Prak, Prāk: 14 definitions


Prak means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Prāk (प्राक्).—Before a particular thing in place, or in recital, or in mention. The word is used generally to show the limit upto which a particular topic extends; cf. तसि-लादयः प्राक् पाशपः (tasi-lādayaḥ prāk pāśapaḥ); cf also प्राक् कडारा-त्समासः (prāk kaḍārā-tsamāsaḥ) P. I. 4.l : cf. also अथ आख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (atha ākhyāḥ samāmnāyādhikāḥ prāgriphitāt) V. Pr. I. 33.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Prāk (प्राक्) refers to the “eastern countries”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Saturn should be eclipsed by the lunar disc, the ministers of Yaudheya, the Kauravas, the Arjunāyanas as well as the men of the eastern countries [i.e., prāk-īśa] will suffer miseries for ten months. If Mercury should be so eclipsed the men of Magadha, of Mathurā and those on the banks of the river Veṇa will suffer miseries while the rest of the land will enjoy the happiness of Kṛtayuga”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Prāk (प्राक्) refers to “previous (works)”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] Who can fully enumerate all the sports which the Creator of the Universe has designed for the entertainment of the human mind, and for the enjoyment of the fruits of their previous (prāk) works [prāgdṛṣṭabhogāptyai]? Among these, eighteen things are mentioned which are known as vyasana (addictions or vices), and without these the senses are useless, and these eighteen are the real causes of exquisite delight. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prāk (प्राक्).—ad S Before, prior, preceding in time or place. 2 Easterly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prāk (प्राक्).—ad Before, prior. Easterly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्).—ind.

1) Before (usually with abl.); सफलानि निमित्तानि प्राक्प्रभातात्ततो मम (saphalāni nimittāni prākprabhātāttato mama) Bhaṭṭikāvya 8.16; प्राक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने (prāksṛṣṭeḥ kevalātmane) Kumārasambhava 2.4; R.14.78; Ś.5.22.

2) At first, already; प्रमन्यवः प्रागपि कोशलेन्द्रे (pramanyavaḥ prāgapi kośalendre) R.7.34.

3) Before, previously, in a previous portion (as of a book); इति प्रागेव निर्दिष्टम् (iti prāgeva nirdiṣṭam); Manusmṛti 1.71; प्राक्पादयोः पतति खादति पृष्ठमांसम् (prākpādayoḥ patati khādati pṛṣṭhamāṃsam) H.

4) In the east, to the east of; ग्रामात् प्राक्पर्वतः (grāmāt prākparvataḥ).

5) In front.

6) As far as, up to; प्राक्कडारात् (prākkaḍārāt).

7) At dawn or daybreak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्).—Ind. 1. Before, already, prior, preceding, in place or time. 2. In front of. 3. As for as, up to. 4. Previously. 5. East, eastern. 6. Past, gone. 7. First. 8. Between, amongst, amidst. 9. At dawn, early in the morning. E. See prāc .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्).—see prāñc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्).—v. prāñc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prāk (प्राक्):—a See under prāñc, [column]3.

2) [from prāñc] b ind. ([Lāṭyāyana; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]) before (in place or in order or time; as [preposition] with [ablative] cf. [Pāṇini 2-1, 11 12], rarely with [genitive case]; also in [compound] with its [substantive] [Pāṇini; ib.]), [???; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [from prāñc] in the east, to the east of ([ablative]), [Ṛg-veda; Lāṭyāyana]

4) [v.s. ...] before the eyes, [Hitopadeśa i, 76]

5) [v.s. ...] at first, formerly, previously, already, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (with eva), a short while ago, recently, just, [Śakuntalā]

7) [v.s. ...] still more so, how much more (= kim-uta), [Buddhist literature]

8) [v.s. ...] above, in the former part (of a book), [Manu-smṛti; Pāṇini]

9) [v.s. ...] first, in the first place, above all, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] from now, henceforth, [Varāha-mihira]

11) [v.s. ...] up to, as far as (with [ablative]; [especially] in gram., e.g. prāk kaḍārāt, up to the word kaḍāra, [Pāṇini 2-1, 3])

12) [v.s. ...] between (= avāntare), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] early in the morning, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] mfn. [wrong reading] for drāk, [Mahābhārata]

15) [from prāñc] c in [compound] for prāñc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्):—adv. Before; eastern; first; past; at dawn of day, early.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prak in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Prāk (प्राक्):——an allomorph of [prāc] occurring as a prefix in a number of words and imparting the meaning of before, prior to, former, etc.; east; ~[kāla] former times, olden times; ~[kālika/kālīna] former; olden; ~[kṛta] performed earlier (as deeds) etc; ~[pakva] premature.

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