Praya, Prāya, Prayā: 12 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Praya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Prāya (प्राय).—General nature, general public; cf. प्राय इति लोको व्यपदिश्यते (prāya iti loko vyapadiśyate), M. Bh. on P. V. 1.16; cf. प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः (prāyortho vṛttamityete pādajñānasya hetavaḥ) R. Pr. XVII.16; cf. also, लौकिकी विवक्षा यत्र प्रायस्य सं त्ययः (laukikī vivakṣā yatra prāyasya saṃ tyayaḥ) M. Bh. on P. V. 1.16.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prāya (प्राय).—a S In comp. Like, similar, resembling. Ex. mṛtyuprāya, vajraprāya, amṛtaprāya, viṣaprāya, jātaprāya, gata- prāya, dattaprāya, uktaprāya, kṛtaprāya, muktaprāya, tyaktaprāya As if dead; like nectar; like poison &c.; as if gone, given, spoken, made, done &c. 2 Composed or consisting of mainly or eminently. Ex. kāṅkaḍī kaliṅgaḍa kēḷa hē padārtha prāyaḥ jalaprāyaca āhēta.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prāya (प्राय).—a In comp. Like, resembling. Ex mṛtyuprāya, vajraprāya &c. As if dead &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Praya (प्रय).—1 P.

1) To give, grant (with dat. of person).

2) To curb, check, restrain, control.

3) To deliver, restore.

4) To give in marriage.

5) To pay, discharge (as a debt).

Derivable forms: prayam (प्रयम्).

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Prayā (प्रया).—2 P.

1) To walk, go; त्रस्ताद्भुतं नगरदैवतवत् प्रयासि (trastādbhutaṃ nagaradaivatavat prayāsi) Mk.1.27.

2) To walk on, set out.

3) To depart, go forth or out; यथा प्रयान्ति संयान्ति स्रोतोवेगेन वालुकाः (yathā prayānti saṃyānti srotovegena vālukāḥ) Bhāg.6. 15.3.

4) To advance, progress; संख्यावन्तोऽपि भूम्ना पर- कृतिषु मुदं संप्रधार्य प्रयान्तु (saṃkhyāvanto'pi bhūmnā para- kṛtiṣu mudaṃ saṃpradhārya prayāntu) Mv.7.42.

5) To enter, undergo, incur.

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Prāya (प्राय).—[pra-ay ghañ, i-ac vā]

1) Going away, departure, departure from life.

2) Seeking death by fasting, fasting, sitting down and abstaining from food with some object in view (generally with words like ās, upaviś &c.); see प्रायोपवेशन (prāyopaveśana) below; प्रायोपविष्टं गङ्गायां परीतं परमर्षिभिः (prāyopaviṣṭaṃ gaṅgāyāṃ parītaṃ paramarṣibhiḥ) Bhāg.1.3.43.

3) The largest portion, majority, plurality; majority of cases.

4) Excess, abundance, plenty.

6) A condition of life. [N. B.-At the end of comp. प्राय (prāya) may be translated by (a) for the most part, generally, mostly, almost, nearly; पतनप्रायौ (patanaprāyau) 'about to fall'; मृतप्रायः (mṛtaprāyaḥ) 'almost dead a little less than dead, nearly dead'; or (b) abounding or rich in, full of, excessive, abundant; कष्टप्रायं शरीरम् (kaṣṭaprāyaṃ śarīram) U.1; शालिप्रायो देशः (śāliprāyo deśaḥ) Pt.3; कमलामोदप्राया वनानिलाः (kamalāmodaprāyā vanānilāḥ) U.3.24 'full of the fragrance' &c., or (c) like, resembling; वर्षशतप्रायं दिनम्, अम्रतप्रायं वचनम् (varṣaśataprāyaṃ dinam, amrataprāyaṃ vacanam) &c.]

Derivable forms: prāyaḥ (प्रायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) 1. Like, resembling, (used in composition.) 2. Exceeding, much. m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Fasting to death, as a religious or penitentiary act, after abandoning all wordly goods and desires. 2. Quantity, abundance. 3. Death, dying. 4. A state or condition of life, age, youth, &c. n.

(-yaṃ) Sin. E. pra before, in to go, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय).—i. e. prā + a or ya (cf. prāyas), or pra-i + a, I. adj. Exceeding, much, abundant, [Pañcatantra] 163, 23 (or a Bahuvr.) Ii. m. 1. Quantity, plenty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 69. 2. A banquet, a feast, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 264(?). 3. yeṇa, instr. a. Generally, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 57. b. How much more, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 23. c. Likely, [Hitopadeśa] 16, 6, M. M. 4. As latter part of comp. adj. a. Almost; e. g. gata-, adj. Almost past, Mahābhārata 4, 376. sam-ā-gata-, Almost approached, very near, [Hitopadeśa] 97, 14. b. Like, resembling; e. g. amṛta-, Like nectar, [Pañcatantra] 206, 6; 194, 21.

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Prāya (प्राय).—i. e. pra-i + a, I. m. 1. Death. 2. Fasting to death, [Pañcatantra] 50, 15. 3. Age. Ii. n. Sin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayā (प्रया).—[feminine] onset.

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Prāya (प्राय).—[masculine] going forth, [especially] to fight, onset; departure, [especially] from life, seeking death by fasting ([accusative] [with] ās, upās, āsthā, kṛ etc. devote one’s self to death); what is prominent, most or principal [particle] Adj. —° mostly consisting of, abounding in; resembling, like; nearly, as it were.

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Prayā (प्रया).—go forth, set out, go towards ([accusative] ±accha or prati, & [locative]) or against ([accusative]); walk, run, ride, drive, flow, etc.; vanish, pass away, die; get into, partake of ([accusative]); proceed, act, behave.

Prayā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pra and (या).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prayā (प्रया):—[=pra-√yā] a [Parasmaipada] -yāti, to go forth, set out, progress, advance towards or against, go or repair to ([accusative], also with accha, or prati, or [locative case]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to walk, roam, wander, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

—to part, go asunder, be dispersed, pass away, vanish, die, [ib.];

—to get into a [particular] state or condition, enter, undergo, incur ([accusative]), [ib.];

—to proceed id est. behave, [Bhartṛhari] ([varia lectio]);

—to cause to go id est. to lead into ([accusative]), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi] :

—[Causal] -yāpayati, to cause to set out, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] (cf. [Pāṇini 8-4, 29; 30 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) :

—[Desiderative] -yiyāsati, to wish to set out, [ib.] :

—[Causal] of [Desiderative] -yiyāsayati, to cause a person to wish to set out, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

2) [v.s. ...] b f. onset, [Ṛg-veda]

3) Prāya (प्राय):—m. ([from] pra + aya; √5. i) going forth, starting (for a battle), [Ṛg-veda ii, 18, 8]

4) course, race, [Atharva-veda iv, 25, 2]

5) departure from life, seeking death by fasting (as a religious or penitentiary act, or to enforce compliance with a demand; [accusative] with √ās, upa-√ās, upa-√viś, upa-√i, ā-√sthā, sam-ā-√sthā, or √kṛ, to renounce life, sit down and fast to death; with [Causal] of √kṛ, to force any one [acc.] to seek death through starvation), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) anything prominent, chief part, largest portion, plenty, majority, general rule (often ifc., with f(ā). = chiefly consisting of or destined for or furnished with, rich or abounding in, frequently practising or applying or using; near, like, resembling; mostly, well-nigh, almost, as it were; cf. ārya-, jita-, jñāti-, tṛṇa-, daṇḍa-, duḥkha-, siddhi-pr etc.; also -tā f.), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) a stage of life, age, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Prāyā (प्राया):—[=prā-√yā] (pra-ā-√yā) [Parasmaipada] -yāti, to come near, approach, [Ṛg-veda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय):—[prā+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Fasting to death; abundance; state of life. n. Sin. a. Like, resembling; much.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Prayā (प्रया):—( mit pra) f. Anlauf: a.i.rā.udho ma.utāmiva pra.āḥ [Ṛgveda 3, 29, 15.]

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Prāya (प्राय):—(von 3. i mit pra) m.

1) Auszug (zum Kampf): prā.e prāye jigī.āṃsaḥ syāma [Ṛgveda 2, 18, 8.] nach [Sāyaṇa] = praveśa und yuddha . —

2) der Auszug aus dem Leben, das dem-Tode-Entgegengehen, das Suchen des Todes, insbes. durch Enthaltung von Nahrung [Amarakoṣa 2, 7, 52. 3, 4, 24, 155.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 843.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 371.] [Medinīkoṣa y. 35.] [Halāyudha 4, 75.] prāyamāsmahe (könnte hier und in der Verbindung mit upaviś auch als absol. aufgefasst werden) wir geben uns dem Tode hin, wir erwarten ruhig den Tod, haben dem Leben entsagt [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 57, 23.] prāyamāsīnān 3. kasmādvā prāyamāsyate [56, 24.] āśiṣye fehlerhaft st. āsiṣye [Mahābhārata 14, 2357.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 21, 27. 4, 53, 15. 55, 12.] āśituṃ fehlerhaft st. āsitum [18.] prāyamupāsmahe [53, 11. 5, 32, 23.] prāyamupāsīnā [Mahābhārata 14, 2358.] upāśiṣye fehlerhaft für upāsiṣye [3, 15080.] upaviṣṭāstu te sarve tasminprāyaṃ dharādhare [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 56, 1. 20.] punaḥ prāyamupaiṣyanti [5, 15, 4.] prāyamāsthāya [Mahābhārata 12, 4172.] tvayi prāyaṃ samāsthite [3, 15110.] prāyaṃ vigraharājena brāhmaṇāḥ kāritāḥ punaḥ wurden dahin gebracht, dass sie sich vornahmen Hungers zu sterben, [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 344.] Vgl. prāyagata, vidhāyin, prāyopagamana, prāyopaviṣṭa, prāyopaveśa, prāyopaveśana, prāyopaveśin, prāyopeta . —

3) Mehrheit, Hauptbestand; Regel [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 24, 155.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 315.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] prāyasyopajagatyeṣā parasya wenn das folgende Metrum den Hauptbestand (des Verses) bildet [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 16, 42. 17, 16. 18, 4. 5.] Häufig am Ende eines adj. comp. (f. ā): ārya (deśa) zum grössten Theil aus Ārya bestehend, wo die Ā. vorwalten [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 69.] hiṃsāprāyā (kṛṣi) wobei viel Leid den Geschöpfen zugefügt wird [10, 83.] duḥkha reichlich versehen mit Schmerzen [12, 77.] tadguṇa [25.] [Mahābhārata 12, 5341. 11088.] [Harivaṃśa 3495. 3706.] tṛṇa (deśa) [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 15, 41.] [Suśruta 1, 20, 6. 130, 12. 151, 9. 2, 2, 13. 380, 9.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 47, 5.] nabhasi prauḍhajaladadhvaniprāye [Spr. 294.] [Hitopadeśa III, 87.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 2, 16. 87, 19.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 53, 36. 56, 20.] [Pañcatantra 163, 23. 185, 21.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 79, 15.] [GAUḌAP.] zu [SĀṂKHYAK. 54.] vaśyākarṣavimohana prāyāḥ prākṛtasiddhayaḥ bei denen jene die Hauptrolle spielen, die hauptsächlichsten sind [Prabodhacandrodaja 61, 17.] daṇḍa (nṛpati) der meistens, in der Regel die Strafe anwendet [KĀM. NĪTIS. 13, 37.] nirgamanaprāyā häufig hinausgehend [Yāska’s Nirukta 3, 6.] saṃstuta meistens zusammen gepriesen [12, 2.] parāṅmukha (bala) zum grössten Theil auf der Flucht begriffen [Mahābhārata 8, 4158.] gaura [6, 457.] śveta [13, 4704.] bhīmahataprāyā (vāhinī) zum grössten Theil von Bh. erschlagen [Mahābhārata 5, 2135.] gata beinahe dahingegangen, verflossen [4, 376.] [Spr. 1901.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 2, 27. 33, 125.] siddha beinahe vollendet [41, 27.] kṣīṇa [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 127, 35.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 227.] jita beinahe vollständig besiegt [163.] pīta [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 9, 27.] anudita so zu sagen nicht erwähnt [1, 5, 8.] jāta (maraṇa) beinahe eingetreten [Sāhityadarpana 79, 5.] samāgata so zu sagen schon da [Hitopadeśa 97, 13.] prabhātaprāyāyāṃ rātrau [Oxforder Handschriften 155,b,39.] mugdha [Spr. 1836.] śithila [791.] parājaya beinahe ganz besiegt [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 125, 23.] siddhi (= siddha) [Kathāsaritsāgara 33, 84.] An die Bed. regelmässig schliesst sich die Bed. ähnlich [?(Trikāṇḍaśeṣa Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha Medinīkoṣa):] trivṛtprāya [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 12, 3, 1, 5.] jyotiṣṭoma [LĀṬY. 10, 1, 17. 2, 5.] durbhagābharaṇa [Spr. 242. 965. 3661.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 6, 51. 39, 108] [?(vgl. 168). Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 420. 6, 356. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 3, 25. Pañcatantra 194, 21. morgenländischen Gesellschaft 14, 570, 16. Dhūrtasamāgama 74, 2. Inschr. in Journ. of the Am. Or. S. 7, 6, Śloka 15. kāvyādarśa 3, 165. Scholiast zu Śākuntala 41.] jñāti so v. a. eigentlich für die Blutsverwandten bestimmt (anna) [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 264.] [Kullūka] : jñātīnpraiti gacchatīti jñātiprāyam . —

4) Altersstufe [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 565.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —

5) enklitisch nach einem Verbum finitum gaṇa gotrādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8, 1, 27. 57.] — Vgl. prāyeṇa, prāyaśas, prāyas, evaṃprāya (auch [Sāvitryupākhyāna 5, 35], wo so zu schreiben ist), jālaprāyā, naḍaprāya, saprāya und plāya .

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Prāya (प्राय):—

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Prayā (प्रया):—f. Anlauf.

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Prāya (प्राय):—m.

1) Lauf.

2) Auszug (zum Kampf). —

3) der Auszug aus dem Leben , das dem Tode Entgegengehen , das Suchen des Todes , insbes. durch Enthaltung von Nahrung Acc. mit ās , upa -ās , upa viś (einmal auch Loc.) , upa i , ā sthā , samāsthā oder kar sich dem Tode weihen , ruhig den Tod erwarten , dem Leben entsagt haben , insbes. indem man sich der Nahrung enthält um Etwas von Jmd zu erzwingen. Acc. mit dem Caus. vom kar (Acc.) dahin bringen , dass er sich vornimmt Hungers zu sterben.

4) Mehrheit , Hauptbestandtheil.

5) am Ende eines adj. Comp. (f. ā) — a) nach einem Subst. — α) zum grössten Theil aus — bestehend , reichlich versehen mit — , wobei — den Hauptbestandtheil bildet. — β) zunächst für — bestimmt. — γ) häufig — anwendend , häufig — vollbringend. — δ) häufig — geniessend [Carakasaṃhitā 4,98.] — ε) nach einem Nom. act. nahe. siddhi der Vollendung nahe. — ζ) ähnlich. — b) nach einem Adj. (auch einem Partic. praet. pass.) meistens — , zum grössten Theil —. — c) nach einem Partic. praet. pass. beinahe — , so zu sagen —. — d) nach einem Zahladverb wobei das Meiste so und so viele Male wiederholt wird. tri [Āpastamba’s Dharmasūtra 2,17,14.] —

6) *Altersstufe.

7) *Acc. enklitistisch nach einem Verbum fin.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Prāya (प्राय):—(adv) often; usually, generally; almost, more or less; approximately, nearly.

context information

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