Giti, Gīti: 20 definitions


Giti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Gīti (गीति) is a type of mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) described in the Gītiprakaraṇa section of the second chapter of Kedārabhaṭṭa’s Vṛttaratnākara. The Vṛttaratnākara is considered as most popular work in Sanskrit prosody, because of its rich and number of commentaries. Kedārabhaṭṭa (C. 950-1050 C.E.) was a celebrated author in Sanskrit prosody.

2) Gīti (गीति) refers to one of the twenty-seven mātrāvṛttas (quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Mātrāvṛtta (e.g., gīti) refers to a type of metre found in classical Sanskrit poetry.

3) Gīti (गीति) refers to one of the 34 mātrāvṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the Vṛttamaṇimañjūṣā, whose authorship could be traced (also see the “New Catalogus Catalogorum” XXXI. p. 7).

4) Gīti (गीति) refers to one of the thirty mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the 331st chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the gīti metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

5) Gīti (गीति) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (e.g., the gīti) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Gīti (गीति) refers to a variation of Gāthā: one of the oldest Prakrit meters probably developed out of the epic Anuṣṭubh, as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Among the metres derived from the Gāthā, Gīti, Upagīti and Udgīti are most important. Gīti is made with two first halves of a Gāthā, Upagīti with two second halves of it and Udgīti is nothing but an inverted or a reversed Gāthā. [...] Nanditāḍhya (Gāthālakṣaṇa, vv. 63-65) mentions Gīti, Upagīti and Udgīti respectively Udgātha, Gātha and Vigātha.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Gīti (गीति) refers to one of the twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstrahapter chapter 28. In musical performance, tāla refers to any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. It is an important concept in ancient Indian musical theory (gāndharvaśāstra) traceable to the Vedic era.

2) Gīti (गीति) refers to an ancient system of classification of rhythms, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. They also include special formations of syllables and variation in speed.

There are four gītis defined:

  1. māgadhī,
  2. ardhamāgadhī,
  3. sambhāvitā,
  4. pṛthulā.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “these gītis are known to be without any connexion with the dhruvās. But they are always to be applied by the musicians in the gāndharva only”.

Source: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Gīti (गीति).—Mataṅga mentions seven gītis which are “modes or styles of song”:

  1. śuddha,
  2. bhinna,
  3. gauḍi,
  4. rāgagīti,
  5. sādhāraṇi,
  6. bhāṣā,
  7. vibhāṣā.

He quotes Durgaśakti’s gītis as

  1. śuddha,
  2. bhinna,
  3. vesara,
  4. gauḍa,
  5. sādhārita.

According to the school of Bharata the gītis are

  1. māgadhī,
  2. ardhamāgadha,
  3. sambhāvita,
  4. pṛthula.

The ‘great soul’, Yāṣṭika is quoted as mentioning three gītis,

  1. bhāṣā,
  2. vibhāṣā,
  3. antarabhāṣā;

Mataṅga is said to propound bhāṣāgīti and vibhāṣā. The Śārdūla school is said to approve of one gīti only, viz., bhāṣā. (cf Mataṅga’s 9th century Bṛhaddeśī)

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Gīti (गीति) refers to the “song” (e.g., of the Sāmaveda) and is used to describe Goddess Umā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] you are the essential feature of five elements. You are Justice in those who uphold justice. You are endeavour personified. Of the Ṛgveda you are the invocation; of the Yajurveda you are the blending knot of the mantras; of Sāmaveda you are the song (i.e., gīti) and of the Atharvaṇa Veda you are the measure of time, you are the final goal”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The gīti meter has 12, 18, 12 and 18 mātrās in its four pādas respectively.

Vṛttaratnākara lists several other conditions.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Gīti (गीति) or Caryāgīti refers to “(tantric) music”, according to the Caryā Tantra divisions of Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhism, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).— Caryā Tantra is primarily the performance of caryā-gīti, "tantric music", caryā nṛtya, "tantric dance", and the performance of pūjā by a priest for the laity. Yoga and Anuttara Yoga Tantra both involve the visualization and meditative absorption of a deity or deities, and the deities' retinue and mandala (samādhi).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gīti (गीति).—f S Song or singing. 2 A form of the Arya metre. The couplet consists of two long verses.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gīti (गीति).—f Singing. A form of the āryā metre.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gīti (गीति).—f. [gai-bhāve ktin]

1) A song; अहोरागपरिवाहिणी गीतिः (ahorāgaparivāhiṇī gītiḥ) Ś.5; श्रुताप्सरोगीतिरपि क्षणेऽस्मिन् हरः प्रसंख्यानपरो बभूव (śrutāpsarogītirapi kṣaṇe'smin haraḥ prasaṃkhyānaparo babhūva) Kumārasambhava 3.4.

2) Name of a metre; see App.

3) A Sāma mantra; गीतिभिर्मधुरैः स्निग्धैर्मन्त्राह्वानैर्यथार्हतः (gītibhirmadhuraiḥ snigdhairmantrāhvānairyathārhataḥ) Rām.1.14.9.

Derivable forms: gītiḥ (गीतिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gīti (गीति).—f.

(-tiḥ) 1. Sing, singing, 2. A kind of poetical metre, a form of the Aryya metre, in which the stanza consists of four lines of twelve and eighteen syllabic instants alternately. E. gai to sing, affix ktin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gīti (गीति).—i. e. gai + ti, f. Song, singing, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 59, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gīti (गीति).—[feminine] song; [Name] of a metre.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gīti (गीति):—[from gīta] f. song, singing, [Nirukta, by Yāska x; Lāṭyāyana; Jaimini; Śakuntalā]

2) [v.s. ...] a metre consisting of 4 lines of 12 and 18 syllabic instants alternately.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gīti (गीति):—(tiḥ) 2. f. Song; a metre.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gīti (गीति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gīi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Giti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gīti (गीति):—(nf) a lyric; ~[kāvya] lyrical poetry; ~[tattva] lyrical element; ~[nāṭya/rūpaka] a lyrical play.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gīti (ಗೀತಿ):—

1) [noun] the act or art of singing.

2) [noun] a composition for or suitable for, singing; a song.

3) [noun] the characteristic way of playing a musical instrument.

4) [noun] a musical mode (now arch.) 5) (pros.) a kind of metre.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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