Sahasa, Sahasā, Sāhasa: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Sahasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sahsa.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Sahasa (सहस).—The tutelary deity of Pākayajnas; father of Adbhuta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 40.

1b) Of the south.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 130.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Sāhasa (साहस, “rashness”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

1) Sāhasa (साहस) possibly refers to “punishing the guiltless with imprisonment” (and so forth), according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] tale-bearing (paiśunya), Treachery (droha?), Envy (īrṣya), Slandering (sāhasa?), Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa), Cruelty of speech (vāgdaṇḍa) and of Assault (pāruṣya);—these constitute the eightfold set born of Anger. [...] in the set born of anger (krodhaja),—Assault (daṇḍapātana), Cruelty of speech (vākpāruṣya) and Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa),—are to be regarded as the three most pernicious (kaṣṭatama)”.

2) Sāhasa (साहस) refers to “robbery”, or “violence”, and is commonly classified as one of the eighteen vyavahārapada, or “law titles” in the ancient Dharmaśāstras. These vyavahārapadas are categories of ‘legal procedures’ and define a major type of crime for which a person may be tried. The term is derived from vyavahāra (“lawsuits” or “case”) which defines the case between the plaintiff and the defendant, which is often related to social and commercial transactions.

Sāhasa is mentioned in the following sources as one of the eighteen vyavahārapadas: the Manusmṛti (8.4-7).

3) Sāhasa (साहस, “robbery”).—When a thing is taken away forcibly, in the presence of watchmen, it is sāhasa (‘robbery’), as opposed to steya (‘theft’). (Also see the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.332)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Sahasā (सहसा).—One of the four types of nikṣepa (‘placing’);—What is meant placing quickly (sahasā-nikṣepa)? To place an object quickly on the floor due to fear or urgency to undertake another activity is called quick placing.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sāhasa.—(CII 4), a violent crime. Note: sāhasa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sahasā : (adv.) suddenly; forcibly. || sāhasa (nt.), violence; arbitrary action.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sahasā, (adv.) (Instr. of sahas (Vedic), force) forcibly, hastily, suddenly Sn. 123; DhA. III, 381; PvA. 40, 279; inconsiderately J. I, 173; III, 441. —°kāra violence D. I, 5; III, 176; A. II, 209; Pug. 58; J. IV, 11; DA. I, 80. (Page 701)

— or —

Sāhasa, (fr. sahas power) violent, hasty Sn. 329; (nt.) violence, arbitrary action, acts of violence Sn. 943; J. VI, 284; Mhvs 6, 39; sāhasena arbitrarily A. V, 177; opp. a° ibid.; Dh. 257; J. VI, 280. sāhasaṃ id. J. VI, 358 (=sāhasena sāhasikaṃ kammaṃ katvā ibid. 359); adv. asāhasaṃ=asāhasena J. III, 319 (C. sāhasiyataṇhāya ibid. 320, if we do not have to read sāhasiyā taṇhāya, from sāhasī).

—kiriyā violence J. III, 321. (Page 707)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sahasā (सहसा).—ad (S) Hastily, precipitately, inconsiderately, unpausingly, with impatient and headlong quickness. Note. The above is the meaning, but as the construction is invariably negative, the word together with its concomitant negative particle acquires, in the popular apprehension, the sense of Never, by no means, on no account or consideration; and the applications accordingly are those of kimapi, kadāpi, kadhīṃ, sarvātmanā &c. Ex. hēṃ kāma mī sa0 karaṇāra nāhīṃ; tō sa0 tujhē gharīṃ yāyācā nāhīṃ.

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sāhasa (साहस).—n (S) Violence, furiousness, recklessness, desperate or wild daring. This is among the six excellencies or qualifications of a warrior; viz. udyama, sāhasa, dhairya bala, śakti, parākrama. 2 Any desperate, daring, phrenzied, heart-harrowing act; a deed in general of furiousness or violence. Ex. sāhasa kēlyāvāñcūna lakṣmī miḷata nāhīṃ Fortes fortuna adjuvat.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sahasā (सहसा).—ad Hastily; never, by no means.

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sāhasa (साहस).—n Violence; wild daring; any desperate act.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sahasā (सहसा).—ind.

1) With force, forcibly.

2) Rashly, precipitately, inconsiderately; सहसा विदधीत न क्रियामविवेकः परमापदां पदम् (sahasā vidadhīta na kriyāmavivekaḥ paramāpadāṃ padam) Ki.2.3.

3) Suddenly, all at once; मातङ्ग- नकैः सहसोत्पतद्भिः (mātaṅga- nakaiḥ sahasotpatadbhiḥ) R.13.11.

4) With a smile, smiling.

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Sāhasa (साहस).—[sahasā balena nirvṛttam aṇ]

1) Violence, force; rapine; पैशून्यं साहसं द्रोहं ईर्ष्यासूयार्थदूषणम् । वाग्दण्डजं च पारुष्यं क्रोधजोीऽपि गणोऽष्टकः (paiśūnyaṃ sāhasaṃ drohaṃ īrṣyāsūyārthadūṣaṇam | vāgdaṇḍajaṃ ca pāruṣyaṃ krodhajoी'pi gaṇo'ṣṭakaḥ) || Ms.7.48.

2) Any criminal act (such as robbery, rape, felony &c.), a heinous crime, an aggressive act.

3) Cruelty, oppression; न सहास्मि साहसमसाहसिकी (na sahāsmi sāhasamasāhasikī) Śi.9.59.

4) Boldness, daring, daring courage; साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति (sāhase śrīḥ prativasati) Mk.4.

5) Precipitation, rashness, temerity, an inconsiderate or reckless act, a rash or daring act; तदपि साहसाभासम् (tadapi sāhasābhāsam) Māl.2; किमपरमतो निर्व्यूढं यत् करार्पणसाहसम् (kimaparamato nirvyūḍhaṃ yat karārpaṇasāhasam) 9.1; Pt.1.191; Ki.17.42.

6) Punishment, chastisement, fine (m. also in this sense); पणानां द्वे शते सार्धे प्रथमः साहसः स्मृतः (paṇānāṃ dve śate sārdhe prathamaḥ sāhasaḥ smṛtaḥ) Ms.8.138,276; Y. 1.66,365.

Derivable forms: sāhasam (साहसम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sahasā (सहसा).—Ind. Quickly, precipitately, inconsiderately, without consideration or pause. E. ṣah to bear, asā aff.; or saha + so-ḍā .

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Sāhasa (साहस).—n.

(-saṃ) 1. Punishment, chastisement, fine, (also masculine in this sense.) 2. Violence, the perpetration of any act of rapine or aggression. 3. Oppression, cruelty. 4. Hatred. 5. Rape, ravishment. 6. Boldness, daring. 7. Rashness. 8. Oblation with fire. E. sahas strength, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sāhasa (साहस).—i. e. sahas + a, n. (and m., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 138), 1. Violence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8. 345. 2. Oppression, cruelty, [Śiśupālavadha] 8, 59. 3. Punishment, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 120. 4. Rape, ravishment. 5. Hatred. 6. Boldness, daring, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 3; [Pañcatantra] 135, 8; courage, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 75, 12. 7. Rashness, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 115; [Hitopadeśa] 100, 3. 8. Suicide, [Pañcatantra] 135, 6; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 189, 7.

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Sahāsa (सहास).—adj. smiling, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 66, 5; ºsam, adv. scornfully, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 136, 1.

Sahāsa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and hāsa (हास).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sahāsa (सहास).—[adjective] laughing or smiling; [neuter] [adverb]

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Sāhasa (साहस).—[adjective] rash, inconsiderate. [masculine] [neuter] punishment, fine; [neuter] violence, rashness, temerity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sahasā (सहसा):—[from sahas > sah] a ind.

2) [from sah] b ([instrumental case] of sahas), forcibly, vehemently, suddenly, quickly, precipitately, immediately, at once, unexpectedly, at random, fortuitously, in an unpremeditated manner, inconsiderately (with [instrumental case] ‘together with’).

3) Sahasa (सहस):—[=sa-hasa] [from sa > sahaṃsa-pāta] mf(ā)n. having laughter, laughing, smiling, [Śiśupāla-vadha vi, 57.]

4) Sahāsa (सहास):—[=sa-hāsa] [from sa > sahaṃsa-pāta] mf(ā)n. accompanied with a laugh, laughing (am ind.), [Śiśupāla-vadha; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

5) Sāhasa (साहस):—mfn. ([from] sahas) over-hasty, precipitate, rash, inconsiderate, foolhardy, [Harivaṃśa]

6) m. Name of Agni at the Pāka-yajña, [Gṛhyāsaṃgraha]

7) m. n. punishment, fine (regarded as of three kinds, the highest being called Uttama; half of that, Madhyama; and half of that, Adhama), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.

8) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) boldness, daring, rashness, temerity, any precipitate or reckless act, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

9) n. overstraining, [Caraka]

10) violence, force, rapine, rape, robbery, felony, aggression, cruelty, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Āpastamba; Nārada-smṛti, nāradīya-dharma-śāstra]

11) adultery, [Nārada-smṛti, nāradīya-dharma-śāstra]

12) hatred, enmity, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sahasā (सहसा):—adv. Quickly, precipitately.

2) Sāhasa (साहस):—(saṃ) 1. n. Daring; violence; hatred; rape; punishment; oblation with fire.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Sāhasa (साहस):—(von sahas)

1) adj. a) Bez. Agni's beim Pākayajña [GṚHYAS. 1, 8.] — b) übereilt, unüberlegt: vacas [Harivaṃśa 15576.] mā vādīḥ sāhasam [15582.] —

2) n. [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 5, 7.] [Siddhāntakaumudī 249], b, 7. auch m. [Vaijayantī] beim Schol. zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 736.] a) Gewaltthat, Gewaltthätigkeit [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 1, 21.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 736.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 759.] [Medinīkoṣa S. 44.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 48. 8, 6. 72] [?(pl.). 332. 345.] sāhase vartamānaḥ [346.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 10. 72. 232.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 23, 25.] — b) Ueberanstrengung: sāhasāni sev [CARAKA 1, 28. 2, 6.] — c) m. n. Strafe, insbes. Geldstrafe [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 1, 21.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 736.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 120. 138. 263. 276. 354. 9, 240. fg. 279. 281. 286.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 66. 365. 2, 153. 250.] [Spr. (II) 1682.] — d) Wagniss, eine verwegene (in gutem und in schlechtem Sinne), tollkühne, übereilte oder unbesonnene Handlung [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 106, 13. 3, 33, 2.] [Suśruta 2, 164, 6.] [KĀM. NĪTIS. 14, 56.] [Śiśupālavadha 9, 59.] [Spr. (II) 179. 328. 706. 833. 1038] [?(pl.). 1247. 3048. 3485. 3669. 7204. 7494. 7565. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 69, 28. BṚH. 10, 2. 21, 9] (oder Gewaltthat). [Kathāsaritsāgara 21, 97. 25, 103. 178.] dhana adj. [?27, 208. 30, 75. 42, 24. 43, 202. 49, 52. 61, 262. Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 564. 6, 145. Daśakumāracarita 75, 18. Pañcatantra 135, 8. Hitopadeśa 100, 3. 103, 3. Vetālapañcaviṃśati in Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 28, 9.] ko hi nāma bhavenārthī sāhasena samācaret [Mahābhārata 1, 7958.] sāhasam anu sthā [Mṛcchakaṭikā 59, 1.] aṅgīkar [Kathāsaritsāgara 25, 225.] tan [32, 87.] adhyava-sā [Daśakumāracarita 143, 6. 7.] ava-lamb [morgenländischen Gesellschaft 14, 571, 17.] kar [Mahābhārata 1, 7792. 3, 17259. 4, 664. 13, 1898.] [Rāmāyaṇa] [Gorresio 2, 59, 20.] [Spr. (II) 6221. 6886.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 10, 57. 18, 324. 26, 238. 34, 187. 36, 30. 42, 174. 52, 163.] [Pañcatantra 135, 6.] kathaṃ kuryuḥ satyollaṅghanasāhasam [Kathāsaritsāgara 110, 38.] am Ende eines adj. comp. (f. ā) [Suśruta 1, 192, 6.] [MĀLATĪM. 75, 12.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 27, 202.] duḥsaha sind die Weiber [77, 47.] priya desgl. [18, 323.] [Spr. (II) 7197.] priyasāhasatva [2604.] ati [Mahābhārata 3, 1632. 4, 2166.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 64, 24.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 21, 8.] — e) = dveṣa [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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