Graiveyaka: 14 definitions


Graiveyaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक) refers to a type of necklace or “neck-ornament” (kaṇṭhābhūṣaṇa), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—Graiveyaka is derived from the word “grīvā” meaning neck, indicates any kind of necklace having different shapes and dimensions, but generally it refers to a short and broad necklace with or without jewelled centre-piece or pendant embedded with gems or other decorative patterns, which has to adorn the central part of the chest.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Graiveyaka in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक) refers to a subclass of the Kalpātīta gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The Kalpātīta (those born beyond heavens) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods).

The Graiveyakas are further divided into nine different species:

  1. Sudarśana,
  2. Supratibandha (or, Suprabuddha),
  3. Manorama,
  4. Sarvabhadra,
  5. Suviśāla,
  6. Somanasa (or, Sumanas),
  7. Sumaṅkasa (or, Sumaṃkasa, Saumanasa),
  8. Priyaṅkara (or, Priyaṃkara, Prītikara),
  9. Nandikara (Āditya).

All these nine species do not bind karmans, are 1-sensed class of beings and have an immovable body, warm splendour, cold lustre, animal state of existence, ānupūrvī and āyus.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक) and Anuttara are the name of two heavens in Jainism, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Dharma is the highest happiness. Dharma bestows heaven and emancipation. Dharma shows the road for crossing the wilderness of saṃsāra. [...] From dharma one attains Ahamindraship in the Graiveyaka and Anuttara heavens. [...]”.

In these two heavens [viz., Graiveyaka and Anuttara], the highest, the gods have no distinction of rank, and all are called ‘Ahamindras’. Cf. Bṛhatsaṅgrahanī 3, p. 4b. Die Kosmographie der Inder p. 302.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक) or Navagraiveyaka is one of the three subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

There are nine graiveyakas, namely:

  1. Sudarśana,
  2. Amogha,
  3. Suprabuddha,
  4. Yaśodhara,
  5. Subhadra,
  6. Suviśāla,
  7. Sumanasa,
  8. Saumanasa,
  9. Prītīṅkara.

Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration. What is the life span of deities in the (nine neck-dwellings) Nava-graiveyakas? Nava-graiveyakas are the three layered residences above the sixteenth heaven where Ahamindra deities reside. The life span in the first layer is twenty three ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) and increases by one ocean-measured-period in each subsequent higher layer till it is 31 ocean-measured-periods in the ninth graiveyaka (layer).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Graiveyaka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक).—[grīvāyāṃ baddho'laṃkāraḥ, ḍhakañ]

1) A neck-ornament; e. g. अस्माकं सखि वाससी न रुचिरे ग्रैवेयकं नोज्ज्वलम् (asmākaṃ sakhi vāsasī na rucire graiveyakaṃ nojjvalam) Ś. D.3; सा हि चन्दनवर्णाभा ग्रीवा ग्रैवेयकोचिता (sā hi candanavarṇābhā grīvā graiveyakocitā) Rām.3.6.32.

2) A chain worn round the neck of an elephant. -m. (pl.) a class of deities (9 in number) sitting on the neck of Loka-puruṣa. (Jaina.)

Derivable forms: graiveyakam (ग्रैवेयकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक).—n.

(-kaṃ) A collar, an ornament for the neck. E. grīvā and ḍhakaṅ affix: see graiva and graiveya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक).—[graiveya + ka], m. and n. A chain for the neck, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 188, 16; a neck-ornament, [Devīmāhātmya, (ed. Poley.)] 2, 26.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक).—[neuter] the same, necklace, collar i.[grammar]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक):—[from graiva] n. (m., [Pāṇini 4-2, 96; Kāśikā-vṛtti]) a necklace, [Devī-māhātmya; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] a chain worn round the neck of an elephant, [Daśakumāra-carita vii, 191]

3) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] a class of deities (9 in number) who have their seat on the neck of the Loka-puruṣa or who form his necklace, [Jaina literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Graiveyaka (ग्रैवेयक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Gevijja, Gevejja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Graiveyaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Graiveyaka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Graivēyaka (ಗ್ರೈವೇಯಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಗ್ರೈವೇಯ - [graiveya -] 2.

2) [noun] a chain worn round the neck of an elephant.

3) [noun] (Jain.) one of the heavens.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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