Anka, Aṅka: 19 definitions



Anka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Aṅka (अङ्क) refers to one of the “ten kinds of dramatic plays” (daśarūpa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 20. It is also known by the name Utsṛṣṭikāṅka. These different types of dramas are considered to have originated from the various styles (vṛtti), which is discussed in chapter 22 of the same work. The Aṅka type of drama includes the following styles: Verbal (bhāratī), Grand (sāttvatī) and Energetic (ārabhaṭī).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Martial Arts Traditions: A Survey

Aṅka (अङ्क) according to ancient Indian martial arts (dhanurveda).—A person fighting another who carried the same weapon was known as aṅka. Aṅkavinoda, duel or combats, were also popular martial sports in India. The fights in this category were at times fierce, leading to bloodshed.

Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Aṅka (अङ्क) refers to “pictorial designs” (e.g., on a sword) and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 16.20. [In connection with the word aṅkakāra, Viśvaprakāśa says that aṅka means citrayuddha].

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Aṅka (अङ्क) refers to a species of Anudiśa gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition where the Anudiśa heaven is one of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Aṅka (अङ्क) or Aṃka is one of the nine anudiśas: a subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

The nava-anudiśas (e.g., Aṅka) are called so because they have nine heavenly abodes one in each of the eight directions. Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Aṅka.—(IA 19), a name, appelation or biruda. (IE 7-1-12; CII 4), ‘nine’. Cf. aṅke, aṅkena, aṅkataḥ (IA 15), ‘in figures’. Cf. aṅka, abbreviation of Telugu-Kannaḍa aṅkakāṟa; same as Sanskrit gaṇḍa (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, p. 270), ‘a hero, champion or warrior’. See aṅkakāra. Note: aṅka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

aṅka : (m.) 1. the lap; 2. a mark; sign; 3. a numerical figure.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Aṅka, 2 (Vedic aṅka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. aṅkura & aṅkusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Lat. uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle) (a.) a hook J.V, 322 = VI, 218 (v. l. BB aṅga). — (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (aṅkena vahati) Vin.II, 114; D.II, 19 (aṅke pariharati to hold on one’s lap or carry on one’s hips), 20 (nisīdāpeti seat on one’s lap); M.II, 97 (aṅkena vahitvā); Th.1, 299; J.I, 262 (aṅke nisinna); II, 127, 236; VI, 513; DhA.I, 170 (aṅkena vahitvā) PvA.17 (nisīdāpeti). (Page 6)

2) Aṅka, 1 = aṅga, sign, mark, brand Miln.79; °karana branding J.IV, 366, 375. See also aṅketi. (Page 6)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

aṅka (अंक).—m (S) A number, figure, cypher, an arithmetical sign. 2 A mark or sign gen. 3 S An act of a play. 4 The thigh: also the haunch. (Ital. anca.) 5 (Commonly āṅkha q. v.) A temple of the head.

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āṅka (आंक).—m (aṅka S) A figure or number; an arithmetical sign.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

aṅka (अंक).—m A figure; a mark. The thigh. An act of a play.

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āṅka (आंक).—m A figure or number.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Aṅka (अङ्क).—1 A. (aṅkate) To move in a curve. -1 U. (aṅkayati-te aṅkayitum)

1) To mark, stamp; हेमपादाङ्कितायां पीठिकायम् (hemapādāṅkitāyāṃ pīṭhikāyam) K. 192; स्वनामधेयाङ्कित (svanāmadheyāṅkita) Ś.4. stamped with his name; नयनोद- बिन्दुभिः अङ्कितं स्तनांशुकम् (nayanoda- bindubhiḥ aṅkitaṃ stanāṃśukam) V.4.7. so भुजे शचीपत्रविशेषकाङ्किते (bhuje śacīpatraviśeṣakāṅkite) R.3.55.6.

2) To enumerate, count.

3) To brand, stain, stigmatize; तत्को नाम गुणो भवेत्सुगुणिनां यो दुर्जनैर्नाङ्कितः (tatko nāma guṇo bhavetsuguṇināṃ yo durjanairnāṅkitaḥ) Bh.2.54 branded, censured, condemned; वस्त्रेण वेष्टयित्वा °तं शिरः (vastreṇa veṣṭayitvā °taṃ śiraḥ) Ks.13.152 branded head.

4) To walk, stalk, go.

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Aṅka (अङ्क).—[aṅk kartari karaṇe vā ac]

1) The lap (n. also); अङ्काद्ययावङ्कमुदीरिताशीः (aṅkādyayāvaṅkamudīritāśīḥ) Ku.7.5. passed from lap to lap.

2) A mark, sign; अलक्तकाङ्कां पदवीं ततान (alaktakāṅkāṃ padavīṃ tatāna) R.7.7; पदङ्क्तिरलक्ताङ्का (padaṅktiralaktāṅkā) Rām.; रतिवलयपदाङ्के कण्ठे (rativalayapadāṅke kaṇṭhe) Ku.2.64. marked with the signs or traces &c.: मद्गोत्राङ्कं गेयम् (madgotrāṅkaṃ geyam) Me.86, a stain, spot, stigma, brand; इन्दोः किरणेष्विवाङ्कः (indoḥ kiraṇeṣvivāṅkaḥ) Ku.1.3; कट्यां कृताङ्को निर्वास्यः (kaṭyāṃ kṛtāṅko nirvāsyaḥ) Ms.8.281.

3) A numerical figure; a number; the number 9.

4) A side flank; proximity, reach (connected with 1 above); समुत्सुकेवाङ्कमुपैति सिद्धिः (samutsukevāṅkamupaiti siddhiḥ) Ki.3. 4; प्रेम्णोपकण्ठं मुहुरङ्कभाजो रत्नावलीरम्बुधिराबबन्ध (premṇopakaṇṭhaṃ muhuraṅkabhājo ratnāvalīrambudhirābabandha) Śi.3.36; सिंहो जम्बुकमङ्कमागतमपि त्यक्त्वा निहन्ति द्विपम् (siṃho jambukamaṅkamāgatamapi tyaktvā nihanti dvipam) Bh.2.3; Ki. 17.64, See°आगत (āgata) below.

5) An act of a drama, for its nature &c., See S. D.278.

6) A hook or curved instrument.

7) A species of dramatic composition, one of the ten varieties of रूपक (rūpaka), See S. D.519.

8) An ornament (bhūṣā).

9) A sham fight, military show (citrayuddha).

1) A coefficient.

11) A place; नानाङ्क- चिह्नैर्नवहेमभाण्डैः (nānāṅka- cihnairnavahemabhāṇḍaiḥ) (turaṅgaiḥ)

12) A sin, misdeed.

13) A line, curved line; a curve or bend generally, the bend in the arm.

14) The body.

15) A mountain. अङ्कः स्थानान्तिकक्रोडभूषणोत्संगलक्ष्मसु । मन्तो नाटकविच्छेदे चित्रयुद्धे च रूपके (aṅkaḥ sthānāntikakroḍabhūṣaṇotsaṃgalakṣmasu | manto nāṭakavicchede citrayuddhe ca rūpake) || Nm. [cf. L. uncus; Gr. ogkos]

Derivable forms: aṅkaḥ (अङ्कः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aṅka (अङ्क).—n. (ṅkaṃ) 1. A mark or spot. 2. The flank or part above the hips. 3. A species of dramatic entertainment. 4. The act of a play, &c. 5. Fault, offence. 6. A line, a stroke. 7. Mimic war or conflict. 8. ornament, decoration. 9. Place, abode. 10. Proximity, proximate. 11. A chapter or section. 12. The body. 13. A cypher, an arithmetical sign. E. añca to go, and the Unadi affix ka; or aṅka to stain or spot, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aṅka (अङ्क).—i. e. añc + a, m. 1. A hook. 2. A mark. 3. A cipher. 4. An act in a drama. 5. The flank. 6. The lap. 7. The arm, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 147. 8. Proximity, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 23.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aṅka (अङ्क).—[masculine] hook (poss. aṅkin), bend, flank, [especially] of the body, groin, lap, side, proximity; mark, sign; act of a play.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Aṅka (अङ्क):—[from aṅk] m. a hook, [Ṛg-veda i, 162, 13, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] part of a chariot (used in the dual), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] a curve

4) [v.s. ...] the curve in the human, especially the female, figure above the hip (where infants sitting astride are carried by mothers, hence often = ‘breast’ or ‘lap’)

5) [v.s. ...] the side or flank

6) [v.s. ...] the body

7) [v.s. ...] proximity, place

8) [v.s. ...] the bend in the arm

9) [v.s. ...] any hook or crooked instrument

10) [v.s. ...] a curved line

11) [v.s. ...] a numerical figure, cipher, a figure or mark branded on an animal, etc.

12) [v.s. ...] any mark, line, stroke, ornament, stigma

13) [v.s. ...] a number

14) [v.s. ...] the numbers one and nine

15) [v.s. ...] a co-efficient

16) [v.s. ...] an act of a drama

17) [v.s. ...] a drama

18) [v.s. ...] a military show or sham-fight

19) [v.s. ...] a misdeed, a sin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] a kind of regnal year (used in Orissa and usually spoken of as Onko year

21) [v.s. ...] the peculiarity of it is that in counting the years of the reign of a king certain numbers are omitted, thus, [according to] to one system, the numbers ending with 6 or 0, excepting 10, are dropped, so that the sequence of the years would be-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21 etc.)

22) [v.s. ...] aṅka cf. [Greek] ἀγκάς, ἀγκάλη, , ὄγκος, and [Latin] uncus.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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