Patana, Pātana, Pāṭana: 31 definitions


Patana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Pātana (पातन):—Fifth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Pātana-saṃskāra is commonly used for Dravya-karma and Rasāyana-karma, but also to remove various types of rasa-doṣa (mercury impurities). In other words: the first eight saṃskāras are sequentially used to purify and detoxify mercury in preparation for internal use. Pātana refers to the process of ‘striking down’ or sublimation of mercury.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Pātana, the “sublimation” or “distillation” of mercury refers to the three processes by which mercury is distilled upwards, downwards, or transversally.

Source: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)

Pātana (पातन, “sublimation”) refers to “sublimation or distillation” and represents to the fifth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (e.g., pātana) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

Source: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)

Pātana (sublimation).—One of the eight Aṣṭasamskāra, or, processes that render mercury fit for internal use. These Aṣṭasamskāra of pārada (eight detoxification techniques for mercury) are mandatory before mercury is used in the pharmaceutical preparations. Khalvayantra is simple mortar and pestle used for Pātana.

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Pātana (पातन):—The fifth of the eight purification steps of Pārada (mercury), also known as the Aṣṭasaṃskāra.—The process of Pātana is again of three types. 

  1. Ūrdhvapātana,
  2. Adhaḥpātana
  3. and Tiryakpātana.

See the Āyurvedaprakāśa 1.68-71: a Sanskrit work on Rasaśāstra written in the 16th-century by Mādhava.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”) also refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures of the eyelids (puṭa) are supposed to be performed in accordance with the corresponding gestures of the eyeballs (tārā) and the eyelids (puṭa). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Pātana (पातन, “relaxing”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyeballs (tārā);—Instructions: relaxation (of the eyeballs). Uses: in the in the Pathetic (karuṇa) sentiment (rasa).

2) Pātana (पातन, “lowering”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyebrows (bhrū);—Instructions: lowering of eyebrows simultaneously or one by one. Uses: in envy (asūyā), disgust (jugupsā), smile (hāsya), and smelling (ghrāṇa).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Patana (पतन).—A company of devils. (Chapter 285, Vana Parva).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Patana in the Gujarati language is the name of a plant identified with Pisum sativum L. from the Fabaceae (Pea) family having the following synonyms: Lathyrus oleraceus. For the possible medicinal usage of patana, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Patana (पतन):—Fall

2) Pāṭana (पाटन):—[pāṭanaṃ] Cracks or breaking pain.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Patana (पतन) refers to “falling (into the ocean)”, according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 3.20 (“The Śikṣāṣṭaka Prayers”).—Accordingly, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said said: “[...] Now let me repeat all the pastimes of the Antya-līlā, for if I do so I shall taste the pastimes again. [...] In the Eighteenth Chapter is an account of how the Lord fell into the ocean (samudra-patana) and in ecstasy saw in a dream the pastimes of a water fight between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. In that dream, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw Kṛṣṇa's picnic in the forest. As Lord Caitanya floated in the sea, a fisherman caught Him, and then the Lord returned to His own residence. All this is recounted in the Eighteenth Chapter. [...]”.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Pātana (पातन) or “causing to fall” is another name for Vyavakalita (“subtraction”) which represents one of the the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—The terms [e.g., pātana (causing to fall)] [...], have been used for subtraction.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Patana (पतन) refers to “sowing (the seeds)” (of wheat, lentils, etc.), according to the Ṭīkā (commentary) on the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā..—Accordingly, “(Giving this knowledge) to one who has no initiation, no hereafter, lineage, transmission of the teachers, no worship of the Kulakrama and is devoid of the Convention of the Flower and that of the purification of the teachers is like sowing the seeds (bīja-patana) of wheat, lentils and the like on barren ground, that is, on stones. It bears no fruit. Or else, it is like the flower (of menses). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Patana (पतन, “catastrophes”) refers to one of the various “outer torments”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV).—Accordingly, “There are two kinds of torments (alpābādatā), those having an external cause and those having an internal cause. The external torments are cold (śīta), heat (uṣṇa), hunger (kṣudh), thirst (pipāsā), armies (caturaṅgabala), swords (asi), knives (śastra), clubs (daṇḍa), catastrophes (patana), ruins (avamardana); all these external accidents of this kind are called torments (ādādha). The inner torments are the 404 illnesses (vyādhi) that come from improper food or irregular sleep; all the sicknesses of this kind are called inner sicknesses. Corporeal beings (dehin) all have to suffer from these two kinds of illnesses. This is why Ratnakāra asks Śākyamuni if he has but little torments and suffering”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Pātana (पातन) refers to “driving (the cords) to the ground”, according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [in the nimittokti section in chapter 3], the Ācārya should divide the site into thirty-six compartments. He should drive ritual spikes (kīla) symbolising the thirty-two wrathful deities into the compartments, excluding the four central ones, and worship the spikes. Then he should visualise himself as Vajrahūṃkāra in order to remove obstacles from the site. Then the Ācārya should re-arrange the placement of the spikes in a proper way. After that, the Ācārya should connect the pañcasūtras—the cords of Brahman, the root cords, the direction cords, and the side cords—to the spikes driven to the ground (sūtra-pātana).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Patana (पतन) refers to “death”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If this body were not covered with skin, then who would be able to protect [it] from flies, worms and crows? The structure of the body of embodied souls is always filled with diseases, always the abode of impurity [and] always destined for death [com.patana-prāya]”.

Synonyms: Patat.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

patana : (nt.) falling. || pātana (nt.) bringing to fall; throwing down; killing.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Patana, (nt. adj.) (fr. patati) falling, falling out, ruin, destruction J. I, 293 (akkhīni); II, 154; III, 188 (geha°); VI, 85 (usu° range of his arrow). (Page 405)

— or —

Pātana, (nt.) (fr. pāteti) bringing to fall, destroying, killing, only in gabbha° destroying the fœtus, abortion (q. v.) DhA. I, 47 and passim. (Page 451)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f C A kind of rice. It comprises many varieties.

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patana (पतन).—n (S) Falling. pa0 pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced, brought down; to reap or meet with one's (evil) deserts. This phrase is more common under the form patna pāvaṇēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paṭaṇa (पटण).—f A kind of rice.

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patana (पतन).—n Falling. patana pāvaṇēṃ or bhōgaṇēṃ To be degraded, disgraced.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[pat-bhāve lyuṭ]

1) The act of flying or coming down, alighting, descending, throwing oneself down at.

2) Setting (as of the sun).

3) Going down to hell; निरये चैव पतनम् (niraye caiva patanam) Manusmṛti 6.61.

4) Apostacy.

5) Falling from dignity, virtue &c. अनिग्रहाच्चेन्द्रियाणां नरः पतन- मृच्छति (anigrahāccendriyāṇāṃ naraḥ patana- mṛcchati) Y.3.219.

6) Fall, decline, ruin, adversity (opp. udaya or ucchrāya); ग्रहाधीना नरेन्द्राणामुच्छ्रायाः पतनानि च (grahādhīnā narendrāṇāmucchrāyāḥ patanāni ca) Y.1.38.

7) Death.

8) Hanging down, becoming flaccid (as breasts).

9) Miscarriage.

1) (In arith.) Subtraction.

11) The latitude of a planet.

Derivable forms: patanam (पतनम्).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—[paṭ bhāve lyuṭ] Splitting, breaking, cleaving, destroying; स्वर्गद्वारकपाटपाटनपटुर्धर्मोऽपि नोपार्जितः (svargadvārakapāṭapāṭanapaṭurdharmo'pi nopārjitaḥ):-

Derivable forms: pāṭanam (पाटनम्).

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Pātana (पातन).—a. [pat-ṇic lyu lyuṭ vā] Felling, cutting down.

-nam 1 Causing to fall down, bringing or throwing down, knocking down.

2) Throwing, casting.

3) Humbling, lowering.

4) Removing.

5) Name of a particular process to which minerals (esp. quicksilver) are subjected. N. B. पातनम् (pātanam) may have different meanings according to the noun with which it is used; e. g. दण्डस्य पातनम् (daṇḍasya pātanam) 'causing the rod to fall', i. e. chastising; गर्भस्य पातनम् (garbhasya pātanam)' causing the fœtus to fall', causing an abortion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) Who or what goes, falls, descending. &c. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Falling. 2. Alighting, descending. 3. Falling from dignity, virtue, &c. 4. Sin. 5. Going. 6. Subtraction. 7. The latitude of a planet. E. pat to fall, yuc or bhāve-lyuṭ aff.

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—n.

(-naṃ) Cutting, breaking. E. paṭ to go, causal form, lyuṭ aff.

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Pātana (पातन).—n.

(-naṃ) Bringing down, causing to fall. 2. Lowering, humbling, 3. Felling, knocking down. 4. Nodding, (as in sleep.) 5. Causing an abortion, as garbhasya pātanam. 6. Beating, as in daṇḍasya pātanam &c. E. pat to fall in the causal form, aff. lyuṭ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[pat + ana] 1., I. m. The name of a Rākṣasa or demon, Mahābhārata 3, 16365. Ii. n. 1. Falling, Mahābhārata 5, 7187. 2. Hanging down, becoming slack, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 422. 3. Ruin, 704. 4. Death, Mahābhārata 2, 1636. 5. Throwing one’s self, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 902 (at one’s feet).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—i. e. paṭ + ana, n. 1. Ripping up, slitting up, Mārk. P. 14, 88. 2. Opening, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1405.

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Pātana (पातन).—i. e. pat, [Causal.], + ana, I. adj. , Cutting down, Mahābhārata 1, 6560. Ii. n. Causing to fall, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 130; with daṇḍasya, Chastising, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 51; with garbhasya, Causing a miscarriage.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Patana (पतन).—[masculine] [Name] of a Rakṣas; [neuter] flying, descending, rushing; getting into ([locative]), ruin, fall (lit. & [figuratively]).

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Pāṭana (पाटन).—[neuter] splitting, tearing asunder.

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Pātana (पातन).—[neuter] causing to fall, felling (also adj.), throwing, removing, destroying; [with] daṇḍasya chastising, punishing.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patana (पतन):—[from pat] mfn. who or what flies or falls, [Pāṇini 3-2, 150]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Rākṣasa, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] n. the act of flying or coming down, alighting, descending, throwing one’s self down at or into ([locative case] or [compound]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] setting (as the sun), [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] going down (to hell), [Manu-smṛti vi, 61]

6) [v.s. ...] hanging down, becoming flaccid (said of the breasts), [Bhartṛhari]

7) [v.s. ...] fall, decline, ruin, death, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]

8) [v.s. ...] loss of caste, apostacy, [Purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] (with garbhasya) miscarriage, [Varāha-mihira]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) subtraction, [Colebrooke]

11) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) the latitude of a planet, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) Pāṭana (पाटन):—[from pāṭa] n. splitting, dividing, tearing up, cutting to pieces, destroying, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

13) Pāṭanā (पाटना):—[from pāṭana > pāṭa] f. a cut, incision, [Naiṣadha-carita]

14) Pātana (पातन):—[from pāt] mf(ī)n. ([from] [Causal]) causing to fall, felling, laying low, striking off or down (with [genitive case] or ifc.), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

15) [v.s. ...] n. the act of causing to fall etc.

16) [v.s. ...] lowering, humbling, [Horace H. Wilson]

17) [v.s. ...] the act of casting (as dice or a glance of the eyes), [Kathāsaritsāgara] (cf. akṣa-)

18) [v.s. ...] (with daṇḍasya) causing the rod to fall, chastising, punishing, [Manu-smṛti]

19) [v.s. ...] (with garbhasya) causing the fall of the fetus or abortion, [Yājñavalkya]

20) [v.s. ...] (with jalaukasām) application of leeches, [Suśruta]

21) [v.s. ...] removing, bringing away, [ib.]

22) [v.s. ...] causing to fall asunder, dividing, [Śaṃkarācārya]

23) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] process to which minerals ([especially] quicksilver) are subjected, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Patana (पतन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Falling, n. A falling; sin, subtraction.

2) Pāṭana (पाटन):—(naṃ) 1. n. A cutting.

3) Pātana (पातन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Falling; causing to fall; felling; nodding.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Patana (पतन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paḍaṇa, Pāḍaṇa, Pāḍaṇā, Phālaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Patana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Paṭanā (पटना) [Also spelled patna]:—(v) to be covered; to be filled (with); to be quits, to be repaid in full (as [karja]); to be taken in; to be veered round, to yield to persuasion; to live in harmony.

2) Paṭānā (पटाना):—(v) to settle; to conclude; to persuade; to cause to veer round, to bring round; to repay in full; to seduce.

3) Patana (पतन) [Also spelled patan]:—(nm) fall, downfall; decline; degeneration; ~[śīla] tending to fall, degenerating/falling, decaying; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf).

4) Pāṭana (पाटन) [Also spelled patan]:—(nf) city; roof, roofing over a building.

5) Pāṭanā (पाटना) [Also spelled patna]:—(v) to dump; to roof; to cover with earth etc.; to fill; to heap, to pile up; to bridge, to connect.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Patana (ಪತನ):—

1) [noun] a coming down suddenly from a standing or sitting position; a fall.

2) [noun] a hanging down or a part hanging down.

3) [noun] a decline in one’s richness, social status, moral values, etc.; deterioration; decay; decadence.

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Pāṭana (ಪಾಟನ):—[noun] the act of cutting, splitting, dividing or tearing up.

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Pātana (ಪಾತನ):—

1) [noun] = ಪಾತಕ [pataka]2 - 1.

2) [noun] the act of creating a depression (on a surface).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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