Kapota, Kāpota: 33 definitions
Kapota means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kapota (कपोत, “pigeon”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).
(Instructions of Kapota): Two (Añjali) hands meeting on one of their sides will make the Kapota hand. Listen about its uses.
(Uses of Kapota): It is to be used to indicate an approach with inimical intention, bowing and talking to a venerable person. To indicate cold and fear, women are to hold this hand on their breasts. The hands [showing the Kapota gesture] released after the meeting of fingers will indicate anxious words, or ‘This much can be done’ or ‘Nothing more can be done.’Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Kapota (dove): the hands are joined at the side, base and top. Usage: taking oath, conversation with elders etc., humble acquiescence.
According to another book: the Añjali hands are separated. The patron deity is Citrasena. Usage: acquiescence, trees suchas the coconut, areca-nut, etc., plantain flower, cold, nectar, receiving things, casket, citron.Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)
1) Kapota (कपोत) or “pigeon (colour)” is associated with Karuṇa or the “pathetic sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.— Karuṇa i.e., pathos is the sentiment delineated in the circumstances of sorrow. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that it is enacted through frightened limbs, crying in grief, pale and dry face. [...] Śoka is the sthāyibhāva of karuṇarasa. Kapota i.e., the colour of pigeon is the colour of this sentiment. Yama is the God of this sentiment.
2) Kapota (कपोत) refers to one of the thirteen Saṃyuktahastas or “combined hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—The word kapota means pigeon in Sanskrit. When the sides of two hands are joined together it is looked like a pigeon with its wings. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa this hand posture is called as kapota-hasta and it is used to show cold and danger. But in the Abhinayadarpaṇa, this posture is said to use in salutation, addressing teachers, polite acceptance or agreement.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Kapota (कपोत) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “pigeon/dove”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Kapota is part of the sub-group named Pratuda, refering to animals “who eat while striking”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.
The meat of the domestic pigeon is astringent, non-slimy and cold. It is madhura in Vipāka. It alleviates internal haemorrhage. The wild pigeons are slightly lighter, cold, constipating and diminishing the quantity of urine.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Kapota (कपोत)—Sanskrit word for a bird corresponding to “wild dove” or “pigeon”. This animal is from the group called Pratuda (which peck). Pratuda itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).
The flesh of the Kāṇa-kapota (wild dove) is heavy and has a palatable, saline and astringent taste. It proves beneficial in hæmoptysis and is sweet of digestion.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Kapota (कपोत) refers to the “pigeon”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “celestial” (khecara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as celestial (khecara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The celestial animals are [viz., kapota (pigeon)].
Regarding “forbidden combinations” (saṃyogaviruddha), the text says that “meat of pigeon” (kapota) harmful when fried in mustard oil.
Kapota (the meat of the small pigeon) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., meat of kapota (small pigeon)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kāṃsamūlapiṣṭa] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
1) Kapota (कपोत) (refers to the grey colour of garuḍa) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
2) Kapota (कपोत) also refers to the Blue rock pigeon (Columba livia).Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa
Kapota (कपोत) refers to a “pigeon”, (the bile of which is) used in the treatment (cikitsā) of immobile or plant poison (sthāvaraviṣa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Sage Kāśyapa recommends potent drugs to treat sthāvara or plant-poison. According to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā (8.29-30), “The bile of pigeon (kapota), monkey, cat, iguana, mongoose, boar, and peacock, mixed with honey and stored in cow’s horn can effectively cure snake and plant poisons when used as nasal application,ointment, and so on”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Kapota (कपोत) refers to a “dove”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. [...] It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove [i.e., kapota-sadṛśa], he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī)”.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kapota (कपोत).—A son of Garuḍa. (Chapter 101, Udyoga Parva).
2) Kāpota (कापोत).—A sage. Citrāṅgadā, the daughter of Kakutstha and Urvaśī, was his wife. She had two sons named Tumburu and Suvarcas. Kāpota received much wealth from Kubera and gave it to his sons. Once Kāpota cursed Tārāvatī, the queen of Candraśekhara, that she would bring forth two sons with monkey-faces. (Kālikā Purāṇa, Chapter 56).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Kapota (कपोत, “dripstone”) refers to a type of moulding commonly used in the construction of an adhiṣṭāna or upapīṭha.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation
Kapota (कपोत).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—This moulding is found both at the top of the walls of each tala, as a ‘cornice’, and in the plinth (adhiṣṭhāna). It represents a canopy roof, with overhanging thatched eaves, and contains nāsīs representing horsehoe arch dormer gables. Like roof (śikhara) mouldings, kapotas are decorated with vallimaṇḍalas. The terms ‘kapota cornice’ and ‘cornice kapota’ will sometimes be used to distinguish the moulding at the top of a wall zone from the plinth kapota. ‘Cornice’ is not a particularly illuminating term, but ‘parapet kapota’ would be less satisfactory, because the kapota is not part of the hāra of pavilions which it supports.Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka
Kapota (कपोत) is an important moulding of the adhiṣṭhāna. Kapota literally means a pigeon. Because the shape of this moulding resembles the shape of the slope of the pigeon’s head, it is called kapota. Kapota is a roll-cornice, the section of which looks like a quadrant. Sometimes, the underpart of the kapota is made hollow. Kapota is decorated with nāsis, the kapota may also have floral decorations, elongated stylized lotus petals, beaded string tassels, etc.,. Kapota is found on the plinth and on the upapīṭha as well. These kapotas, are not dissimilar to the kapotas found on the entablature. Kapota serves the function of a dripstone on the wall. It prevents the raintwater falling directly above its lower members. Occasionally kapota is drawn forward from the vertical norm of the mouldings of the plinth.Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Kapota (कपोत).—A part (compound moulding) of the prastara, or ‘entablature’;—Kapota is the dripstone placed above the valabhi. It is a very prominent member of the elevation. Its synonyms are vaktrahasta, lupa, gopānaka and candra. Kapota is called by this name because it resembles the shape of a pigeon’s head. It projects forward from the vertical norm of the parapet. With projection and the shape of a semi circle, it resembles a pigeon’s head.
Kapota is constructed projecting prominently forward from the vertical norm of all the other members of the elevation, to serve as a dripstone for the temple wall. Kapota is generally cut out of long thick beams of stone. The section of the kapota is similar to a quadrant. The upper portion is always rounded or sloped and its soffit or under-portion in most cases, is flat.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Kapota (कपोत) refers to “drip edge ( molding) §§ 3.10, 15, 23.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Kāpota (कापोत) refers to a “pigeon”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the disc should be of the colour of the sky at dawn of day, there will be famine and drought and birds will suffer. If red-black, there will be prosperity and plenty in the land but slight rain. If the disc be of the colour of the pigeon [i.e., kāpota] or of blood colour or of the colour of gold or yellow-black, mankind will suffer from starvation. If again the disc be black or as said above, of the colour of the pigeon, the Śūdras will suffer from disease”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Kapota (कपोत, “pigeon”).—According to a note on the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIX), “the Buddha was once a pigeon (kapota) living in the Snow Mountains (himālaya). On stormy day, a man lost his way; miserable (daridra) and exhausted (ārta), hunger (bubhukṣā) and cold (śīta) had brought him to his last moments (muhūrta). Seeing this man, the pigeon flew to look for fire (agni), collected some kindling (indhana) and lit it. Then the pigeon threw itself into the fire and gave its body to the famished man”.
2) Kapota (कपोत, “pigeon”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. If sensual desires (kāmarāga), passion and ignorance (avidyā) were predominant in them [people], they are reborn as [for example] pigeon (kapota); thus they become one of the hundred thousand kinds of birds. If they are guilty of lust, their body becomes covered with hairs and feathers; their plumage is fine and smooth; their beak, big and wide; thus they cannot distinguish touch (sparśa) and taste (rasa).Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture
Kapota (कपोत) refers to “pigeons” (responsible for crop-destruction, etc.), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches a pacification ritual]: “[...] All stinging insects, mosquitos, ants, flying insects, bees, quivering bees, bumble bees, worms, ones with a sting, vātālikas, owls, mice, long-mouthed ones and so on and various sorts of pests perish. They will not appear. They will be destroyed. All crows, large birds, sparrows (caṭaka), cañcaṭikas, pigeons (kapota), surikas, owls, wagtails, parrots, mynas and so on perish. [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kapota : (m.) a dove; pigeon.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kapota, (Sk. kapota, greyish blue, cp. kapi) — 1. (m.) a pigeon, a dove J. I, 243; Miln. 403;— 2. (f.) °i a female pigeon PvA. 47; °ka (f. °ikā Miln. 365) a small pigeon J. I, 244.
—pāda (of the colour) of a pigeon’s foot J. I, 9. (Page 187)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kapōta (कपोत).—m (S) kapōtā m (Poetry.) A dove or pigeon, esp. the spot-necked pigeon. kapōtī the female. kapōtā vaḷaṇēṃ g. of s. To emaciate or waste away.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kapōta (कपोत).—m A dove or pigeon.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kapota (कपोत).—[ko vāyuḥ pota iva yasya Tv.]
1) A dove, pigeon.
2) A bird in general.
3) A particular position of the hands.
4) The grey colour of a pigeon.
Derivable forms: kapotaḥ (कपोतः).
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Kāpota (कापोत).—a. (tī f.) [कपोत-अण् (kapota-aṇ)]
1) grey, of a dirty white colour.
2) Not hoarding much, very frugal; स्तुवन्वृत्तिं च कापोतीं दुहित्रा स ययौ पुरात् (stuvanvṛttiṃ ca kāpotīṃ duhitrā sa yayau purāt) Bhāgavata 9.18.25.
-tam 1 A flock of pigeons.
-taḥ The grey colour.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-taḥ) 1. A dove or pigeon, especially the spotted necked pigeon. 2. A bird in general. E. kaba to tinge, to be of various hues, ātac Unadi affix, ba changed to pa.
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(-taḥ-tī-taṃ) Of a dirty white colour. m.
(-taḥ) 1. Natron, fossile alkali. 2. Antimony. considered as a collyrium or application to the eyes. 3. A pale or dirty white colour. n.
(-taṃ) A flock of pigeons, E. kapota a pigeon, &c. aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kapota (कपोत).—[ka-pota] (see kim), I. m. A dove or pigeon, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 139. Ii. f. tī, A she-pigeon, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 179.
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Kāpota (कापोत).—i. e. kapota + a, I. adj., f. tī, peculiar to pigeons, Mahābhārata 3, 15408. Ii. f. tī, The name of a plant, [Suśruta] 2, 173, 12.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kapota (कपोत).—[masculine] dove, pigeon; [feminine] kapotī [adjective] pigeon-hen.
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Kāpota (कापोत).—[feminine] ī peculiar to or coming from a pigeon; pigeon-coloured, grey.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kapota (कपोत):—m. (√kav, [Uṇādi-sūtra i, 63]; [from] 2. ka + pota?), a dove, pigeon, ([especially]) the spotty-necked pigeon (in the Vedas often a bird of evil omen), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) a bird in general, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) a frieze, cornice
4) a particular position of the hands [commentator or commentary] on [Śakuntalā; Purāṇa-sarvasva] etc.
5) the grey colour of a pigeon, [Suśruta ii, 280, 1]
6) the grey ore of antimony, [Suśruta ii, 84, 10]
7) Kāpota (कापोत):—mf(ī)n. ([from] kapota, [Pāṇini 4-3, 135 [Scholiast or Commentator]; , 154 [Scholiast or Commentator]]), belonging to or coming from a pigeon, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Patañjali]
8) of the colour of a pigeon, of a dull white colour, grey, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
9) m. natron, fossil alkali, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) (also) a Vānaprastha who has collected food (like a pigeon) for a year, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) antimony, a collyrium or application for the eyes, [Horace H. Wilson]
12) n. a flock of pigeons [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini 4-2, 44]
13) antimony, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) Name of two Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kapota (कपोत):—(taḥ) 1. m. A dove or pigeon.
2) Kāpota (कापोत):—(taṃ) 1. n. A flock of pigeons. m. Natron; antimony. a. Dirty white, of a pale colour.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Kapota (कपोत) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kavoya.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a dove, pigeon.
2) [noun] a small house or box with compartments for nesting pigeons, usu. on a pole; pigeonhole; dove-cot.
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Kapōta (ಕಪೋತ):—[noun] a horizontal molding projecting along the top of a wall, building, etc.; the cornice.
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1) [noun] the colour made by blending black and white; gray.
2) [noun] hydrated sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.10H2O; narton.
3) [noun] a silvery-white, brittle, nonmetallic chemical element of crystalline structure, found only in combination; antimony.
4) [noun] a flock of pigeons.
5) [noun] a collyrum made of antimony.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+31): Kapota Jataka, Kapotabana, Kapotabandha, Kapotabha, Kapotacarana, Kapotacharana, Kapotahasta, Kapotahastaka, Kapotaka, Kapotakandara, Kapotakarbura, Kapotakarnika, Kapotaki, Kapotakiya, Kapotaleshye, Kapotam, Kapotamala, Kapotanasi, Kapotanghri, Kapotanjana.
Full-text (+141): Kapotaka, Kapotanjana, Kapoti, Kapotasara, Kapotahasta, Kapotapalika, Kapotapali, Kapotacarana, Kapotari, Kapotanghri, Kapotabha, Kapotavarni, Kapotaretasa, Retasa, Kapotakiya, Kapotika, Jalakapota, Shvetakapota, Grihakapota, Kapotin.
Search found 60 books and stories containing Kapota, Kapōta, Kāpota, Kāpōta; (plurals include: Kapotas, Kapōtas, Kāpotas, Kāpōtas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 10.165.5 < [Sukta 165]
Rig Veda 10.165.4 < [Sukta 165]
Rig Veda 10.165.3 < [Sukta 165]
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 4.2 - The thought-colouration of the first three classes of celestial beings < [Chapter 4 - The Celestial Beings]
Verse 2.6 - Twenty-one kinds of audāyika-bhāva < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Verse 6.16 - The nature of Life-Karmas (leading to birth in the animal world) < [Chapter 6 - Influx of Karmas]
Women in the Atharva-veda Samhita (by Pranab Jyoti Kalita)
15. Goddess Nirṛti < [Chapter 4 - Female Deities and the Glorification of Women in the Atharvaveda]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Madagadipattu < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Temples in Dadapuram < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Temples in Gangaikondasolapuram (Gangaikondacholapuram) < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (study) (by K. Vidyuta)
4 (b). Technical terms for the component parts of the temple < [Chapter 2 - Author and his Works]
4. Prākāra components (6): Measures of other components < [Chapter 3 - Prākāra Lakṣaṇa]
4. Prākāra components (1): Bhitti-lakṣaṇa (walls) < [Chapter 3 - Prākāra Lakṣaṇa]