Praya, Prāya, Prayā, Prayah: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Praya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Prāya (प्राय).—General nature, general public; cf. प्राय इति लोको व्यपदिश्यते (prāya iti loko vyapadiśyate), M. Bh. on P. V. 1.16; cf. प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः (prāyortho vṛttamityete pādajñānasya hetavaḥ) R. Pr. XVII.16; cf. also, लौकिकी विवक्षा यत्र प्रायस्य सं त्ययः (laukikī vivakṣā yatra prāyasya saṃ tyayaḥ) M. Bh. on P. V. 1.16.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Prāya (प्राय) refers to a “state (of mind)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.129-130.—Accordingly, “Even [if] an external object [is] inferred [, it] can be talked about only insofar as it is being manifest, for if [it] were distinct from the manifesting consciousness (prakāśa), since as a result it would not be manifest, [the awareness of] the very fact that the entity is inferred would amount to a state of stupor (mūrchā-prāya)!”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Prāya (प्राय) refers to the “majority (of the majority of bound souls)”, according to Tantrālokaviveka commentary on the Tantrāloka verses 4.228ab.—Accordingly, “[‘As regards the Yogin, moreover, that purity exists with respect to (all) entities’].—Indeed, the majority of bound souls (paśu-prāya) do not perceive even (Śaiva) mantras as having Śiva-nature, and therefore they suppose them to be impure, since they fail (even) to perform their own duties (in employing these mantras). But, as for the Yogin, he perceives (everything,) beginning with the earth, as having that [Śiva-nature]. Therefore, (he perceives that) all of them without exception are completely pure. Indeed, this alone is the very nature of the Yogin as a Yogin, that he perceives this entire universe as possessed of Śiva-nature. This is definitive”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Prāya (प्राय) refers to “(being) destined (for death)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If this body were not covered with skin, then who would be able to protect [it] from flies, worms and crows? The structure of the body of embodied souls is always filled with diseases, always the abode of impurity [and] always destined for death (patat-prāyasarvadaiva patatprāyaṃ)”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prāya (प्राय).—a S In comp. Like, similar, resembling. Ex. mṛtyuprāya, vajraprāya, amṛtaprāya, viṣaprāya, jātaprāya, gata- prāya, dattaprāya, uktaprāya, kṛtaprāya, muktaprāya, tyaktaprāya As if dead; like nectar; like poison &c.; as if gone, given, spoken, made, done &c. 2 Composed or consisting of mainly or eminently. Ex. kāṅkaḍī kaliṅgaḍa kēḷa hē padārtha prāyaḥ jalaprāyaca āhēta.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prāya (प्राय).—a In comp. Like, resembling. Ex mṛtyuprāya, vajraprāya &c. As if dead &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Praya (प्रय).—1 P.

1) To give, grant (with dat. of person).

2) To curb, check, restrain, control.

3) To deliver, restore.

4) To give in marriage.

5) To pay, discharge (as a debt).

Derivable forms: prayam (प्रयम्).

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Prayā (प्रया).—2 P.

1) To walk, go; त्रस्ताद्भुतं नगरदैवतवत् प्रयासि (trastādbhutaṃ nagaradaivatavat prayāsi) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.27.

2) To walk on, set out.

3) To depart, go forth or out; यथा प्रयान्ति संयान्ति स्रोतोवेगेन वालुकाः (yathā prayānti saṃyānti srotovegena vālukāḥ) Bhāgavata 6. 15.3.

4) To advance, progress; संख्यावन्तोऽपि भूम्ना पर- कृतिषु मुदं संप्रधार्य प्रयान्तु (saṃkhyāvanto'pi bhūmnā para- kṛtiṣu mudaṃ saṃpradhārya prayāntu) Mv.7.42.

5) To enter, undergo, incur.

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Prāya (प्राय).—[pra-ay ghañ, i-ac vā]

1) Going away, departure, departure from life.

2) Seeking death by fasting, fasting, sitting down and abstaining from food with some object in view (generally with words like ās, upaviś &c.); see प्रायोपवेशन (prāyopaveśana) below; प्रायोपविष्टं गङ्गायां परीतं परमर्षिभिः (prāyopaviṣṭaṃ gaṅgāyāṃ parītaṃ paramarṣibhiḥ) Bhāgavata 1.3.43.

3) The largest portion, majority, plurality; majority of cases.

4) Excess, abundance, plenty.

6) A condition of life. [N. B.-At the end of comp. प्राय (prāya) may be translated by (a) for the most part, generally, mostly, almost, nearly; पतनप्रायौ (patanaprāyau) 'about to fall'; मृतप्रायः (mṛtaprāyaḥ) 'almost dead a little less than dead, nearly dead'; or (b) abounding or rich in, full of, excessive, abundant; कष्टप्रायं शरीरम् (kaṣṭaprāyaṃ śarīram) Uttararāmacarita 1; शालिप्रायो देशः (śāliprāyo deśaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 3; कमलामोदप्राया वनानिलाः (kamalāmodaprāyā vanānilāḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.24 'full of the fragrance' &c., or (c) like, resembling; वर्षशतप्रायं दिनम्, अम्रतप्रायं वचनम् (varṣaśataprāyaṃ dinam, amrataprāyaṃ vacanam) &c.]

Derivable forms: prāyaḥ (प्रायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) 1. Like, resembling, (used in composition.) 2. Exceeding, much. m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Fasting to death, as a religious or penitentiary act, after abandoning all wordly goods and desires. 2. Quantity, abundance. 3. Death, dying. 4. A state or condition of life, age, youth, &c. n.

(-yaṃ) Sin. E. pra before, in to go, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय).—i. e. prā + a or ya (cf. prāyas), or pra-i + a, I. adj. Exceeding, much, abundant, [Pañcatantra] 163, 23 (or a Bahuvr.) Ii. m. 1. Quantity, plenty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 69. 2. A banquet, a feast, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 264(?). 3. yeṇa, instr. a. Generally, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 57. b. How much more, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 23. c. Likely, [Hitopadeśa] 16, 6, M. M. 4. As latter part of comp. adj. a. Almost; e. g. gata-, adj. Almost past, Mahābhārata 4, 376. sam-ā-gata-, Almost approached, very near, [Hitopadeśa] 97, 14. b. Like, resembling; e. g. amṛta-, Like nectar, [Pañcatantra] 206, 6; 194, 21.

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Prāya (प्राय).—i. e. pra-i + a, I. m. 1. Death. 2. Fasting to death, [Pañcatantra] 50, 15. 3. Age. Ii. n. Sin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayā (प्रया).—[feminine] onset.

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Prāya (प्राय).—[masculine] going forth, [especially] to fight, onset; departure, [especially] from life, seeking death by fasting ([accusative] [with] ās, upās, āsthā, kṛ etc. devote one’s self to death); what is prominent, most or principal [particle] Adj. —° mostly consisting of, abounding in; resembling, like; nearly, as it were.

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Prayā (प्रया).—go forth, set out, go towards ([accusative] ±accha or prati, & [locative]) or against ([accusative]); walk, run, ride, drive, flow, etc.; vanish, pass away, die; get into, partake of ([accusative]); proceed, act, behave.

Prayā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pra and (या).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prayā (प्रया):—[=pra-√yā] a [Parasmaipada] -yāti, to go forth, set out, progress, advance towards or against, go or repair to ([accusative], also with accha, or prati, or [locative case]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to walk, roam, wander, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

—to part, go asunder, be dispersed, pass away, vanish, die, [ib.];

—to get into a [particular] state or condition, enter, undergo, incur ([accusative]), [ib.];

—to proceed id est. behave, [Bhartṛhari] ([varia lectio]);

—to cause to go id est. to lead into ([accusative]), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi] :

—[Causal] -yāpayati, to cause to set out, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] (cf. [Pāṇini 8-4, 29; 30 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) :

—[Desiderative] -yiyāsati, to wish to set out, [ib.] :

—[Causal] of [Desiderative] -yiyāsayati, to cause a person to wish to set out, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

2) [v.s. ...] b f. onset, [Ṛg-veda]

3) Prāya (प्राय):—m. ([from] pra + aya; √5. i) going forth, starting (for a battle), [Ṛg-veda ii, 18, 8]

4) course, race, [Atharva-veda iv, 25, 2]

5) departure from life, seeking death by fasting (as a religious or penitentiary act, or to enforce compliance with a demand; [accusative] with √ās, upa-√ās, upa-√viś, upa-√i, ā-√sthā, sam-ā-√sthā, or √kṛ, to renounce life, sit down and fast to death; with [Causal] of √kṛ, to force any one [acc.] to seek death through starvation), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) anything prominent, chief part, largest portion, plenty, majority, general rule (often ifc., with f(ā). = chiefly consisting of or destined for or furnished with, rich or abounding in, frequently practising or applying or using; near, like, resembling; mostly, well-nigh, almost, as it were; cf. ārya-, jita-, jñāti-, tṛṇa-, daṇḍa-, duḥkha-, siddhi-pr etc.; also -tā f.), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) a stage of life, age, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Prāyā (प्राया):—[=prā-√yā] (pra-ā-√yā) [Parasmaipada] -yāti, to come near, approach, [Ṛg-veda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāya (प्राय):—[prā+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Fasting to death; abundance; state of life. n. Sin. a. Like, resembling; much.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Prayā (प्रया) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Payā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Praya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Prāya (प्राय):—(adv) often; usually, generally; almost, more or less; approximately, nearly.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Prāya (ಪ್ರಾಯ):—

1) [noun] departure from life; death.

2) [noun] a seeking death by fasting (as a religious act).

3) [noun] the period of life coming between childhood and maturity; adolescence; youth.

4) [noun] the state or quality of being young, esp. of being vigorous and lively or immature, impetuous, etc.; youth.

5) [noun] probable lifetime (as on a day); age.

6) [noun] (in comp.) 'equaḷ, 'same', 'identicaḷ, 'similaṛ, etc.

7) [noun] ಪ್ರಾಯಕ್ಕೆ ಬರು [prayakke baru] prāyakke baru to come of age; to attain the stage of youth; 2. (a girl) to attain the age of puberty; ಪ್ರಾಯ ತುಂಬು [praya tumbu] prāya tumbu (the stage of youth) to be attained; ಪ್ರಾಯ ಬರು [praya baru] prāya baru = ಪ್ರಾಯ ತುಂಬು [praya tumbu]; ಪ್ರಾಯ ಮೀರು [praya miru] prāya mīru (the stage of youth) to be over; ಪ್ರಾಯ ಸಲ್ಲು [praya sallu] prāya sallu = ಪ್ರಾಯ ಮೀರು [praya miru]; ಪ್ರಾಯ ಹೋಗು [praya hogu] prāya hōgu = ಪ್ರಾಯ ಮೀರು [praya miru].

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Prāyaḥ (ಪ್ರಾಯಃ):—

1) [adverb] for the most part; mostly.

2) [adverb] commonly; in general.

3) [adverb] probably; in all probability; likely; perhaps.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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