Patana, Pātana, Pāṭana: 22 definitions



Patana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Pātana (पातन):—Fifth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Pātana-saṃskāra is commonly used for Dravya-karma and Rasāyana-karma, but also to remove various types of rasa-doṣa (mercury impurities). In other words: the first eight saṃskāras are sequentially used to purify and detoxify mercury in preparation for internal use. Pātana refers to the process of ‘striking down’ or sublimation of mercury.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Pātana, the “sublimation” or “distillation” of mercury refers to the three processes by which mercury is distilled upwards, downwards, or transversally.

Source: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)

Pātana (पातन, “sublimation”) refers to “sublimation or distillation” and represents to the fifth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (e.g., pātana) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

Source: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)

Pātana (sublimation).—One of the eight Aṣṭasamskāra, or, processes that render mercury fit for internal use. These Aṣṭasamskāra of pārada (eight detoxification techniques for mercury) are mandatory before mercury is used in the pharmaceutical preparations. Khalvayantra is simple mortar and pestle used for Pātana.

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Pātana (पातन):—The fifth of the eight purification steps of Pārada (mercury), also known as the Aṣṭasaṃskāra.—The process of Pātana is again of three types. 

  1. Ūrdhvapātana,
  2. Adhaḥpātana
  3. and Tiryakpātana.

See the Āyurvedaprakāśa 1.68-71: a Sanskrit work on Rasaśāstra written in the 16th-century by Mādhava.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”) also refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures of the eyelids (puṭa) are supposed to be performed in accordance with the corresponding gestures of the eyeballs (tārā) and the eyelids (puṭa). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā);—Instructions: relaxation (of the eyeballs). Uses: in the in the Pathetic (karuṇa) sentiment (rasa).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū);—Instructions: lowering of eyebrows simultaneously or one by one. Uses: in envy (asūyā), disgust (jugupsā), smile (hāsya), and smelling (ghrāṇa).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Patana (पतन).—A company of devils. (Chapter 285, Vana Parva).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Patana (पतन):—Fall

2) Pāṭana (पाटन):—[pāṭanaṃ] Cracks or breaking pain.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

patana : (nt.) falling. || pātana (nt.) bringing to fall; throwing down; killing.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Patana, (nt. adj.) (fr. patati) falling, falling out, ruin, destruction J. I, 293 (akkhīni); II, 154; III, 188 (geha°); VI, 85 (usu° range of his arrow). (Page 405)

— or —

Pātana, (nt.) (fr. pāteti) bringing to fall, destroying, killing, only in gabbha° destroying the fœtus, abortion (q. v.) DhA. I, 47 and passim. (Page 451)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f C A kind of rice. It comprises many varieties.

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patana (पतन).—n (S) Falling. pa0 pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced, brought down; to reap or meet with one's (evil) deserts. This phrase is more common under the form patna pāvaṇēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f A kind of rice.

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patana (पतन).—n Falling. patana pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[pat-bhāve lyuṭ]

1) The act of flying or coming down, alighting, descending, throwing oneself down at.

2) Setting (as of the sun).

3) Going down to hell; निरये चैव पतनम् (niraye caiva patanam) Ms.6.61.

4) Apostacy.

5) Falling from dignity, virtue &c. अनिग्रहाच्चेन्द्रियाणां नरः पतन- मृच्छति (anigrahāccendriyāṇāṃ naraḥ patana- mṛcchati) Y.3.219.

6) Fall, decline, ruin, adversity (opp. udaya or ucchrāya); ग्रहाधीना नरेन्द्राणामुच्छ्रायाः पतनानि च (grahādhīnā narendrāṇāmucchrāyāḥ patanāni ca) Y.1.38.

7) Death.

8) Hanging down, becoming flaccid (as breasts).

9) Miscarriage.

1) (In arith.) Subtraction.

11) The latitude of a planet.

Derivable forms: patanam (पतनम्).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—[paṭ bhāve lyuṭ] Splitting, breaking, cleaving, destroying; स्वर्गद्वारकपाटपाटनपटुर्धर्मोऽपि नोपार्जितः (svargadvārakapāṭapāṭanapaṭurdharmo'pi nopārjitaḥ):-

Derivable forms: pāṭanam (पाटनम्).

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Pātana (पातन).—a. [pat-ṇic lyu lyuṭ vā] Felling, cutting down.

-nam 1 Causing to fall down, bringing or throwing down, knocking down.

2) Throwing, casting.

3) Humbling, lowering.

4) Removing.

5) Name of a particular process to which minerals (esp. quicksilver) are subjected. N. B. पातनम् (pātanam) may have different meanings according to the noun with which it is used; e. g. दण्डस्य पातनम् (daṇḍasya pātanam) 'causing the rod to fall', i. e. chastising; गर्भस्य पातनम् (garbhasya pātanam)' causing the fœtus to fall', causing an abortion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Who or what goes, falls, descending. &c. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Falling. 2. Alighting, descending. 3. Falling from dignity, virtue, &c. 4. Sin. 5. Going. 6. Subtraction. 7. The latitude of a planet. E. pat to fall, yuc or bhāve-lyuṭ aff.

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—n.

(-naṃ) Cutting, breaking. E. paṭ to go, causal form, lyuṭ aff.

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Pātana (पातन).—n.

(-naṃ) Bringing down, causing to fall. 2. Lowering, humbling, 3. Felling, knocking down. 4. Nodding, (as in sleep.) 5. Causing an abortion, as garbhasya pātanam. 6. Beating, as in daṇḍasya pātanam &c. E. pat to fall in the causal form, aff. lyuṭ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[pat + ana] 1., I. m. The name of a Rākṣasa or demon, Mahābhārata 3, 16365. Ii. n. 1. Falling, Mahābhārata 5, 7187. 2. Hanging down, becoming slack, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 422. 3. Ruin, 704. 4. Death, Mahābhārata 2, 1636. 5. Throwing one’s self, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 902 (at one’s feet).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—i. e. paṭ + ana, n. 1. Ripping up, slitting up, Mārk. P. 14, 88. 2. Opening, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1405.

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Pātana (पातन).—i. e. pat, [Causal.], + ana, I. adj. , Cutting down, Mahābhārata 1, 6560. Ii. n. Causing to fall, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 130; with daṇḍasya, Chastising, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 51; with garbhasya, Causing a miscarriage.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[masculine] [Name] of a Rakṣas; [neuter] flying, descending, rushing; getting into ([locative]), ruin, fall (lit. & [figuratively]).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—[neuter] splitting, tearing asunder.

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Pātana (पातन).—[neuter] causing to fall, felling (also adj.), throwing, removing, destroying; [with] daṇḍasya chastising, punishing.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patana (पतन):—[from pat] mfn. who or what flies or falls, [Pāṇini 3-2, 150]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Rākṣasa, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] n. the act of flying or coming down, alighting, descending, throwing one’s self down at or into ([locative case] or [compound]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] setting (as the sun), [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] going down (to hell), [Manu-smṛti vi, 61]

6) [v.s. ...] hanging down, becoming flaccid (said of the breasts), [Bhartṛhari]

7) [v.s. ...] fall, decline, ruin, death, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]

8) [v.s. ...] loss of caste, apostacy, [Purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] (with garbhasya) miscarriage, [Varāha-mihira]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) subtraction, [Colebrooke]

11) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) the latitude of a planet, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) Pāṭana (पाटन):—[from pāṭa] n. splitting, dividing, tearing up, cutting to pieces, destroying, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

13) Pāṭanā (पाटना):—[from pāṭana > pāṭa] f. a cut, incision, [Naiṣadha-carita]

14) Pātana (पातन):—[from pāt] mf(ī)n. ([from] [Causal]) causing to fall, felling, laying low, striking off or down (with [genitive case] or ifc.), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

15) [v.s. ...] n. the act of causing to fall etc.

16) [v.s. ...] lowering, humbling, [Horace H. Wilson]

17) [v.s. ...] the act of casting (as dice or a glance of the eyes), [Kathāsaritsāgara] (cf. akṣa-)

18) [v.s. ...] (with daṇḍasya) causing the rod to fall, chastising, punishing, [Manu-smṛti]

19) [v.s. ...] (with garbhasya) causing the fall of the fetus or abortion, [Yājñavalkya]

20) [v.s. ...] (with jalaukasām) application of leeches, [Suśruta]

21) [v.s. ...] removing, bringing away, [ib.]

22) [v.s. ...] causing to fall asunder, dividing, [Śaṃkarācārya]

23) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] process to which minerals ([especially] quicksilver) are subjected, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patana (पतन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Falling, n. A falling; sin, subtraction.

2) Pāṭana (पाटन):—(naṃ) 1. n. A cutting.

3) Pātana (पातन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Falling; causing to fall; felling; nodding.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Patana (पतन):—(von 1. pat)

1) nom. ag. der da fliegt, zu fallen pflegt [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 2, 150.] —

2) m. Nomen proprium eines Rākṣasa [Mahābhārata 3, 16365.] —

3) n. proparox. a) das Herabfliegen, sich-Niederwerfen, sich-Niederfallenlassen, das sich-Stürzen; das Herabfallen, Abfallen, Umfallen, Sturz, Fall (eig. und übertr.): caraṇa das sich-zu-Füssen-Werfen [Spr. 902.] śirobhiḥ mahīpatanapāṃśulaiḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 45, 27.] agni das sich-ins-Feuer-Stürzen [Pañcatantra 188, 2.] bandhopabandhapatanotthita [Caurapañcāśikā 48.] vajrasya.yatpatane.pādi.śuṣṇaḥ [Ṛgveda 6, 20, 5.] arka das Herabfallen der Sonne [Mahābhārata 5, 7187.] śarapatanabhayāt [Śākuntala 7.] amoghapatanānprāsān [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 181.] phalānāṃ pakvānām [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 105, 15.] [Suśruta 1, 67, 2. 109, 7. 117. 19.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 42 (43), 63.] [Pañcatantra 136, 5.] gaṅgāyāḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 43, 25.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 3, 530.] gireḥ von einem Berge [Spr. 944.] vadanācca raktapatanam [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 92, 5.] niraye das zur-Hölle-Fahren [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 61.] vṛkṣasya [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 42 (43), 20. 52, 121.] [Kumārasaṃbhava 4, 31.] bhūmau sthitasya patanādbhayameva nāsti [Spr. 346.] [ŚIKṢĀ 20] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 4, 268.] [Suśruta 1, 94, 20.] ā dehapatanāt [Mahābhārata 13, 1829.] [Sāhityadarpana 177. 182.] stana das Herunterfallen, Schlaffwerden der Brüste [Spr. 422.] patanāntāḥ samucchrayāḥ [Mahābhārata 14, 1230.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 261.] narendrāṇāmucchrāyāḥ patanāni ca [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 307.] idānīmete smaḥ pratidivasamāsannapatanā gatāstulyāvasthāṃ sikatilanadītīratarubhiḥ [Bhartṛhari 3, 49.] kula [Spr. 704.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 69, 38.] [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 40, 15.] caidyasya so v. a. Tod [Mahābhārata 2, 1636. 6, 5755.] tathā tvanāryaḥ patati mṛtpiṇḍapatanaṃ yathā in moralischem Sinne [Bhartṛhari] vihitasyānanuṣṭhānānninditasya ca sevanāt . anigrahāccendriyāṇāṃ naraḥ patanamṛcchati (patana = pāpa [Śabdakalpadruma][?) || PRĀYAŚCITTAVIVEKA im Śabdakalpadruma] yāvaddevāpirna patanādibhirdoṣairabhibhūyate das Vernachlässigen der mit seiner Kaste verbundenen Verpflichtungen (apostasy [MUIR]) [Viṣṇupurāṇa] bei [MUIR, Sanscrit Texts I, 146, 1 v. u.] Mit Ergänzung von garbhasya so v. a. Fehlgeburt [VARĀH.] [LAGHUJ. 3, 5.] — b) Subtraction [Algebra 5.] — c) die Breite eines Planeten [Wilson’s Wörterbuch]

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Pāṭana (पाटन):—(von paṭ) n. das Spalten ( [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 161]), Aufschlitzen, Zerreissen, Aufreissen, Sprengen, Zerschneiden, Vernichten [Suśruta 1, 27, 21.] kriyā das Aufschneiden eines Geschwürs [63, 18.] karapattreṇa [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 14, 88.] cakrapāṭanajā ghorā rujaḥ [Harivaṃśa 10856. fg.] kāṣṭhamayānāmiṣṭakānām [Mṛcchakaṭikā 47, 10.] madgarbha [Kathāsaritsāgara 26, 221.] vakṣaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 8, 47.] vakṣastaṭakapāṭa [Prabodhacandrodaja 2, 4. 81, 11.] svargadvārakapāṭa [Spr. 1405.] karṇaśṛṅgānām [PRĀYAŚCITTAT. im Śabdakalpadruma] latākaṇṭaka [KĀM. NĪTIS. 14, 21.] kaṇṭaka [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 210.]

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Pātana (पातन):—(vom caus. von 1. pat)

1) adj. f. ī (gaṇa gaurādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 1, 41]) fällend, niedermachend: śatrusaṃghānām [Mahābhārata 1, 6560.] bhīṣmasya [7, 94.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 24, 40.] śatrusenāṅga [Mahābhārata 1, 7368.] astra [Harivaṃśa 12735.] —

2) n. das Fallenlassen, Hinabwerfen, Hinabschleudern, Stürzen, Niedermachen: śakuniḥ phalapātane (śuciḥ) [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 5, 130.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 35, 22.] phala Abschlagen [Harivaṃśa 3715.] giriśṛṅgebhyaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 30, 28.] saubhasya [Mahābhārata 3, 835.] vajra [Mahābhārata 1, 1219. 7201.] pātanaṃ bhāskarasyeva na mṛṣye droṇapātanam [7, 273. 6, 5356. 10, 592. 13, 4788.] akṣa das Werfen der Würfel [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8, 2, 49,] [Scholiast] daṇḍasya das Fallenlassen des Stockes so v. a. Strafen [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 51.] akṣṇoḥ samantataḥ kāryaṃ pātanaṃ jalaukasām das Ansetzen von Blutegeln [Suśruta 2, 327, 7.] garbhasya das Abtreiben der Leibesfrucht [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 277. 3, 298.] [Harivaṃśa 4575.] ata ūrdhvamadṛśyeṣvarśassu yogānpātanārthaṃ vakṣyāmaḥ Vertreiben, Wegschaffen [Suśruta 2, 49, 17.] das Auseinanderfallenmachen, Trennen, zur Erklärung von pati und patnī [] zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad] [S. 139.] — Vgl. garbha, chandaka, daṇḍa, dūra, sūtra .

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Patana (पतन):—

3) a) pāda das sich-zu-Füssen-Werfen [Kathāsaritsāgara 54, 74.]

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Pātana (पातन):—

2) das Werfen der Würfel [Kathāsaritsāgara 121, 82.] das Fällen, Bez. eines best. Processes, dem Mineralien (insbes. Quecksilber) unterworfen werden, [SARVADARŚANAS. 100,4.] [Oxforder Handschriften 320,a,9.] adhaḥ 18. tiryak ebend.

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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