Jambhala, Jambhalā: 8 definitions

Introduction

Jambhala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Jambhala (जम्भल) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Citrus limonum (lime) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as jambala) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

1) Jambhala (जम्भल) refers to one of the various emanations of Akṣobhya having their Sādhana described in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—He has three faces and six arms.—Jambhala has undoubtedly a greater antiquity behind him than that of the five Dhyāni Buddhas. Jambhala again is a Yakṣa and that indicates his non-Buddhist origin. This may be one of reasons whyhe could not be assigned to any one as parental Dhyāni Buddha. In other words Jambhala is similar to Mañjuśrī whose sire also could not be definitely determined.

The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) of Jambhala described in the Sādhanamālā as follows:—

“The worshipper should conceive himself as Jambhala, three-faced and six-armed, on whose matted hair there is an image of Akṣobhya. He carries in his three right hands the citron, the goad and the arrow. He embraces the Prajñā with the first left hand, carries the mongoose tied round with a lasso and the arrow respectively inthe second and the third. Thus meditating...”.

[Though the Dhyāna does not mention the colour, it can be presumed that his colour is blue which is the colour of the Dhyāni Buddha Akṣobhya from whom he takes his origin. Jambhala as the god of wealth commanded great respect amongst the Buddhists, and received worship in various forms in all Buddhist countries]

2) Jambhala (जम्भल) also refers to one of the various emanations of Ratnasambhava.—The characteristic feature of Jambhala emanating from Ratnasambhava is that he carries the mongoose in his right hand and the citron in the left. The mongoose is supposed to be the receptacle of all gems and jewels, and when Jambhala presses the two sides of the mongoose it vomits the treasures within... As an emanation of Ratnasambhava he may either be represented alone, or in the embrace of his Śakti in Yab-Yum.

Jambhala (single variety).—The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) in the Sādhanamālā is described as follows:—

[When single, Jambhala is of golden complexion and carries the mongoose in the left hand and the citron in the right. [...] A stone image from Nepal ... the god is represented as sitting in the Lalita attitude. Two other specimen from Vikrampur, in Eastern Bengal, depict the god in the same attitude, and they are some of the finest products of the Bengal art of medieval times.]

Jambhala (Yab-Yum form, first variety).—The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) in the Sādhanamālā is described as follows:—

[When represented in Yab-Yum, he sits on the moon under which there is a double lotus of eight petals. He wears all sorts of ornaments, his complexion is golden yellow and he [has a] protruding belly, He carries the citron and the mongoose in the right and left hands respectively, wears a garland of yellow lotus, a and remains in Yab-Yum with Vasudhārā. The eight petals of the lotus seat are occupied by the eight Yakṣas, to wit, Māṇibhadra, Pūrṇabhadra, Dhanada, Vaiśrayaṇa, Kelimālī, Civikuṇḍalī, Sukhendra and, Carendra who are identical in all respects with the principal figure. Each Yakṣa is accompanied by a Śakti with whom he remains in Yab-Yum in the same way as Jambhala remains with Vasudhārā, and the names of these eight Yakṣiṇīs are: Citrakālī, Dattā, Sudattā, Āryā, Subhadrā, Guptā, Devī and Sarasvatī. The Yakṣiṇīs are identical in form with Vasudhārā, who is yellow in complexion, carries the ears of corn and shows the Varada-mudrā in her two hands.]

Jambhala (Yab-Yum form, second variety).—[His Colour is white; he has three faces and six arms.]—The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) in the Sādhanamālā is described as follows:—

[Jambhala in Yab-Yum has another form with three faces, six arms and white colour. According to the Sādhana his two faces to the light and left are red and blue respectively, Jambhala sits in the vajraparyaṅka attitude, and embraces his Prajñā Vasudhārā of his own creation with the two principal hands. In the two remaining right hands he carries the red vajra and the sword, and in the two remaining left hands he holds the emerald and the lotus. In all other respects he is identical with the forms described previously.]

Note: Another variety is known as Ucchuṣma-Jambhala.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jāmbhaḷā (जांभळा).—& jāmbhūḷa See jāmbaḷā & jāmbūḷa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jāmbhaḷā (जांभळा).—a Of a dark purple.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jambhala (जम्भल) or Jambhalā (जम्भला).—A female Rākṣasī (by meditating on whom women are said to become pregnant).

Derivable forms: jambhalaḥ (जम्भलः).

See also (synonyms): jambhara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jambhala (जम्भल).—(compare prec. and next), name of a supernatural being, a yakṣa according to (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 549.23; 607.1; 648.6 (yakṣa- rāṭ); compare Sādhanamālā 421.7 °la-rūpam ātmānaṃ dhyātvā; in Mahāvyutpatti 4331 rendered by Tibetan rmugs ḥdzin, which [Tibetan-English Dictionary] renders by jalendra (compare next), ‘the chief of water,’ the sea…

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jambhala (जम्भल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. A lime or citron. 2. A Jina or deified Jaina saint. f.

(-lā) A female Rakshasi, the worship of whom is supposed to procure for women procreation. E. jabhi to destroy, (sickness, sin, &c.) kalac aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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