should be equal to that, and the height of the corona (*kapota*) one part; above that the fillet (*āliṅga*) should be one part, and the face-ornament (*prati*) should be made of one part: this should be the *Śrīkānta*; this (type) should be employed in the temples of Śiva and Viṣṇu.

## Projection of the Base:

373-375. That (projection) is the peculiarity of the mouldings between the plinth (*janman*) and the (uppermost) fillet (*vājana*); the increment and the decrement (of projection) should correspond to the measurement of those objects (i.e. the mouldings); if it be disproportionate (lit. greater or less than what it should be) to the height (of the mouldings) all defects would be the result.

376-377. The projection should be equal to the moulding, it may be three-fourths, one-half, or one-fourth of it, bub in all cases the proper projection should lie that which, fits is beautifully.

378-379. The projection of the plinth (*upāna*) may be of three kinds: it (the projection) may be equal to the height of the plinth, or it may be greater by one-fourth, or by three-fourths.

380-381. With regard to the cavetto (*vapra*) it (the projection) should be equal to its height; now the projection of the torus (*kumuda*) is considered: it (the projection) should be equal to the height of the torus (*kumuda*); and the projection of the band (*paṭṭikā*) should extend up to the end of the cavetto-fillet (*vaprapaṭṭa*).

382. The projections of the band (*paṭṭa*) and the beam (*gopāna*) should be equal to them.

383. The projections of all the small cymas (*kṣudra-paṅkaja*) should be equal to them.

384. These (projections) should be made such as to give beauty and strength to the mouldings.

## Projection in rod (*daṇḍa*) measure:

385-389. As an alternative, the projections are now considered in the red measurement: one rod, one rod and a half, two rods, (? two rods and a half), three rods, three rods and a half, four rods, four rods and a half, or five rods, these are (the nine) projections of the plinth (in rods).

389-391. As an alternative (the projection) in cubit measure: the nine kinds of the projections should begin from half a cubit, and be increased by three *aṅgulas* (one-eighth cubit) up to one cubit and a half.

392. The projections of (the bases of columns for) buildings of the smallest, the intermediate, and the largest types should correspond to them (i.e. should be the smallest, the intermediate, and the largest respectively).

393-396. If the expert architect should know and employ thus the sixty-four kinds of bases (*masūraka*) divided according to measurement prescribed in the science (of architecture), it would give all prosperity to the master of the building.

397-404. The bases (*kuṭṭima*,) should be erected from above the pedestals in the surface of the ground floor of all buildings such as temples (*vimāna*), halls (*śālā*), pavilions (*maṇḍapa*), residences (*nidhāna*), dwellings (*sadma*), and gate-houses (*gopura*), etc.; farther, they should be constructed in continuation of the (lower and upper) pedestals, and be on the same lino with the pedostals and the upper pedestals: should this be done honestly and with devotion, the result would be prosperity together with fruition and beatitude.

405-412. All kinds of buildings of all storeys including the temples, if built without bases, there would result in the world the scarcity of rain, the death of the master, the loss of beauty, and (in fact) all kinds of losses; therefore, all buildings should be built together with bases, and the decorations should be furnished (especially) for the temples: (in that case) there would result enough prosperity, fruition, beatitude, long and healthy life, and all sorts of happiness.

Thus in the *Mānasāra*, the science of architecture, the fourteenth chapter, entitled: “The description of the bases of columns.”

## Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The text designated as B. omits the line 71, but adds between lines 70 and 72, fifty-two lines which are hopelessly corrupt but purport to contain details of some other varieties of these bases.