Pratijna, Pratijñā, Prātijña: 21 definitions


Pratijna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pratigya.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—(or प्रतिज्ञान (pratijñāna)) also; hypothesis, express tenet in a Sastra or convention: cf. आडः स्थः प्रतिज्ञान इति वक्तव्यम् । अस्ति सकारमातिष्ठते । आगमौ गुणवृद्धी अतिष्ठते । विकारौ गुणवृद्धीं आतिष्ठते (āḍaḥ sthaḥ pratijñāna iti vaktavyam | asti sakāramātiṣṭhate | āgamau guṇavṛddhī atiṣṭhate | vikārau guṇavṛddhīṃ ātiṣṭhate) Mf.Bh. on P.I.3. 22; cf also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः (pratijñānunāsikyāḥ pāṇinīyāḥ) Kas. on P.I.3.2,VII.1.1, प्रतिज्ञास्वरिताः पाणिनीयाः (pratijñāsvaritāḥ pāṇinīyāḥ) Kas.on P.I.3.11.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pratijna in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा, “proposition”) refers to the first of five stages of syllogism (parārthānumāna) also known as “anumāna (inference) intended for another”, according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa’s Tarkasaṃgraha. Anumāna is the second of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Parārtha-anumāna (syllogism) consists of five members. The first member is pratijñā which denotes the proposition set down for establishing something.

As for example:

  1. The mountain is fiery (pratijñā),
  2. Because it has smoke (hetu),
  3. Whatever has smoke is fiery. For example, a kitchen (udāharaṇa),
  4. The mountain has smoke which is invariably concomitant with fire (upanaya),
  5. Hence, the mountain is fiery (nigamana),
Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा):—The statement that has to be proved; the 1st step of inference and re-establishment of truth

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) refers to a “promise” [?], according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(A true practitioner) is a hero (vīra) who exerts himself and is courageous. [...] He is always content and is loved by the Yoginīs. He is free of attachment, aversion and ego. He is loved by his (spiritual) clan. He is wise and he observes the Rules. He is the joy of those who are devoted to him and always does what he promises to do [i.e., pratijñāpratijñārūḍhakṛt]. He who has these characteristics is an accomplished soul (siddha) (already) in his previous life. Otherwise he is not a Siddha and his tradition is not Kaula”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pratijna in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) refers to a “vow”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.23 (“Attempt of Himavat to dissuade Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī said to her parents and others: “O father, O mother, O kinsmen, have all of you forgotten what I had said formerly. Even now listen to my vow [i.e., pratijñā]. This great God by whom Kāma has been burnt in fury is detached (you say). I shall propitiate him, by means of penance. He is favourably disposed to His devotees. All of you please go to your respective abodes with delight. He will certainly be pleased. You need not be anxious over. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) refers to a “promise”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “The great vehicle (mahāyāna) is made with four wheels (cakra), namely with the means of attraction, the spokes (ara) are well fitted as the roots of good have been transformed with intention, [...] is unbreakable because it is firm as a diamond (vajra-dṛḍha), is unchangeable due to the promise (pratijñā) based on the firmness of the highest intention, is controlled and well-grasped by a charioteer (sārathi), is always led by the thought of awakening, runs smoothly as it is attuned to the fulfilling of the qualities of vows, obtains the light (āloka-labdha) of divine sight in the great view of ten directions, [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) refers to “(making) a vow” (in the presence of the Tathāgata), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the afflicted Nāgas said to Bhagavān]: “[...] Then, O Bhagavān, the hostile Nāgas become agitated and destroy crops. [...] However, O Bhagavān, from today on I make a vow (pratijñā) in the presence of the Tathāgata. Wherever this spell-holder king will circulate, there, O Bhagavān, the Nāgas will not make calamities again. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jainworld: Jain History

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) (Prakrit—Paiṇṇā) refers to one of the six divisions of the canonical texts of the Svetambaras in Jainism.—The Paiṇṇās are ten in number. [...]

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—f (S) Promise, agreement, engagement. 2 A bet or wager. 3 In law. Solemn affirmation: in contrad. from Oath. 4 In logic. The proposition; the asssertion to be proved.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—f Promise. A bet or wager. Solemn affirmation. The proposition.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—9 Ā.

1) To promise, declare solemnly, engage, agree, vow; हरचापारोपणेन कन्यादानं प्रतिजानीते (haracāpāropaṇena kanyādānaṃ pratijānīte) P. R.4.

2) To state, affirm, assert, maintain, allege.

3) To bring forward or introduce, adduce.

4) To admit, own, acknowledge.

5) To confirm.

6) To approve, consent.

7) To observe, learn, discern.

8) To propose.

9) To remember with regret.

1) To become aware of; कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति (kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 9.31.

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Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—

1) Admission, acknowledgment.

2) A vow, promise, engagement, solemn declaration; दैवात् तीर्णप्रतिज्ञः (daivāt tīrṇapratijñaḥ) Mu.4.12; तीर्त्वा जवेनैव नितान्तदुस्तरां नदीं प्रतिज्ञामिव तां गरीयसीम् (tīrtvā javenaiva nitāntadustarāṃ nadīṃ pratijñāmiva tāṃ garīyasīm) Śiśupālavadha 12.74.

3) A statement, assertion, declaration, affirmation.

4) (In Nyāya phil.) A proposition, statement of the proposition to be proved, the first member of the five-membered Indian syllogism; साध्यनिर्देशः प्रतिज्ञा यथा पर्वतो वह्निमान् (sādhyanirdeśaḥ pratijñā yathā parvato vahnimān) Gautamasūtram; see under न्याय (nyāya); (parvato vahnimān is the usual instance).

5) (In Law) A plaint, an indictment.

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Prātijña (प्रातिज्ञ).—The subject under discussion.

Derivable forms: prātijñam (प्रातिज्ञम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—(= Pali paṭiññā, ifc. [bahuvrīhi] -paṭiñña, in samaṇa-pa°…brahmacāri-pa° Vin. ii.236.25, same phrase as below), claim, profession (to be something, with im- plication of falseness and presumption; compare Sanskrit jñā with prati in [Boehtlingk and Roth], meaning 4), only noted in composition, pratijñā-bhikṣu Mahāvyutpatti 8751, a monk by (his own) claim (only), Tibetan here and below khas ḥche ba, promise with the mouth; other- wise only at end of cpds., especially in cliché (as in Pali above) aśramaṇaḥ śramaṇapratijñaḥ, abrahmacārī brahmacāri- pratijñaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 9143 and 9144 (text °cārī-prati°, both edd.; Mironov °pratijñāḥ both times, as if pl.!); Śikṣāsamuccaya 67.20; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.50.8; plural thruout, same phrase, Śikṣāsamuccaya 64.4-5; ṣaṭ śāstṛpratijñāḥ, the six false, self-alleged teachers, Pūraṇa (q.v.) etc., Avadāna-śataka ii.134.10; ṣaṭ śāstāra-pratijñā(ḥ) (id.) Mahāvastu iii.383.15; gen. ṣaṇṇāṃ śāstārapratijñānāṃ 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—f.

(-jñā) 1. Promise, agreement, engagement, assent. 2. Admission, acknowledgment. 3. Declaration, affirmation. 4. (In logic,) The proposition, the assertion to be proved. 5. A plaint, (in law.) E. prati mutually, jñā to know, aff. aṅ .

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Prātijña (प्रातिज्ञ).—n.

(-jñaṃ) The topic under discussion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—[prati-jñā], f. 1. Promise, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 13, 31. 2. Assent, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 4, 40 Gorr. 3. Agreement, Mahābhārata 4, 177. 4. Assertion, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 23, 12 v. r.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—[feminine] = seq. + plaint, indictment ([jurisprudence]).

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Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा).—acknowledge, recognize, approve, consent, agree, promise ([dative], [genetive], [rarely] [locative] of [person or personal], [accusative] of th.); [Middle] state, affirm, answer; perceive, observe, become aware of.

Pratijñā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms prati and jñā (ज्ञा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा):—[=prati-√jñā] a [Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada] -jānāti, -jānīte, to admit, own, acknowledge, acquiesce in, consent to, approve, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata];

—to promise (with [genitive case] [dative case] or [locative case] of [person], and [accusative] with or without prati, or [dative case] of thing, also with [infinitive mood] [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.; with vākyam and [genitive case] ‘to promise fulfilment of a person’s word’ [Mahābhārata]; with satyam ‘to promise verily or truly’ [ib.]);

— ([Ātmanepada]) to confirm, assert, answer in the affirmative, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to maintain, assert, allege, state, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (śabdaṃ nityatvena, ‘to assert the eternity of sound’ [Pāṇini 1-3, 22 [Scholiast or Commentator]]);

— ([Ātmanepada]) to bring forward or introduce (a topic), [Nyāyamālā-vistara [Scholiast or Commentator]];

—to perceive, notice, learn, become aware of [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa];

—to remember sorrowfully (only in this sense [Parasmaipada] by, [Pāṇini 1-3, 46]; but really [Ātmanepada] [Mahābhārata xii, 8438]).

2) Pratijña (प्रतिज्ञ):—[=prati-jña] [from prati-jñā] mfn. acknowledging (ifc.), [Vajracchedikā]

3) Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा):—[=prati-jñā] [from prati-jña] b f. See below.

4) [from prati-jñā] c f. admission, acknowledgment, assent, agreement, promise, vow, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a statement, assertion, declaration, affirmation, [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] (in logic) a proposition, the assertion or proposition to be proved, the first member or avyaya of the five-membered Nyāya syllogism, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 61]

7) [v.s. ...] (in law) a plaint, complaint, indictment, prosecution, [Yājñavalkya]

8) Prātijña (प्रातिज्ञ):—[=prāti-jña] [from prāti] n. ([from] -jñā) the subject under discussion, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा):—[prati-jñā] (jñā) 1. f. Promise; acknowledgment; proposition.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paiṇṇā, Paḍiyā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pratijna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratijna in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pratijñā (प्रतिज्ञा) [Also spelled pratigya]:—(nf) a pledge, vow; promise; enunciation; ~[kartā] a promiser, one who makes a pledge or takes a vow; ~[] a promisee; one to whom a pledge is made; -[patra] a covenant, written pledge; bond; -[pālana] carrying out of a pledge, implementation of/adherence to a vow; -[bhaṃga] violation of a pledge, going back on one’s vow; breach of a promise.

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