Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Life story of Haribhadrasuri’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “Life, Date and Works of Acarya Haribhadrasuri”.

Chapter 2.2 - Life story of Haribhadrasūri

I. Birth Place:

According to Kahāvalī of Bhadraśvara, Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] was staying in Brahmpurī [Brahmapurī?] which was probably situated in Pirvagui district.[1] According to other sources,[2] he was a resident of “Citrakuṭa” identified as Chittor, the capital of Mewar in Rajasthan. However Sukhalal Sanghavi has tried to show a relation between a small place Brahmapurī and Citrakuṭa, the capital of Mewar, in his book Samadarśī Ācārya Haribhadra.[3]

Haribhadrasūri belonging to Citrakuṭa derives support from the facts that he is said to have been the royal priest of king Jitāri of Citrakuṭa. Haribhadrasūri lived at that place at least up to his initiation into Jainism. However, Jitarī is not known from any credible source as a ruler of Chittor in the period under review.

After Haribhadrasūri became a Jain monk, he passed his life moving from one place to another and did not stay at one place either permanently or for a long time. The geographical data and certain other facts gathered from his works give us the impression that his wanderings were mainly confined to the eastern and western India which was then greatly flourished by Buddhism as well Jainism respectively. His less acquaintance with the Deccan and South India probably points out the fact that the Śvetāmbara sect, of which he was a great exponent and scholar, has only a small following in peninsular India.[4]

II. Parentage:

From the text Kahāvalī we learn that Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] was the son of Śaṅkarabhṭṭa (father) and Gaṅgā (mother).[5] Haribhadrasūri was a Brahmin by caste.[6] His identity as a Brahmin is evidenced by two facts.

They are:

1. For Bhaṭṭa was a surname of Brahmins. The name of his father proves his being a Brahmin by birth.

2. His status as the royal priest of king Jitāri which was an exclusive monopoly of the Brahmin caste.[7]

The vṛtti of Gaṇaddharasārddhaśataka of Sumatigaṇi introduces Haribhadrasūri as a Brahmin by birth and as a person who is well versed in Brahminic lore too. [8]

However, his identity as a Brahmin is not found in following source texts.

1. Municandrasūri’s Upadeśapadaśīkā

2. Eight gāthās of Jinadatta’s Gaṇadharasārddhaśataka.

However, Jacobi still accepts the fact that Haribhadrasūri was a Brahmin. [9] Moreover, let us have a look at the thought of R. S. Shukla about Haribhadrasūri’s identity as a royal priest of the king Jitāri.

The lines are:

“Even though the Kahāvalī accepts Haribhadrasūri as the royal purohita of king Jitāri of Citrakuṭa, this information does not derive any support from the historical facts.

Moreover, we can hardly think of a free and original thinker like Haribhadrasūri being a courtier of some ruler.”[10]

III. The Journey from Paṇḍita Haribhadra to Jainācāraya Haribhadrasūri:

Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] was a proficient and highly intelligent in the philosophy of all religions. Among his many talents was one with which he could determine the point of his opponent’s argument very fast. During that time it was common for scholars to travel and engage others in debate to increase their wealth of knowledge. Therefore Haribhadrasūri travelled and met many brilliant scholars. He engaged them in debate and succeeded in defeating them all. Other scholars found it difficult to win any discussion with him since his talent allowed him to dominate all conversations. It was not long before he earned a reputation as a formidable opponent. Predictably, scholars avoided entering into a discussion with him. When no one came forward to counter him, he concluded that he had no rival in the entire country. He felt confident of his ability to comprehend anything that anyone would like to discuss. He therefore issued a public challenge that if anyone could present the topic that he could not understand he would readily become his/her pupil.

It was said that Haribhadrasūri always carried the following items with him:

  1. A golden belt around his belly,
  2. An Axe in his hand,
  3. A net at his side and
  4. A ladder on his shoulder.

All four items were very significant. He used to wear a golden belt around his belly in order to protect it from bursting, as he believed that he has so much knowledge that his belly would burst if he did not tie it around. The axe, net and ladder were instruments Haribhadrasūri used to find a scholar who wished to defeat him in discussions. Haribhadrasūri challenged everyone that he would find a scholar hidden beneath the earth with an axe or from the sea with his net or with the ladder he would bring a scholar down from the sky and defeat him in debate. This is how Haribhadrasūri established himself as the most knowledgeable person on this earth.

One day while Haribhadrasūri was walking through the village, he accidently came across a royal elephant that had gone completely out of control. His keeper tried his best to control it but all his efforts were in vain. The elephant was running directly towards Haribhadrasūri and he was in grave danger of being trampled. In such a critical situation Haribhadrasūri had to find shelter. Frantically when he was looking around for a safe place, he saw a Jain temple. Without giving a second thought Haribhadrasūri rushed towards it and entered in it to avoid being crushed by the mad elephant. He paused inside to regain his breath and looked around the temple in great disrespect. Being a Brahmin Haribhadrasūri had a very scanty regard for Jainism. Brahmins were usually staunch Shaivaites and looked down upon the Jain tradition. True to the tradition Haribhadrasūri did not care to know Jainism. He was also ignorant of what Jainism had to offer in the way of its philosophy. There was a proverb among staunch Shaivaites that one should not enter a Jain temple even if one happens to be crushed by an elephant. It means it is better to die crushed by an elephant than to enter a Jain temple. Therefore, Haribhadrasūri had never entered a Jain temple. Today he had to enter it to save himself from the wrath of the elephant. He saw a white marble idol of a tīrthaṅkarafacing him in the temple. Sectarian disrespect drew his attention to the stomach of the idol instead of the graceful compassion flowing eyes of tīrthaṅkara’sidol. The stomach of the idol did not represent the emaciated body of an austere saint. It leads him to conclude that the Jain tīrthaṅkaraswould have enjoyed substantial food.

He therefore made the following remark:

vapureva tavācaṣṭespaṣṭaṃ miṣṭānna bhojanam|
nahi koṭara saṃsthe'gnau tarurbhavati śāṅvalaḥ||1||

It means:

“your stomach clearly indicates that you must be eating sweet food; because a tree (body) cannot remain green (healthy) when there is a fire (hunger) in the stomach.”

What he could not grasp then, he was to understand soon by an irony of fate.

Once the learned paṇḍita Haribhadra was moving out sitting in a palanquin, he passed by Jain nuns” upāśraya (i.e. a place where Jain nuns stay). He heard a verse recited in a very sweet voice by a Jain nun. The verse[11] contained the order in which the cakravartins (sovereign emperors) and vāsudevas were born in current avasarpiṇīas per Jain tradition. The paṇḍita Haribhadra obviously had no knowledge of Jain tradition regarding the birth of sixty three great personages (Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣas) in every utsarpiṇī as well as every avasarpiṇī.Therefore Haribhadrasūri failed to understand the meaning of what the Jain nun was reciting. Eventhough he was the most knowledgeable scholar on the earth of that era, he realized his knowledge was incomplete. His open declaration of becoming pupil of anybody whose tenets he could not understand made him pause on hearing the verse in the Jain nun’s voice.He desired to ask the Jain nun about the meaning of that verse. True to his decision, however, he brushed aside his hesitation and went inside.

On entering that Jain nuns”upāśraya Haribhadrasūri asked the Jain nun as follows:

ambāḍe! prabhūtamatra cākacikyaṃ vihitavatī bhavatī” |

The Jain nun replied:

putraka! navaliptaṃ satyaṃ cakcakāyate” |

Then after, “who are you, my son!”, inquired the Jain nun namely Yākini.

“I am a priest of the king Jitāri. I have vowed that I should become the pupil of him or her whose sayings I do not understand. I do not understand fully a gāthā that you just recited. To fulfill my vow kindly accept me as your disciple.”

Such a request of a royal priest surprised the Jain nun greatly. She was wise, and spiritually mature. Though she was a chief nun (mahattarā) of a large group of junior nuns, she responded the paṇḍita very affectionately by saying that: “I can accept you as my son but I cannot make you my disciple.” She also said that nuns do not teach males and are not suppose to have males as pupils. She therefore advised Haribhadrasūri to go to Ācārya Jinabhaṭ an authorized person to explain the meaning of the verse.

When Haribhadrasūri went to Ācārya Jinabhaṭa, the latter explained the verse in detail. Haribhadrasūri requested him to explain the characteristics of religion (dharma) and the fruit derived by leading a religious life.

Ācārya Jinabhaṭa answered his curiosity by saying:

bhavaviraha (to get rid of transmigration) is the fruit attained by those who lead religious life without desiring for anything.”

On hearing this Haribhadrasūri said:

“I would like to attain this bhavaviraha[12] .

Ācārya Jinabhaṭa replied:

“If it is so, you shall have to embrace the Jain order which preaches complete cessation of sinful activities.”

On hearing this Haribhadrasūri requested Ācārya Jinabhaṭa to accept him as his pupil. Ācārya Jinabhaṭa asked him to go and get the consent of his family and relatives. Haribhadrasūri had to face heavy odds when he went to seek permission of his family and other close relatives. He continued to persuade them patiently.He explained to them that his knowledge world remain incomplete without gaining the knowledge of Jainism in detail. For that purpose as well as for adhering to his decision, it was incumbent upon him to be a Jain monk. He ultimately succeeded in gaining the consent of all his family members. Thereafter he returned to Ācārya Jinabhaṭa and was initiated into Jain monkhood. This is how he became pupil of Ācārya Jinabhaṭa.

At this point quotation of S.M. Desai[13] throws light on some innate facet of Haribhadrasūri’s personality. The lines are:

“His ironical approach to the seeming in consistency of Jain idol-worship expresses pride of his high learning. But his inborn humanity is well revealed in his vow of becoming a pupil of the man whose sayings he could not well grasp. It also expresses his thirst for knowledge and aspiration to rise higher in the field of erudition. His joining Jainism without a murmur and learning Jain scriptures draws out his innate catholicity of mind.”

Haribhadrasūri’s entry into a Jain temple and composition of a verse pertaining to the idol of a tīrthaṅkara with disrespect and his listening of a verse from a nun-are the two incidents we getfrom the literature that narrates life story of Haribhadrasūri. However, we are not given other details of these two incidents as when and where they took place.

Therefore, we see four different probabilities. They are:

1. These too incidents happened on the same day at the same place.

2. Prof. Jacobi[14] believes that these two took place on two different days, one after another.

3. Some believe that these two to be two different events in life of Haribhadrasūri which happened on two different days.

4.“pratijñā ke anantara ve tīrthayātrā ke liye nikala paḍe aura bhṛgukṣetra meṃ pahuṃce, vahāṃ para ukta ghaṭanā huī, aisā bhī ullekha milatā hai|[15]

After being initiated as a Jain monk, Haribhadrasūri composed a verse with slight difference in the earlier one. It is explained nicely by Pt. Hargovind Das T Sheth on fifth page of his work Haribhadrasuri Charitra.

The lines are:

tayā sūrisamīpagamanasamaye praṇeva panthātamantarā patantaṃ tīrthapativihāraṃ nīyamānaścāyaṃ bhagavadbimbaṃ murtimantamiva śāntarasaṃ vibhāvya vibhāvitayathāsthitārthatattvaḥ pūrvakṛ topahāsapāpamivastavanapuṇyena viśodhayitukāmaḥ pūrvavṛttaṃ,

vapureva tavācaṣṭe bhagavan ! vītarāgatām |
nahi koṭarasaṃsthe'gnau tarurbhavati śāṅvalaḥ ||1||”

iti camatkṛ tikṛ tā viparyayeṇa paryavīvatṛ tat abhyaṣṭavīñca viśeṣataḥ

jaṃdiṭṭhī karuṇātaraṃgiyapuḍā eyassa somaṃ muhaṃ
āyāro pasamāparo pariyaro saṃtāpasannāsanū|
jaṃtūṇāṃ jara-jammaṃ-maccuharaṇo devāhidevo imo
devāṇaṃ avarāṇaṃ dīsai jao neyaṃ saruvaṃ jae||1||

This is how the one who mocked at the tīrthaṅkara idol a few days back, happily turned himself into a Jain monk and soon became the chief disciple of his preceptor.

A Jain monk Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] diligently started studying the Jain scriptures and soon mastered them.The study of the Jain scriptures exposed him to the depth of knowledge reached by Jainism in seeking the truth. His thorough knowledge and acquisition of expertise in Jain scriptures convinced his preceptor for bestowing on him the state of Ācāryahood. Thus, he was formally announced as Haribhadrasūri who managed the Jain order very dutifully and efficiently.His erudition attracted many people to the Jain fold. Thus, his stewardship enriched Jainism to new heights of popularity. On the advice of his preceptor Haribhadrasūri wrote many books which imparted knowledge on Jainism. Out of many books only a few are available at the present time.As an ācārya Haribhadrasūri obediently and strictly followed Jain ascetic’s code of conduct. He could inspire many aspirants by his preaching and writing. There was a perfect blend of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct in his life. His words were not merely expressing his erudition; they were an outcome of his experienced state. And therefore, his words which were supported with his state of self-realization succeeded to guide the aspirants in a noble way.

Haribhadrasūri’s life is an outstanding illustration of a rapid growth in personality.

“The germ of rapid personality growth seems to lie in his keen desire to acquire new knowledge and his vow to accept him as his Guru, who taught him new things. There is a ring of honest search of discovery of new knowledge in his seeming proud vow and it provides the primal force for rapid and integral personality growth.”[16]

See the change, see the contrast. Once upon a time the paṇḍita Haribhadra used to say, “I would prefer to be crushed under the leg of an elephant, but would never go to a Jain temple.” The same Haribhadrasūri was forced by a mad elephant to enter a Jain temple to take shelter. At that time he made fun of the idol of a tīrthaṅkara. In course of time a great shift took place in his life from paṇḍita Haribhadra to Ācārya Haribhadrasūri. It opened new dimensions of knowledge and self realization in his life. He was convinced of greatness of Jainism and digested its philosophy very well.

IV. Haribhadrasūri and his two Disciples:

The tratise Kahāvalī records that Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] had two all-round pupils, Jinabhadra and Virabhadra by name. In the days of Haribhadrasūri Buddhists were very powerful in Citrakuṭa (native place of Haribhadrasūri). Since Buddhists were jealous of the scholar and erudite Haribhadrasūri, on getting a chance they killed two of his disciples. This sad news gave an extreme shock to Haribhadrasūri and therefore he decided to bring an end of his life by practicing anaśana. But as he was capable of enhancing lives of many human beings, he was convinced to give up this idea. He eventually composed a large number of worthy and standard works. And he looked upon these works as his pupils.[17]

According to Prabhācandra’s Prabhāvakacarita and the Prabandhakośa of Rājaśekharasūri Haribhadrasūri had two disciples Haṃsa and Paramahaṃsa. They were nephews of Haribhadrasūri and were brave soldiers. Once they were insulted by their family members. This incident made them detach from worldly life. They went to Haribhadrasūri and requested him to accept them as his disciples. Haribhadrasūri initiated them as Jain monks. They were brilliant disciples. Once they desired to go to the Buddhist namely Mahābodhi to learn teachings of the Buddhism. Haribhadrasūri asked a naimittika (one who forecasts) whether he should let his two disciples go to Mahābodhi.

The naimittika replied negatively and told Haribhadrasūri that these two would have to go through some dangerous situation if they will go there. Listening to the naimittika’s foretelling, Haribhadrasūri did not encourage his pupils to go. However, they were very enthusiastic to go. And therefore they told Haribhadrasūri that if they have his blessings, nobody will be able to harm them and thus they went to the Buddhist Mahābodhi.

Once they were exposed as spies in the Buddhist monastery. The Buddhist monks wanted to confirm whether there was any Jain monk among them in monastery. Therefore they asked all the monks, who were staying in the Buddhist monastery, to cross the road by placing their feet on an idol of Jain tīrthaṅkara. The two disciples of Haribhadrasūri made some changes to that idol of tīrthaṅkara and then placed their feet on it. The second time Buddhists caught them as they uttered an invocation to the Jina (Namo Jiṇāṇam) when awakened by suspicious Buddhists in the middle of the night. These two disciples tried hard to escape the monastery but were caught by Buddhists soldiers. Haṃsa was killed and Paramahaṃsa took refuge with king Sūrapāla. The king arranged a debate between Paramahaṃsa and the Buddhists. Though Paramahaṃsa won the debate, the Buddhists still clearly tried to kill him. In order to save himself Paramahaṃsa hides as a laborer who washed clothes. And thus Paramahaṃsa, somehow, manages to reach Haribhadrasūri. Paramahaṃsa told the entire story to his preceptor and died from the grief.

Haribhadrasūri was a devoted son of Yākini Mahattarā and a faithful disciple to his preceptor (guru); equally he was a loving and caring master to his pupils. Therefore the loss of his two disciples outraged Haribhadra beyond extent. King Sūrapāla, once again, arranged a debate between Haribhadrasūri and the Buddhists. Haribhadrasūri put a condition that those defeated in the debate would be burnt to death in boiling oil. Haribhadrasūri defeated 5-10 Buddhists and they all died in boiling oil. This incident created havoc amongst the Buddhists. The Buddhists slowly withdrew. Nobody came forward to engage in the debate with Haribhadrasūri. Here it seems that Paṇḍita Haribhadra’s self-willed and sudden changeover to Jainism must have shocked the Hindus of his times and especially the Brahmin caste but the death of his two pupils prove to be a great shock to Haribhadrasūri himself.

At this time Haribhadrasūri got a message from his preceptor Ācārya Jinabhaṭa. The message contained three verses[18] in Prakrit language which narrated what would be the result of anger, revenge, aversion etc. This message caused great remorse in Haribhadrasūri for killing as well as even by deciding to kill many Buddhists monks. Haribhadrasūri then composed many religious treatises in order to wash away the sins he had committed by doing the aforementioned to the Buddhists monks.Haribhadrasūri decided to spend rest of his life in writing books on philosophy, religion and especially on Yoga. On one hand Haribhadrasūri had committed ghastly sin by putting Buddhists monks in boiling oil and on the other hand this sublimating decision composing works transformed Haribhadrasūri into Yogi Haribhadrācārya.

Let us see the following lines which depict effectively the state of Haribhadrasūri at that time. The lines are:“The narrowness of Buddhists could kill his pupils but it, at the same time, kindled spiritual fire in the heart of Haribhadrācārya. The narrowness of sects all around inspired Haribhadra to soar on to great heights and find out a way to cure the deep rooted disease of sectarianism.”[19]

V. Lalliga–A Jain Layman:

Bhadreśvara’s Kahāvalī narrates the relation of Lalliga with Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri]. Lalliga, an extremely poor man, was an uncle of Vīrabhadra (a disciple of Haribhadrasūri). Once Lalliga expressed his desire to renounce the world and requested Haribhadrasūri to accept him as his disciple. However, Haribhadrasūri did not comply with his request and indirectly suggested him to buy the goods recently come to the market. Lalliga did so and earned good profit. Lalliga used to render much help to Haribhadrasūri in writing works. It is said that Lalliga had placed a jewel [20] in the Upāśraya (a place where Jain monks-nuns stay) where Haribhadrasūri used to compose work. This jewel was very luminous. Therefore in its light Haribhadrasūri could write even at night-time. And whatever portion was thus written on walls or slates was copied out by scribes in the day time.

Lalliga used to blow a conch at the time of meal in order to gather mendicants. On their assembling together Lalliga used to offer food to them. After finishing their meals, those mendicants used to bow to Haribhadrasūri who blessed them by saying: “May you exert to attain bhava viraha”. On hearing this blessing from Haribhadrasūri, they used to reply with words “May you long live, Bhavaviraha Sūri!”.[21] This is how Haribhadrasūri came to be known as Bhavavirahasūri.

VI. Other Haribhadrasūris:

At a glance we would find more than one ācārya whose name was Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] not only in history of Jainismbut also in Buddhism. This historical fact indicates how much popular the name Haribhadra would have been.

Let us introduce the other pious souls by the name of Haribhadrasūri:

1. Haribhadrasūriwas a disciple of Jinadevasūri and belonged to Bṛhadgaccha. He wrote vivaraṇa on Praśamarati of Umāsvāti Mahārāj in Aṇahilapura Pātaṇa under the reign of the king Siddharāja (1185 V.S.= 1128 A.D.)

The praśasti of this treatise is as Follows:

bhavyā babhūvuḥ śubhasa (śa)syaśiṣyā adhyāpakāḥ śrījinadevasaṃjñāḥ |
teṣāṃ vineyairbahurbhaktiyuktaiḥ prajñāvihīnairapi śāstrarāgāt || 2 || 
śrīharibhadrācāryai racitaṃ praśamarativivaraṇaṃ kiñcit |
paribhāvya vṛddhaṭīkāḥsukhabodhārthaṃ samāsena || 3 || 
aṇahilapāṭakanagare śrīmajjayasihaṃ devanapṛ rājye |
bāṇa-vasu-rūdrasaṃkhye vikramato vatsare vrajati || 4 ||”

2. One more jainācārya, Haribhadrasūri by name, is recorded in history. The title of Kalikāla Gautama was bestowed on him. He flourished in the reign of king Siddharāja. The following information regarding this Haribhadrasūri is found in verses 3-14 of praśasti of Dharma Abhyudaya Mahākāvya written by Udayaprabhasūri: These verses say that this Haribhadrasūri had two disciples namely Bālacandrasūri and Vijayasenasūri and this Haribhadrasūri is a descendant of Ānandasūri and Amaracandrasūri. The similar type of information is available in praśasti of Upadeśapadakandalīśīkā.[22]

3. Haribhadrasūri who belonged to Bṛhadgaccha was a disciple of Mānabhadrasūri. This Haribhadrasūri was a preceptor of Dharmacandra (V.S. 1393). Dharmacandra is the one who wrote chāyā on Prākṛtapdyālaya (i.e. Vajjālaga) of Jayavallabha.

The last part of this chāya has recorded the above given information. The lines are:

gacche pṛthau śrīmati mānabhadrasūrirbabhūva prathitaḥ pṛthivyām |
tadīyapaṭṭe haribhadrasūrirjajñe'khilakṣamātalalokapūjyaḥ || 1 || 
tacchiṣyaleśo'sti guṇānuraktaḥ śrīdharmacandraḥ sakalaḥ kalābhiḥ |
nipīya yadvāgamṛtaṃ sudhāyā manoharaṃ no vibudhāḥsmaranti || 2 ||
vidyā (padyā)laye prākṛ te'sminsubhāṣitamaṇāvaho |
lilekha lekhakacchāyāṃ ratnadevaśca tadgirā || 3 ||
śikhi-grahā-'gni-candrairhi pramite vatsare vare |
grantho'yaṃ saṃkhyayākhyātaḥ sahasratritayaṃ nanu || 4 ||”

“Haribhadra” is also the name of a Bauddha scholar. [23] He has composed Abhisamayālaṅkārāvaloka. See “Predignāga Buddhist text on Logic from Chinese Sources”.[24]

However, we are concerned with the Haribhadrasūri [Haribhadra Suri] who introduced himself as the spiritual son of nun Yākinī. He used to introduce himself as “Yākinī Mahattarā Sūnu”, i.e. a (spiritual) son of nun Yākinī, at the end of his works. Whenever Haribhadrasūri realized his own spiritual development, he considered it to be caused by a nun Yākinī. In order to express his gratitude and regards for her, he decided to introduce himself as a spiritual son of nun Yākinī. Since Haribhadrasūri owed a lot to nun Yākinī, he made her memorable forever. It is this spiritual son of nun Yākinī who used to put a word “viraha” at the end of his many works. Among all the referred Haribhadrasūris, “Yākinī Mahattarā Sūnu” (a spiritual son of nun Yākinī) seems to be the oldest one.

Footnotes and references:


Pivaṃguīe bambhapuṇīe”–P. 300, Part-2, a handwritten manuscript written in V.S. 1497 (=1440A.D.) and preserved at the Jain Bhandara of Samghvi Pado, Patana.”


(a) Municandrasūri’s Upadeśapadaśīkā.
(b) Sumatigaṇi’s Gaṇadharasārddhaśatakabṛhatśīkā.
(c) Ninth prabandha of Prabhācandra’s Prabhāvakacarita.
(d) See lines: 16 to 20, p. 8, of Prabandhakoṣa composed by Rājaśekharasūri.


See line: 18, p. 8.


See Introduction for birth 1 and 2 of Samarāiccakahā, written by M.C.Modi; also see Dhūrtākhyāna, introduction–XVIII.


Saṅkara nāma bhaśo, tassa Gaṅgā nāma bhaṭṭiṇī.


Part-1, Anekāntajayapatāka, edited by H.R.Kapadia, p. XXI, Introduction.


atitaralamatiḥ purohitobhūnnṛpavidito haribhadranāmavittaḥ || 8 || 


evaṃ so paṃḍittagavvamuvvahamāṇo haribhaddo nāma māhaṇo|
–Extracted from P. 5a, introduction to Dharmasaṅgrahaṇi by Muni Kalyanavijaya.


See p. 9, introduction to Samarāiccakahā.


See India as Known to Haribhadra by R. S. Shukla.


cakkīdaguṃ haripaṇagaṃ paṇagaṃ cakkīṇa ke savo cakkī|
ke sava cakkī ke sava du cakkī ke sava cakkīya||


haribhaddo bhaṇai bhayavaṃ piu me bhavaviraho|
–p. 300, Kahāvalī


See Haribhadra’s Yoga Works and Psychosynthesis written by S.M. Desai (1983), p. 2.


See Jacobi’s Introduction of Samarāiccakahā.


An article “ṣaḍadarśanavettāśrīharibhadrasūri” written by “Ishwarlal Jain, published in Shree Jain Satya Prakash, .Dīpotsavī Aṅka, 7th Year. P.43,5th foot note.


See Haribhadra’s Yoga Works and Psychosynthesis written by S.M. Desai (1983), p. 5.


See Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapdia, Part-1, Introduction, P. XXII, 2nd Paragraph.


guṇaseṇa-aggisammā sīhāṇaṃdā ya taha piāputtā|
sihi jāliṇi māisuā dhaṇa dhaṇasirio ya pai bhajjā ||
1 || 
jaya-vijayā ya sahoara dharaṇo lacchī ya tahappaī bhajjā|
seṇa-viseṇā pittiyauttā jammammi sattamae ||
2 || 
guṇacaṃda-vāṇamaṃtara samarāicca giriseṇapāṇo ya|
egassa tao mukkho'ṇaṃto aṇṇassa saṃsāro ||
3 ||


See Haribhadra’s Yoga Works and Psychosynthesis written by S.M. Desai (1983), p. 5.


See Bhadreśvara’s Kahāvalī, p. 301a.

samappiyaṃ ca sūriṇo lalligeṇa puvvāgayarayaṇāṇaṃ majjhāo jaccarayaṇaṃ, tadajु joeṇaya rayaṇīe viḍhappei sūri bhittipaṭṭayāisu gaṃthe|


ciraṃjīvau bhavaviraha sūri tti|
–p. 301a, Kahāvalī


Extracted from Haribhadrasuri Charitra of Hargovinda Das T. Sheth, pp. 1 and 2.


Extracted from Anekāntajayapatākā edited by H.R.Kapdia, Part-1, Introduction, P. XXI.


See Gaekwad’s Oriental Series Vol. XLIX, Introduction, note: XVII and XXV and also see History of Indian Literature Vol. II, p.354n.

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