Pratima, Pratimā: 18 definitions
Pratima means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
pratima–Sanskrit term meaning 'resemblance', 'similitude' or 'representation' and used in hindu iconology (eg. the Āgamas).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Pratima (प्रतिम) is a Sanskrit word translating to “resemblance”, “similtude” or “representation”. It is used throughout texts and practice of Hindu iconology.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (iconography)
Pratimā (प्रतिमा).—In Mānasāra chapter LXIV titled pratimāvidhanam, “Composition of Images (pratimā)”, twelve options for obtaining the height of secondary images are given. They are:
- from height of linga (in case of Śaiva temples);
- from height of the main image of Viṣṇu (in Vaiṣṇava temples);
- from half-breadth of the adytum of the temple;
- from breadth of the temple;
- from door;
- from base of the temple;
- from main pillar;
- according to hasta, cubit;
- according to tāla, “span”;
- from body of the yajamāna, “patron” or “client”;
- from one division of the height of liṅga or image;
- according to digit.
These lists of options display an “instrumental” nature, primarily as a means of procuring the height of the image.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Pratimā (प्रतिमा) refers to a “representation” of the supreme being.—The term “image” finds its close parallel in Sanskrit words like pratikṛti, pratimā, bimba, and so on. In Sanskrit, pratimā means tulyata or equality, rūpa or form, pratibimba or reflection as in a mirror. The word bimba means imitation and it is very frequently used in the sense of the images of divinities. The Hindus have believed from very early times that pratimā is representation, a resemblance, or a form of the Supreme Being; standing in the place of God. Pratimā tends to bring the worshipper near the worshipped. The word “idol” is often used in a derogatory sense, signifying “false god”. Therefore, the word “image” is a near approximation to the sense of pratimā. An image made of metal is called bimba, and one that is carved by hand is known as pratimā. In general, all the icons are called paḍima.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Pratimā (प्रतिमा) refers to “images of gods”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 9.285)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Pratimā (प्रतिमा) refers to “idols”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, while explaining the importance of idols:—“[...] having an idol (pratimā) is very auspicious for a person who has no such knowledge. It is a ladder that enables him to climb to a higher position. It is very difficult to climb to a position without a support. The idol is only a means to achieve the Nirguṇa Śiva. The attainment of the Nirguṇa through a Saguṇa is certainly possible. In this manner, the symbols of all lords are conducive to a steady faith and belief”.
If there is no idol (pratimā), of what avail are scents, sandal paste, flowers, etc.? Till the realisation of true knowledge, the idol shall necessarily be worshipped. If any one does not worship the idol before he attains perfect knowledge, his downfall is sure.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Pratima (प्रतिम).—(Paulastya)—a sage of the second Sāvarṇa Manu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 70.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Community: A Social Survey
Pratimā (प्रतिमा, “stage”).—The eleven pratimās form part of the rules of conduct for laymen.—The householder’s life has been divided into eleven stages or pratimās. These pratimās form a series of duties and performances, the standard and duration of which rises periodically and which finally culminates in an attitude resembling monkhood. Thus the pratimās rise by degrees and every stage includes all the virtues practised in those preceeding it. The conception of eleven pratimās appears to be the best way of exhibiting the rules of conduct prescribved for the Jaina laymen.
The eleven pratimās are as follows:
The householders are advised to ascend these stages step by step. Those who have attained the eleven stages are given special importance by the Digambara Jainas while Śvetāmbaras consider them like ascetics.Source: WikiPedia: Jainism
Pratimā (प्रतिमा, “step”).—In Jainism, pratimā is a step or a stage marking the spiritual rise of a lay person (śravaka). There are eleven such steps called pratimā. After having passed the eleven steps, one is no longer a śrāvaka, but a muni (monk). Rules prescribed for laymen are divided into twelve vrata (vows) and eleven pratimās (steps) and are described in several codes of conduct (śrāvakācāras). The pratimās are mentioned in several ancient texts like Ratnakaraṇḍa-śrāvakācāra (2nd century A.D.)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Pratimā.—cf. pratimam (SII 2), image of a human being; usually, the image of a deity. Note: pratimā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pratima (प्रतिम).—a S Like. In comp. as ētat pratima, tat- pratima, sūryapratima, siṃhapratima.
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pratimā (प्रतिमा).—f (S) A resemblance, a figure, an image, a picture. ēkē pratimēcā Of one mould or stamp; of one cast or figure.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pratima (प्रतिम).—a Like.
--- OR ---
pratimā (प्रतिमा).—f A resemblance, a figure, an image.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pratimā (प्रतिमा).—3, 4 Ā. To compare, liken.
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Pratimā (प्रतिमा).—m. Ved. A creator, maker.
-mā 1 An image, a likeness, statue, figure, an idol; पुरः परार्ध्यप्रतिमागृहायाः (puraḥ parārdhyapratimāgṛhāyāḥ) R.16.39.
2) Resemblance, similitude; oft. in comp. in the sense of 'like, similar, or equal to'; देवप्रतिम, अप्रतिम (devapratima, apratima) &c.; गुरोः कुशानुप्रतिमात् (guroḥ kuśānupratimāt) R.2.49; पतत्पतङ्गप्रतिमस्तपोनिधिः (patatpataṅgapratimastaponidhiḥ) Śi.1.12.
3) A reflection, reflected image; मुखमिन्दु- रुज्ज्वलकपोलमतः प्रतिमाच्छलेन सुदृशामविशत् (mukhamindu- rujjvalakapolamataḥ pratimācchalena sudṛśāmaviśat) Śi.9.48,73; R.7. 64;12.1.
4) A measure, extent.
5) The part of an elephant's head between the tusks.
6) A symbol.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Pratima (प्रतिम).—[, in Gv 372.16, read apratima-; see s.v. traiyadhvika.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Like, resembling, (In composition) f.
(-mā) 1. A resemblance, a figure, an image, a picture. 2. An idol. 3. The part of an elephant’s head between the tusks. 4. Similarity, Similitude. 5. Measure, extent. E. prati against, mā to measure, aṅ and ṭāp aff.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+12): Pratimacandra, Pratimachandra, Pratimagata, Pratimageha, Pratimagriha, Pratimala, Pratimalakshana, Pratimalla, Pratimana, Pratimanabhaga, Pratimanana, Pratimanayati, Pratimanca, Pratimancha, Pratimandala, Pratimandana, Pratimandayati, Pratimandiram, Pratimantrana, Pratimaparicaraka.
Ends with (+10): Abrahmavarjanapratima, Anumatityagapratima, Apratima, Arambhatyagapratima, Ashtavidhapratima, Ayahpratima, Brahmacaryapratima, Brahmacharyapratima, Darshanapratima, Devapratima, Devatapratima, Indrapratima, Kayotsargapratima, Lohapratima, Mridapratima, Parigrahatyagapratima, Parthivapratima, Poshadhapratima, Poshadhopavasapratima, Preshyatyagapratima.
Full-text (+174): Brahmacarya, Parigrahatyaga, Vrata, Uddishtatyagapratima, Poshadhapratima, Darshanapratima, Sacittatyaga, Anumatityaga, Arambhatyagapratima, Kayotsargapratima, Vratapratima, Samayika, Sacittatyagapratima, Uddishtatyaga, Proshadha, Darshana, Samayikapratima, Arambhatyaga, Devapratima, Lohapratima.
Search found 18 books and stories containing Pratima, Pratimā, Prati-ma, Prati-mā; (plurals include: Pratimas, Pratimās, mas, mās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
4. Icons set up By Rajaraja I’s Officers and others < [Tanjavur/Thanjavur (Rajarajesvaram temple)]
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Part 3 - Dialogue with Skandaka < [Chapter 1]
Part 5 - Birth of Camarendra < [Chapter 2]
Part 3 - Pain from and exhaustion of karma < [Chapter 1]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 6: Supārśva’s initiation < [Chapter V - Supārśvanāthacaritra]
Part 17: Incarnation as Nandana < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
Part 7: Story of Kanakaśakti < [Chapter III - Eighth incarnation as Vajrāyudha]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.202 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 2.4.205 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 1.7.7-8 < [Chapter 7 - Purna: The Complete Perfection]
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)