Upana, Upāna: 10 definitions


Upana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Upāna (उपान) refers to members of the moulding of a pedestal (pīṭha), used in the construction of liṅgas. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Upāna (उपान, “bed-slad”) refers to a type of moulding commonly used in the construction of an adhiṣṭāna or upapīṭha.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Upāna (उपान).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—This is not part of the plinth proper, but a foundation platform of rectangular profile raising the jagatī from the ground. Often it is hidden or barely visible, but may consists of several stepped courses, particularly where a temple is build on sloping ground.

Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka

Upāna (उपान) is the lowest moulding. It is always rectilinear in shape. Upāna is generally plain and devoid of ornamentation. Sometimes it contains a horizontal thin indentation on its top. In a few temples, upāna is ornamented with bhāravāhakas. If upapīṭha is constructed below the adhiṣṭāna, upāna may or may not be present. Upāna always projects forward from all the other mouldings of the plinth.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Upāna (उपान) refers to “- 1. plinth (usually thin) §§ 2.5; 3.3, 37; 4.31; 5.6. - 2. plinth (placed under the platform of a sacrificial pavilion) (Aj) §§ 3.3, 13; 4.26. - 3. see kṣudra upāna. - 4. Adjustment seat (Aj) §§ 2.5, 25.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Upāna (उपान) refers to “shoes”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It also treats of the prediction of events from the flight of the kañjana and from the appearance of various abnormal phenomena, of expiatory ceremonies; of miscellaneous planetary phenomena; of ghṛta-kambala; of the royal sword; of paṭa; of the features of a house cock, a cow, a sheep, a horse, an elephant, a man and a woman. It also treats of the treatment of women; of moles in the body; of injuries to shoes [i.e., upāna-cheda] and clothes; of hairy fans; of walking sticks: of beds and seats; of lamplight; of tooth brush and the like”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Upāna.—(SITI), the first moulding above the plinth, in the construction of temples. Note: upāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Upana in India is the name of a plant defined with Asarum europaeum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Botaniceskjij Žurnal SSSR
· Praxis. (1969)
· Planta Medica (1976)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Farmakol. Toksikol. (1985)
· Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitatis Comenianae, Botanica (1976)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Upana, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, side effects, have a look at these references.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upaṇā (उपणा).—m Boiled simples or leaves for a fomentation. v śijava, kara, lāva, bāndha. 2 (Revilingly.) Badly boiled rice; as bhātācā u0 vāḍhalā.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upana (उपन).—1 P.

1) To come to, arrive at, approach, bend or tend towards.

2) To befall, fall to the lot of, occur, happen (used by itself or with gen., dat., or acc. of person); मत्संभोगः कथमुपनमेत् स्वप्नजोऽपि (matsaṃbhogaḥ kathamupanamet svapnajo'pi) Meghadūta 92; तत्तस्योपन- मेत् (tattasyopana- met) Bhartṛhari 2.121; अन्ध आत्मने नोपनमति (andha ātmane nopanamati) Bhāg.; उपैनं सहस्रं नमति (upainaṃ sahasraṃ namati) Ait. Br.

3) To share in. -Caus.

1) To lead towards, introduce (with gen.).

2) To offer, give.

Derivable forms: upanam (उपनम्).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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