Adhishthana, Adhiṣṭhāna: 19 definitions
Adhishthana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Adhiṣṭhāna can be transliterated into English as Adhisthana or Adhishthana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Adhishthan.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
1) Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान) refers to a “plinth”, “pedestal” or “molded base”.
2) Adhiṣṭhāna can also refer to an “object on which something stands”. According to the Mayamata, an adhiṣṭhāna may be optionally provided with an upapīṭha (sub-structure), but according to the Pādmasaṃhitā this is mandatory.
According to the Mayamata, Adhiṣṭhāna has the following synonyms: Masūraka, Vāstvādhāra, Kuttima, Tala; while the Kāmikāgama extends this lists with: Dharātala, Ādhāra, Dharaṇi, Bhuvana, Pṛthvī, Bhūmi and Ādyaṅga.
3) Adhiṣṭhāna (‘plinth’) represents a part of the trivarga structure, where it is also known as upāna.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान) refers to the “plinth” or “base” of a temple (prāsāda or vimāna). It is considered the first part in the ṣaḍvarga structure.Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka
The term adhiṣṭhāna is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘adhiṣṭha’ meaning ‘to stand upon’. As such, etymologically, adhiṣṭhāna denotes an object on which something stands.
The main mouldings of the adhiṣṭhāna are:
- kapota or paṭṭikā or both,
Kāśyapaśilpa mentions only five major mouldings for the adhiṣṭāna. They are the upāna, jagati, kumuda, kampa (paṭṭi) and paṭṭikā. This is called as the pañcavarga. It is also mentioned that, those adhiṣṭānas which have the pañcavarga are the best adhiṣṭānas.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान) refers to “basement, level of - §§ 2.24, 25; 3.1, 14; 5.11; ...”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: WikiPedia: Tibetan Buddhism
The Sanskrit term adhiṣṭhāna is the name for initiations or blessings in Vajrayāna Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism adhiṣṭhāna blessings are an important part of the pointing-out instruction received from the Guru and lineage. Receiving these blessings is dependent on the student having proper motivation, aspiration and intentionality (bodhicitta) and sufficient “devotion” (Sanskrit: bhakti).
The term adhiṣṭhāna is also used to describe the transformative power of the Buddha. According to D. T. Suzuki: “The Buddha is creative life itself, he creates himself in innumerable forms with all the means native to him. This is called his adhiṣṭhāna, as it were, emanating from his personality.”
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Adhisthāna.—(CII 1), cf. dharm-ādhisthāna, dharm- ādhiṣṭhāna, ‘the establishment of morality’. Note: adhisthāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
See also (synonyms): Adhiṣṭhāna.
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Adhiṣṭhāna.—(IE 8-3; EI 24, 28, 31; LL), the capital or headquarters of an administrative unit; a city or town; the chief city. See abhisthāna. (EI 9), probably, residence. (EI 8), same as sthāna. (EI 24), cf. adhiṣṭhānam, ‘under the supervision of’. (SITI), the base of the vimāna in a temple; a seat. Note: adhiṣṭhāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान).—n (S) Abiding, residing, or staying in: inhering, lying, or being in. 2 The place, seat, subject &c. of indwelling. 3 fig. Sitting in restraint at a person's door;--in order to enforce compliance with some demand. 4 Ostentatious display (of piety or sanctity, of learning, opulence &c.)Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान).—n Abiding, inhering.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Standing or being near, being at hand, approach (sannidhi); अत्राधिष्ठानं कुरु (atrādhiṣṭhānaṃ kuru) take a seat here.
2) Resting upon, occupying, inhabiting, dwelling in, locating oneself in; प्राणाधिष्ठानं देहस्य (prāṇādhiṣṭhānaṃ dehasya) &c.
3) A position, site, basis, seat; त्र्यधिष्ठानस्य देहिनः (tryadhiṣṭhānasya dehinaḥ) Ms.12.4; इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते (indriyāṇi mano buddhirasyādhiṣṭhānamucyate) Bg.3.4, 18.14 the seat (of that desire.)
4) Residence, abode; नगरं राजाधिष्ठानम् (nagaraṃ rājādhiṣṭhānam) Pt.1.; so धर्म° (dharma°); a place, locality, town; सर्वाविनयाधिष्ठानतां गच्छन्ति (sarvāvinayādhiṣṭhānatāṃ gacchanti) K.16; कस्मिंश्चिदधिष्ठाने (kasmiṃścidadhiṣṭhāne) in a certain place.
5) Authority, power, power of control, presiding over; अनधिष्ठानम् (anadhiṣṭhānam) H.3.83. lose of position, dimissal from a post (of authority); समर्थस्त्वमिमं जेतुमधिष्ठानपराक्रमैः (samarthastvamimaṃ jetumadhiṣṭhānaparākramaiḥ) Rām.; ययेह अश्वैर्युक्तो रथः सार- थिनाऽधिष्ठितः प्रवर्तते तथा आत्माधिष्ठानाच्छरीरम् (yayeha aśvairyukto rathaḥ sāra- thinā'dhiṣṭhitaḥ pravartate tathā ātmādhiṣṭhānāccharīram) Gaudapāda; महाश्वेताकृताच्च सत्याधिष्ठानात् (mahāśvetākṛtācca satyādhiṣṭhānāt) K.346 appeal or reference to truth.
6) Government, dominion.
7) A wheel (of a car &c.) अधिष्ठानं मनश्चासीत्परिरथ्या सरस्वती (adhiṣṭhānaṃ manaścāsītparirathyā sarasvatī) Mb.8.34.34; 5.178.74.
8) A precedent, prescribed rule.
9) A benediction. cf. अधिष्ठानं चक्रपुरप्रभावाध्यासनेष्वपि (adhiṣṭhānaṃ cakrapuraprabhāvādhyāsaneṣvapi) | Nm.
1) Destruction (?); अमित्राणामधिष्ठानाद्वधाद् दुर्योधनस्य च । भीम दिष्ट्या पृथिव्यां ते प्रथितं सुमहद्यशः (amitrāṇāmadhiṣṭhānādvadhād duryodhanasya ca | bhīma diṣṭyā pṛthivyāṃ te prathitaṃ sumahadyaśaḥ) || Mb.9.61.14.
11) Couch, seat, bed; साधिष्ठानानि सर्वशः (sādhiṣṭhānāni sarvaśaḥ) Rām.6.75.19.
12) A butt (for an allurement.) तस्माद् ब्राह्ममधिष्ठानं कृत्वा कार्ये चतुर्विधे (tasmād brāhmamadhiṣṭhānaṃ kṛtvā kārye caturvidhe) | Kau. A.1.1.
Derivable forms: adhiṣṭhānam (अधिष्ठानम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान).—(regularly) nt. (= Pali adhiṭṭhāna; see 6 below for forms of other genders; from adhitiṣṭhati, q.v.), (1) basis, as in Sanskrit ([Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 1); special usage, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 405.8—9 (a Buddha of old preached the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka at length) Sarvasattvapriyadarśanaṃ bodhisattvaṃ…adhiṣṭhānaṃ kṛtvā, making (his disciple) the Bodhisattva S. the basis, i.e. with special regard to him, or for his special benefit; (2) (mental) firm basis = determination, resolve, resolution, vow, = Pali (cetaso) adhiṭṭhāna (see Critical Pali Dictionary); rare in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]: (a Bodhisattva is about to burn his body to honor the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka and the Buddha who revealed it to him; having purified, adorned, and scented his body) svakam adhiṣṭhānam akarot Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 407.6, he made his resolution, firm mental determination; followed by svakam adhiṣṭhānaṃ kṛtvā svaṃ kāyaṃ prajvālayām āsa; buddhān bhagavataḥ sākṣiṇaḥ kṛtvā teṣāṃ purataḥ satyādhiṣṭhānaṃ (q.v.) karomi: yena satyena etc., Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 413.7—8,…I make a truthful resolve… and he proceeds with an ‘act of truth’, see satyavacana; (?) Lalitavistara 423.5-6 akṣaṇasattvavinayādhiṣṭhānāpratyudāvar- tyacakraṃ (said of the dharmacakra; text °dhiṣṭhāna- praty°, but see s.v. apratyudāvartya), wheel that cannot be turned back because of (the Buddha's) fixed determination to discipline creatures that are subject to bad births (? or possibly because of the Buddha's supernatural power to discipline etc.; otherwise, implausibly, Foucaux); here perhaps also the ‘four adhisthāna’ (firm resolves?) of Mahāvyutpatti 1580—84 (satya-, tyāga-, upasama-, prajñā-) = Pali four [Page016-a+ 71] adhiṭṭhāna, Dīghanikāya (Pali) iii.229.18 (paññā-, sacca-, cāga-, upasama-); (3) in Sanskrit ([Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2) mastery, power; in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] control, e.g. of a monk's own robes (compare adhitiṣṭhati 1), Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.91.12 tricīvarādhiṣṭhānena; oftener supernatural, magic power: puṇyavipākādhiṣṭhānādhiṣṭhitās Lalitavistara 48.21 (Apsa- rases) empowered (controlled) by the power of the ripening of merit (which enables them to disappear from their heavenly home and appear in Kapilavastu); -devatādhiṣṭhānāt Lalitavistara 381.12, by the magic power of the…deity (the merchants' wagons were stopped and could not be moved); usually a Buddha's or Bodhisattva's; it may be his supernatural control over his own destiny, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 64.13, where bodhisattvā- dhiṣṭhānena goes closely with tat paurvakaṃ caryāpraṇi- dhānam, see s.v. saṃmantrita; but it is usually control over another person, a Bodhisattva or disciple: Maitreyasya bodhisattvasyādhiṣṭhānabalena sarveṣu teṣu kūṭāgāreṣv abhyantarapraviṣṭam ātmānaṃ saṃjānīte sma, Gaṇḍavyūha 512.13- 14, by the force of the supernatural power of Maitreya (Sudhana) fancied that he had entered into each one of those palaces; buddhānāṃ…adhiṣṭhānena Lalitavistara 163.9—10 (text adhisthān°; when the women were making music for the Bodhisattva) by the supernatural power of the Buddhas verses of exhortation to him came forth (in 163.14 āveśa, q.v., or v.l. ādeśa, replaces adhi°); similarly 182.3; adhi- ṣṭhānena buddhānām anubhāvād (another near-synonym) vikurvitaiḥ Samādhirājasūtra 22.19 (the body of the Buddha can be seen); other like cases Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 2.10; Lalitavistara 31.3, 6; 237.18; 368.12; in 415.16, the dharmacakra is sarvabuddhādhiṣ- ṭhānāvilopitam, unbroken thru the supernatural power (influence) of all the Buddhas; for Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 100.6 and (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 56.24 see s.v. adhitiṣṭhati (2); etaṃ…samādhiṃ samā- pannasyādhiṣṭhānam: lokadhātuvijñaptiṣu adhiṣṭhānam, etc., long series of locs. each with adhi° repeated, stating the spheres of the mastery obtained, Gaṇḍavyūha 98.15 ff.; mamā- dhiṣṭhānabalādhānam Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 316.1, my assumption of the force of supernatural (magic) power (here causes people to believe that the earthly life of Śākyamuni, which was unreal, is real); but the corresponding verse, 323.13, has adhiṣṭha- hāmi in the sense of I make appear by magic (see adhitiṣ- ṭhati 3), and possibly adhiṣṭhāna may be concrete here (and in sadādhiṣṭhānaṃ mama etad īdṛśaṃ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 324.11, resuming the same subject), exhibition of supernatural (magic) power = magical appearance or transformation; this latter is certainly the meaning in Lalitavistara 379.3, see adhitiṣṭhati (3), and perhaps in Prabhūtaratnasya tathāgatasya…etad adhiṣṭhānam abhūt Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 241.8, this was the adhiṣṭhāna of the Tathāgata P. (there follows a quotation of his words: Let this stūpa of my remains appear whenever the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka is preached). Does this adhiṣṭhāna mean this exhibition of supernatural power, viz, the making of the stūpa to appear? Or is it this fixed determination, resolution (2, above)? Near synonyms are āveśa, (Sanskrit) anubhāva, adhimukti; compare also Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 292.13 and 15, where one of the sources of abhijñā is ‘from adhiṣṭhāna’ (adhiṣṭhānān, so read in 13 for text °nāṃ, abl., before n-), which means from the controlling power of the Buddhas and is paraphrased in 15 by buddhaprasādataḥ, from the grace of the Buddhas. Suzuki, Transl. of Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra passim, renders sustaining power; I think rather controlling power. Even Bodhisattvas are at times dependent on Buddhas and need their control; (4) in architecture, Sanskrit (see Acharya, Dict. Hindu Arch. s.v.), basement, foundation of building or base of a pillar. Here in Mahāvyutpatti 5591 = Tibetan lan kan gyi rten ma, prop (i.e. base) of a railing; so Chin. Whatever it means here is certainly meant also in Divyāvadāna 221.9, 10 adhiṣṭhānam, and Mahāvastu i.195.1 ff.; iii.227.8 ff., adhiṣṭhānakam, where the context is the same as in Mahāvyutpatti 5591; see sūcī, sūcikā; (5) see pādādhiṣṭhāna; (6) m., name of a (mythical) samādhi: Gaṇḍavyūha 451.26. In this curious passage, 451.25—452.6, the word adhiṣṭhāna is further used predicatively in a series of equational sentences, varying in gender like an adjective [Page016-b+ 71] with different subjects. Bhadrottamā says to Sudhana: ahaṃ kulaputrā 'nālayamaṇḍalaṃ nāma dharmaparyāyaṃ jānāmi deśayāmy, adhiṣṭhānaś ca me samādhiḥ pratilab- dho; na tatra samādhau kasyacid dharmasyā 'dhiṣṭhānam; adhiṣṭhānaṃ tatra sarvajñatācakṣuḥ pravartate, 'dhiṣṭhā- naṃ sarvajñatāśrotram, adhiṣṭhānaṃ sarvajñatāghrāṇam, adhiṣṭhānā sarvajñatājihvā, 'dhiṣṭhānaḥ sarvajñatākāyo, 'dhiṣṭhānaṃ tatra sarvajñatāmanaḥ pravartate, 'dhiṣṭhānā sarvajñatormir, adhiṣṭhānā sarvajñatāvidyud, adhiṣṭhānāḥ sarvajñatāvegāḥ pravartante jagadrocanāmaṇḍalāḥ; etam ahaṃ kulaputrā 'nālayamaṇḍalaṃ dharmaparyāyaṃ jā- nāmi.(Punctuation introduced by me.) There is no further light from the context. I am not sure what meaning the author attributed to the word adhiṣṭhāna: presumably something like either basis or controlling power.
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Adhisthāna (अधिस्थान).—[ is read for adhiṣṭhāna, q.v., in Lalitavistara 163.10 (according to Lefm. with all mss.) and 182.3 (here v.l. -ṣṭh-).]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Abiding, resting; 2. Site, situation. 3. Prescribed rule, fixed practice. 5. A town. 6. A wheel. 7. Dignity. E. adhi, sthā to stand, and lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान).—i. e. adhi -sthā + ana, n. 1. A resting-place. 2. A seat, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 4. 3. An abode. 4. A place, [Pañcatantra] 10, 3. 5. A town, a capital, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 266. 6. Dignity, [Nala] 26, 28. 7. Power, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 14, 30.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान).—[neuter] standing or dwelling-place; residence, capital; high position, power, dignity.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान):—[=adhi-ṣṭhāna] [from adhi-ṣṭhā] n. standing by, being at hand, approach
2) [v.s. ...] standing or resting upon
3) [v.s. ...] a basis, base
4) [v.s. ...] the standing-place of the warrior upon the car, [Sāma-vidhāna-brāhmaṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] a position, site, residence, abode, seat
6) [v.s. ...] a settlement, town, standing over
7) [v.s. ...] government, authority, power
8) [v.s. ...] a precedent, rule
9) [v.s. ...] a benediction, [Buddhist literature]
10) [from adhi-ṣṭhāna > adhi-ṣṭhā] (with Buddhists) steadfast resolution (one of the 6 or 10 Pāramitās, q.v.), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 128]
11) [v.s. ...] a king’s court, [Divyāvadāna]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Adhiṣṭhāna (अधिष्ठान):—[tatpurusha compound] n.
(-nam) 1) Abiding, resting upon.
2) Site, situation.
3) A town.
4) (In architecture.) Base, basement.
5) Power, dignity, superintendence.
6) Prescribed rule, fixed practice.
7) A wheel.
9) (In Buddhistic literature.) Benediction. E. sthā with adhi, kṛt aff. lyuṭ.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)