Patana, aka: Pātana, Pāṭana; 13 Definition(s)


Patana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

[Patana in Rasashastra glossaries]

Pātana (पातन):—Fifth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Pātana-saṃskāra is commonly used for Dravya-karma and Rasāyana-karma, but also to remove various types of rasa-doṣa (mercury impurities). In other words: the first eight saṃskāras are sequentially used to purify and detoxify mercury in preparation for internal use. Pātana refers to the process of ‘striking down’ or sublimation of mercury.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Pātana, the “sublimation” or “distillation” of mercury refers to the three processes by which mercury is distilled upwards, downwards, or transversally.

(Source): Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Pātana (पातन, “sublimation”) refers to “sublimation or distillation” and represents to the fifth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (eg., pātana) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

(Source): History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)

Pātana (sublimation).—One of the eight Aṣṭasamskāra, or, processes that render mercury fit for internal use. These Aṣṭasamskāra of pārada (eight detoxification techniques for mercury) are mandatory before mercury is used in the pharmaceutical preparations. Khalvayantra is simple mortar and pestle used for Pātana.

(Source): Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)

Pātana (पातन):—The fifth of the eight purification steps of Pārada (mercury), also known as the Aṣṭasaṃskāra.—The process of Pātana is again of three types. 

  1. Ūrdhvapātana,
  2. Adhaḥpātana
  3. and Tiryakpātana.

See the Āyurvedaprakāśa 1.68-71: a Sanskrit work on Rasaśāstra written in the 16th-century by Mādhava.

(Source): CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Patana in Natyashastra glossaries]

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”) also refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures of the eyelids (puṭa) are supposed to be performed in accordance with the corresponding gestures of the eyeballs (tārā) and the eyelids (puṭa). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā);—Instructions: relaxation (of the eyeballs). Uses: in the in the Pathetic (karuṇa) sentiment (rasa).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū);—Instructions: lowering of eyebrows simultaneously or one by one. Uses: in envy (asūyā), disgust (jugupsā), smile (hāsya), and smelling (ghrāṇa).

(Source): Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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[Patana in Purana glossaries]

Patana (पतन).—A company of devils. (Chapter 285, Vana Parva).

(Source): Puranic Encyclopaedia
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Patana in Pali glossaries]

patana : (nt.) falling. || pātana (nt.) bringing to fall; throwing down; killing.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Patana, (nt. adj.) (fr. patati) falling, falling out, ruin, destruction J. I, 293 (akkhīni); II, 154; III, 188 (geha°); VI, 85 (usu° range of his arrow). (Page 405)

— or —

Pātana, (nt.) (fr. pāteti) bringing to fall, destroying, killing, only in gabbha° destroying the fœtus, abortion (q. v.) DhA. I, 47 and passim. (Page 451)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Patana in Marathi glossaries]

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f C A kind of rice. It comprises many varieties.

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patana (पतन).—n (S) Falling. pa0 pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced, brought down; to reap or meet with one's (evil) deserts. This phrase is more common under the form patna pāvaṇēṃ.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f A kind of rice.

--- OR ---

patana (पतन).—n Falling. patana pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 38 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Ūrdhvapātana (ऊर्ध्वपातन) is the first sub-step of Pātana, which is the fifth of the eight p...
adhaḥpatana (अधःपतन).—n S Falling down; descending to hell &c. See adhaḥpāta. Ex. vēda śāstrēṃ ...
Duṣpatana (दुष्पतन).—1) falling badly. 2) a word of abuse, abusive epithet (apaśabda). Derivabl...
Tiryakpātana (तिर्यक्पातन) is the final sub-step of Pātana, which is the fifth of the eight ...
Premapātana (प्रेमपातन).—1) tears (of joy). 2) the eye (that sheds them). 3) rheum. Derivable f...
Patanaśīla (पतनशील).—a. accustomed to fall down.Patanaśīla is a Sanskrit compound consisting of...
Vahnipatana (वह्निपतन).—self-immolation. Derivable forms: vahnipatanam (वह्निपतनम्).Vahnipatana...
Caraṇapatana (चरणपतन).—falling down or prostration (at the feet of another); Amaru.17. Derivabl...
Stanapatana (स्तनपतन).—flaccidity of the breast. Derivable forms: stanapatanam (स्तनपतनम्).Stan...
Pātanayantra (पातनयन्त्र).—A type of specialized instrument used in an alchemical labo...
Daṇḍapātana (दण्डपातन).—infliction of punishment, chastisement. Derivable forms: daṇḍapātanam (...
Pallipatana (पल्लिपतन) or Pallīpatana (पल्लीपतन).—prognostication by observing the falling of h...
Bhittipātana (भित्तिपातन).—1) a kind of rat. 2) a rat.Derivable forms: bhittipātanaḥ (भित्तिपात...
Vartmapātana (वर्त्मपातन).—waylaying. Derivable forms: vartmapātanam (वर्त्मपातनम्).Vartmapātan...
Dūrapātana (दूरपातन).—the act of shooting to a distance; Mb.4. Derivable forms: dūrapātanam (दू...

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