Vritti, Vṛṭṭi, Vṛtti: 20 definitions



Vritti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Vṛṭṭi and Vṛtti can be transliterated into English as Vrtti or Vritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Vratti.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति) refers to “styles”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are four styles defined:

  1. the Verbal (bhāratī),
  2. the Grand (sāttvatī),
  3. the Graceful (kaiśikī)
  4. and the Energetic (ārabhaṭī)

2) Vṛtti (वृत्ति, “movement”) refers to “having a simple movement” and represents one of the three types of gativṛtti (styles of procedure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Gativṛtti gives quality to give quality to the instrumental music and songs and is influenced by tāla (time-measure), laya (tempo), gīti (rhythm), yati and grahamārga (way of beginning).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “in the vṛtti the Sambhāvitā is the gīti, the instrumental music is * *, the unit of time-measure is two kalās, the tempo (laya) is medium (madhya), the yati is Srotogatā, and the Sama graha-mārgas are preponderant”.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

To understand the technique of all the ten varieties of play (rūpa) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra, one must have knowledge of the Styles (vṛtti) of dramatic production.

These being four in number are as follows:

  1. the Verbal (bhāratī),
  2. the Grand (sāttvatī),
  3. the Energetic (ārabhaṭī)
  4. and the Graceful (kaiśikī)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Manblunder: Sri Rudram 4.1-6

Vṛtti means mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviour, moral conduct, etc. Different people follow different codes of conduct. Rudra pervades in everyone, who follow different codes of conduct and also He is the chief of different groups of people and salutations to Him.

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context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: WikiPedia: Yoga

The concept of vritti is central to the main definition of yoga given in Sutra 1.2 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: "yoga chitta vritti nirodha". I.K. Taimni translates this as: "Yoga is the silencing of the modifications of the mind". Central to the definition of yoga is the concept of vritti as a modification of the mind, which it is the intent of yogic practices to silence.

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context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—Means of living by ṛta, amṛta, mṛta pramṛta and satyāmṛta or satyānṛta; never by śvavṛtti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 11. 18-20.

1b) Transformation of Jayādevas in the seven epochs of Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 4. 12, 37.
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context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—Treatment, practice of pronunciation;

2) Vṛtti.—Conversion of one phonetic element into another; cf. R.Pr.I.95;

3) Vṛtti.—Position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṃhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति (padavṛtti); आन्पदाः पदवृत्तयः (ānpadāḥ padavṛttayaḥ) R.Pr. IV.17;

4) Vṛtti.—Modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य (druta, madhya) and विलम्बित (vilambita) based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; cf. M. Bh. on P. I.4. 109, Vārt. 4; also I.1.69 Vārt.11;

5) Vṛtti.—Nature; cf. गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् (gurvakṣarāṇāṃ guruvṛtti sarvam) R.Pr.XVIII.33;

6) Vṛtti.—Interpretation of a word;

7) Vṛtti.—Verbal or nominal form of a root; cf. अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन (arthanityaḥ parīkṣeta kenacid vṛttisāmānyena) Nir.II.1;

8) Vṛtti.—Mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf. का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः । (kā punarvṛttiḥ | vṛttiḥ śāstrapravṛttiḥ |) M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेशः (vṛttisamavāyārtha upadeśaḥ) Vārttika 10;

9) Vṛtti.—Manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था (jahatsvārthā) and अजहत्स्वार्था (ajahatsvārthā), but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था (jahadajahatsvārthā);

10) Vṛtti.—A compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; cf. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धि-तसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः । वृत्त्यर्था-वबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (parārthābhidhānaṃ vṛttiḥ | kṛttaddhi-tasamāsaikadeśadhāturūpāḥ pañca vṛttayaḥ | vṛttyarthā-vabodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ) S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa;

11) Vṛtti.—Interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary; cf. वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु (vṛttau bhāṣye tathā nāmadhātupārāyaṇādiṣu); introductory stanza in the Kāśikā. Later on, when many commentary works were written, the word वृत्ति (vṛtti) was differentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका (bhāṣya, vārtika, ṭīkā, cūrṇi, niryukti, ṭippaṇī, pañjikā) and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; cf. तथा च वृत्तिकृत् (tathā ca vṛttikṛt) often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Vṛtti (वृत्ति) refers to:—Function, activity. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

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context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—[vṛttiḥ] Path to be adopted. One should adopt only such of the means of livelihood as do not clash with virtous path.

2) [vṛttiḥ] It means round, circular, continued, routine works , daily regimen, regimen which is practised and adopted daily which may or may not responsible for good health.

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context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Vritti, literally "whirlpool", is a technical term in yoga meant to indicate that the contents of mental awareness are disturbances in the medium of consciousness. Vritti can be taken as a catch-all term for any content in consciousness, where consciousness is regarded as a medium or container for any possible mental content. The scope of the idea is very broad, referring not only to thoughts and perceptions experienced in a normal waking state, but also to all super-physical perceptions, such as dreams or in any altered state of consciousness.

In the context of Hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions. Hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. The expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes.

Modern science: According to some modern descriptions, a vritti triggers the glands associated with that particular propensity to secrete the corresponding hormones. Usually this is done subconsciously, although yogis endeavour to control and master the expression of their vritties, through the practice of asanas (postures) and sadhana (meditation), leading to the attainment of siddhis (occult powers), and giving clear passage for the kundalini to rise.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vṛtti.—(SITI), means; livelihood, occupation; grant of land for one's livelihood. (SII 3), land granted for service. (EI 17, 31; CITD), share; share in a village granted to a Brāhmaṇa as a free gift. Note: vṛtti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f (S) Course, conduct, procedure, practice. 2 A way, manner, line, course of acting or subsisting. 3 A profession, practice, occupation (as a means of subsistence); any office, situation, or business as a livelihood or maintenance. 4 Currency (as of a phrase or word in any particular sense); constant occurrence, application, or use. 5 A state or an affection of the mind; any particular working or modification of its being; as wrathful emotion, pitiful or tender yearnings, the excitation of lust or cupidity, the commotion or agitation under fear, hope, anxiety &c. Some compounds are udāsa -audārya -khinna -tāmasa -prasanna -glāna -śānta- śōka-santōṣa-saumya-harṣa-hāsya-vṛtti. 6 Dramatic representation or composition, considered to be of four sorts; viz. kauśikī, bhāratī, sātvatī, ārabhatī. 7 Gloss or comment: also explanation or exposition. See ṭīkā. 8 A circle; or the circumference of a circle.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f An affection of the mind. Con- duct. A profession.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f. [vṛt-ktin]

1) Being, existence.

2) Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति (viruddhavṛtti, vipakṣavṛtti) &c.

3) State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् (trayīṃ tisro vṛttīstribhuvanamatho trīnapi surān) Śiva-mahimna 27.

4) Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः (śataistamakṣṇāmanimeṣavṛttibhiḥ) R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (utpakṣmaṇornayanayoruparuddhavṛttim) (bāṣpam) Ś.4. 15.

5) Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः (vinayavāritavṛttiḥ) Ś.2.12.

6) Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने (kuru priyasakhīvṛttaṃ sapatnījane) Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः (vaitasī vṛttiḥ, bakavṛttiḥ) &c.

7) Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः (āśramāṃśca yathāsaṃkhyamasṛjat sahavṛttibhiḥ) Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् (vārdhake munivṛttīnām) R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126.

3) Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; oft. in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः (siṃhatvamaṅkāgatasattvavṛttiḥ) R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता (svayaṃ- viśīrṇadrumaparṇavṛttitā) Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.)

9) Wages, hire.

10) Cause of activity.

11) Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः (brahmacāriṇaḥ)... आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः (ācārye prāṇāntikī ca vṛttiḥ) Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् (triṣvapramādyanneteṣu trīllaṃोkāṃśca vijeṣyasi | pitṛvṛtyā tvimaṃ lokaṃ mātṛvṛttyā tathā param) || Mb.12.18.8.

12) Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना (sadvṛttiḥ sannibandhanā) Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः (kāśikāvṛttiḥ) &c.

13) Revolving, turning round.

14) The circumference of a wheel or circle.

15) (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation.

16) The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three abhidhā, lakṣaṇā and vyañjanā q. q. v. v.); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् (bhramayata bhāratī ta uruvṛttibhirukthajaḍān) Bhāg.1.87.36.

17) A style in composition (these are four; kau(kai)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती (śikī, bhāratī, sātvatī) and आरभटी (ārabhaṭī) q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः (śṛṅgāre kaiśikī vīre sātvatyārabhaṭī punaḥ | rase raudre ca bībhatse vṛttiḥ sarvatra bhāratī | catasro vṛttayo hyetāḥ sarvanāṭhyasya mātṛkāḥ) || S. D.

18) Customary allowance.

19) Manner of thinking.

Derivable forms: vṛttiḥ (वृत्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f.

(-ttiḥ) 1. Livelihood, profession, means of acquiring subsistence. 2. Style or character of dramatic representation, or composition, considered to be of four sorts, viz:—Kausiki, which exhibits love or passion; Bharati, which appears to implies declamation especially; Satwati, of which the subject is virtue and heroism, and Arbhatti, which treats of magic, delusion, wrath and battle. 3. Style in general. 4. Gloss, comment, explanation, exposition. 5. Being, abiding, staying. 6. Seizing, stopping, withholding, restraining. 7. Circumference of a wheel or circle. 8. State, condition. 9. Behaviour, action, course of action, conduct. 10. Action, engagement, operation. 11. Respectful treatment. 12. Wages, hire. 13. Revolving, turning round. 14. A complex formation, (in gram.) 15. The connotative power of a word; (these are three, viz:—abhidhā, lakṣaṇā and vyaṃjanā .) E. vṛt to be, aff. ktin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—[vṛt + ti], f. 1. The circumference of a circle. 2. Staying, being, abiding. 3. State, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 18 (vaitasīṃ vṛttim ā car, To behave like a reed). 4. Livelihood, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 141; maintenance, 9, 74. 5. An agent of activity, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 11, 9; activity, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 215, 13. 6. Means of subsistence, [Pañcatantra] 6, 5; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 113; wages, hire, [Pañcatantra] 229, 6. 7. Behaviour, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 206; [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 100 (cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 610). 8. Respectful treatment, Mahābhārata 12, 3996, in Chr. p. 94. 9. Explanation, gloss. 10. Style. 11. Style of dramatic composition.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—[feminine] turning, rolling; being, existence, livelihood, maintenance ([accusative] [with] kṛ or kalp & [instrumental] live on or by); mode of being or acting, conduct, behaviour, [especially] good conduct or respectful behaviour towards ([genetive] or —°); devotion to or pursuit of ([locative] or —°); usage, practice, rule; nature, character, style ([drama]); action, activity, function or force of a word; commentary on a Sūtra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—[from vṛt] f. rolling, rolling down (of tears), [Śakuntalā iv, 5; 14]

2) [v.s. ...] mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviour, ([especially]) moral conduct, kind or respectful behaviour or treatment (also [varia lectio] for vṛtta), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] general usage, common practice, rule, [Prātiśākhya]

4) [v.s. ...] mode of being, nature, kind, character, disposition, [ib.; Kāvya literature]

5) [v.s. ...] state, condition, [Tattvasamāsa]

6) [v.s. ...] being, existing, occurring or appearing in ([locative case] or [compound]), [Lāṭyāyana; Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] practice, business, devotion or addiction to, occupation with (often ifc. ‘employed about’, ‘engaged in’, ‘practising’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] profession, maintenance, subsistence, livelihood (often ifc.; cf. uñcha-v; vṛttiṃ-√kṛ or √kḷp [Causal] with [instrumental case], ‘to live on or by’; with [genitive case], ‘to get or procure a maintenance for’; only certain means of subsistence are allowed to a Brāhman See, [Manu-smṛti iv, 4-6]), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] wages, hire, [Pañcav.]

10) [v.s. ...] working, activity, function, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Kapila; Vedāntasāra] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] mood (of the mind), [Vedāntasāra]

12) [v.s. ...] the use or occurrence of a word in a [particular] sense ([locative case]), its function or force, [Pāṇini; Sāhitya-darpaṇa [Scholiast or Commentator] on Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra] etc.

13) [v.s. ...] mode or measure of pronunciation and recitation (said to be threefold, viz. vilambitā, madhyamā, and drutā q.v.), [Prātiśākhya]

14) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a complex formation which requires explanation or separation into its parts (as distinguished from a simple or uncompounded form e.g. any word formed with Kṛt or Taddhita affixes, any compound and even duals and plurals which are regarded as Dvandva compounds, of which only one member is left, and all derivative verbs such as desideratives etc.)

15) [v.s. ...] style of composition ([especially] [dramatic language] style, said to be of four kinds, viz. 1. Kaiśikī, 2. Bhāratī 3. Sātvatī, 4. Ārabhaṭī, qq.vv.; the first three are described as suited to the Śṛṅgāra, Vīra, and Raudra Rasas respectively, the last as common to all), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) alliteration, frequent repetition of the same consonant (five kinds enumerated, [scilicet] madhurā, prauḍhā, puruṣā, lalitā, and bhadrā), [Daśarūpa, [Introduction]]

17) [v.s. ...] final rhythm of a verse (= or [varia lectio] for vṛtta q.v.)

18) [v.s. ...] a commentary, comment, gloss, explanation ([especially] on a Sūtra)

19) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of a Rudra, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—(ttiḥ) 2. f. Employment, support; dramatic composition; comment; being; staying; seizure; circumference.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—(von vart) f.

1) das Rollen (von Thränen): stambhitabāṣpa [Śākuntala 81, 3.] uparuddhavṛttiṃ bāṣpam [90]; vgl. aśrūṇi vartay Thränen vergiessen unter vart caus. 1). —

2) Art und Weise zu sein, zu thun, zu leben, Verfahren, Benehmen: āhitāgni [LĀṬY. 10, 18, 11.] traividya [8, 6, 29.] vaiśya [Śāṅkhāyana’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 4, 11.] eṣoditā gṛhasthasya vṛttirviprasya [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 259.] prabalatamasāmevaṃprāyāḥ śubheṣu hi vṛttayaḥ [Śākuntala 183.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 327.] vaśināṃ hi paraparigrahasaṃśleṣaparāṅmukhī vṛttiḥ [Spr. (II) 1806.] saritāmiva nārīṇāṃ vṛttirnimnānusāriṇī [(I) 2155. 2887. 5369.] kiṃ dattajīvikāpi tvamīdṛśīṃ vṛtimāśritā [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 22.] pramadādhyuṣitāṃ vṛttiṃ sītā kaccinna vartate [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 1, 7.] tasyaivaṃ vartamānasya pūrveṣāṃ vṛttimanvaham [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 16, 18.] kāṃ vṛttiṃ vartayatyasau [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 88, 3.] tāṃ vṛttimanuvartasva [4, 31, 7.] vayobuddhyarthavāgveṣaśrutābhijanakarmaṇām . ācaretsadṛśīṃ vṛttimajihmāmaśaṭhāṃ tathā .. [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 123.] śiṣyavṛttiṃ samāpannāḥ [Mahābhārata 15, 40.] indrastayoḥ svecchāvṛttiṃ na sahate [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 33, 8.] varteta yāmyayā vṛttyā [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 173.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 109, 8.] kayā vṛttyā vartitaṃ te paraṃ vayaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 6, 3.] pūrvarājarṣivṛttyā [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 23, 27.] nāgarikavṛttyā saṃjñāpayainām [Śākuntala 60, 2.] pracchannavṛttyā [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 34, 10.] madhyāṃ vṛttiṃ samāśrayet [Spr. 2252.] vyapanayatu sa vastāmasīṃ vṛttimīśaṃḥ [Mālavikāgnimitra 1.] āsurīṃ vṛttimāśritya [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 26, 5.] āśrayedvaitasīṃ vṛttiṃ na bhaujaṃgīṃ kathaṃ ca na [Spr. 3175.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 5, 6.] saiṃhīṃ vṛttimupāśritaḥ [Spr. 2757.] Verfahren —, Benehmen gegen Jmd; mit loc.: vidyāguruṣvetadeva nityā vṛttiḥ [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 206.] ripau [Spr. (II) 206.] [Raghuvaṃśa 10, 30] [?(pl.). Mālavikāgnimitra 9, 2.] piturbhaginyāṃ mātṛvadvṛttimātiṣṭhet [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 133.] gurorgurau saṃnihite guruvadvṛttimācaret [205. 247.] śreyassu guruvadvṛttiṃ nityameva samācaret [207.] samāṃ vṛttimavartanta tayoḥ [Mahābhārata 15, 9.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 44, 5. 58, 17. fg. 73, 8. 104, 19 (112, 23 Gorresio).] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 75, 25. 3, 1, 10. 4, 17, 52.] kuru priyasakhīvṛttiṃ sapatnījane [Śākuntala 93.] am Ende eines adj. comp.: tadviparīta [Raghuvaṃśa 2, 53.] parādhīna [Meghadūta 8.] āśramaviruddha [Śākuntala 177.] medhyavivikta [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 1, 19.] nāstika [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 150.] vṛṣala . [164.] baka [4, 30.] jyeṣṭha, ajyeṣṭha [9, 110.] muni [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 8.] pataṃga [Spr. 1950.] vetasa, bhujaṃga [3176.] nemi [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 17.] —

3) ein gutes, achtungsvolles, liebevolles Benehmen, ein Gefühl der Achtung und Liebe für Jmd (vgl. gurorgarīyasī vṛttiryā ca śiṣyasya [Mahābhārata 13, 5114]); die Ergänzung im gen. oder im comp. vorangehend: pitṛ, mātṛ [Mahābhārata 12, 3996.] guroḥ [3997.] guru [15, 11.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 30, 36. 90, 20.] sa kauravyaḥ kuśalī tāta bhīṣmo yathāpūrvaṃ vṛttirastyatra kaccit [Mahābhārata 5, 692.] vṛttiḥ = asmāsu snehaḥ [Nīlakaṇṭha] vṛtti v. l. für vṛtta guter Wandel [Spr. (II) 71.] —

4) allgemeiner Gebrauch, Regel [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 4, 12.] [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 1, 8.] —

5) Art und Weise des Verhaltens; Wesen, Natur, Art: saṃdhyakṣarāṇi saṃspṛṣṭavarṇānyekavarṇavadvṛttiḥ [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 1, 40.] āntaryeṇa vṛttiḥ [95.] parokṣaguṇavṛttayaḥ [Spr. (II) 1566.] kusumastabakasyeva dvayī vṛttirmanasvinaḥ . mūrdhni vā sarvalokasya viśīryati vane tha vā .. [1845.] am Ende eines adj. comp.: bhogā bhaṅguravṛttayaḥ [(I) 2071.] guru, laghu [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 18, 33.] —

6) Zustand: sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī [Sânkhya Philosophy 19.fg.] —

7) das Sichbefinden —, Vorkommen —, Erscheinen in, an: atha dharmasya kāmādapakrāntasya kutra vṛttiḥ wo befindet er sich? [Prabodhacandrodaja 64, 4.] am Ende eines adj. comp.: nṛbhirgodhanaiścāpi vanavṛttibhiḥ [Harivaṃśa 4285.] unmārga [Kathāsaritsāgara 22, 239.] samīpa (ed. Bomb. vartin) [Pañcatantra 67, 25.] guṇakarmamātravṛtti asamavāyahetutvam [Bhāṣāpariccheda 22. 26. 164.] nityadravyavṛttayo viśeṣāḥ [TARKAS. 4.] pṛthivījalatejo (rūpa) [13. 54.] parokṣa so v. a. abwesend [Spr. (II) 1566.] —

8) das Vorkommen, Dasein: anuṣṭubhām [LĀṬY. 8, 1, 13. 5, 15.] guṇatvopādhinā sakaladravyavṛttiḥ [SARVADARŚANAS. 105, 5.] ananyathāsiddhakāryaniyatapūrvavṛtti kāraṇam [TARKAS. 21.] pratihatatamo (adhikāra) [Vikramorvaśī 20.] vratāpadeśojjhitagarva (vapus) [53.] —

9) das Obliegen, Hingegebensein (die Ergänzung im loc. oder im comp. vorangehend) [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 3, 38.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 23, 30.] kṣatriyasya jaye vṛttiḥ samāhitā [Mahābhārata 2, 1951.] prāṇairapi hite vṛttiḥ [MAHAVĪRAC. 92, 15.] sāntvadharmārthavṛttibhiḥ [Spr. (II) 1058.] dharma [(I) 5117.] sevāvṛttivid [2799.] rāga [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 27.] adroha [5, 323.] labdhaparipālana [Spr. (II) 1493.] bhojanavṛttiṣu [(I) 1303.] jaghanyaguṇavṛttistha (vgl. jaghanyaguṇavṛttitā [Mahābhārata 14, 999]) [Bhagavadgītā 14, 18.] am Ende eines adj. comp.: śatairakṣṇāmanimeṣavṛttibhiḥ [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 43.] aśakyārambha [Spr. (II) 713.] dhairya [1519.] mauna [2247.] droha [2399.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 257.] karuṇā [Meghadūta 91.] anṛśaṃsa [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 21, 58.] svabāhuṃ vaḥ pratikūlavṛttim [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 16, 6.] —

10) sg. und pl. Lebensunterhalt, Erwerb, Gewerbe, Mittel zum Leben [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 1. 3, 4, 14, 78.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 183.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 864. fg.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 198.] [Medinīkoṣa t. 59.] [Halāyudha 2, 415.] [Vaijayantī] bei [Mallinātha] zu [Śiśupālavadha 2, 112.] Einschiebung nach [Yāska’s Nirukta 6, 5.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 20, 2, 14.] [LĀṬY. 8, 7, 10.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 113. 3, 286] ātmano vṛttimanvicchan [4, 252.] jyāyasī [10, 95.] vṛttimākāṅkṣan [121.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 48. 281.] [Mahābhārata 3, 8452.] asṛjadvṛttimevāgre prajānāṃ hitakāmyayā [13, 3706. 3710.] karṣakāṇāṃ kṛṣirvṛttiḥ paṇyaṃ vipaṇijīvinām . gāvo smākaṃ parā vṛttiḥ [Harivaṃśa 3809.] annārjanopāyā vṛttayaḥ bhaikṣotsṛṣṭayathālabdhābhidhā iti [SARVADARŚANAS. 75, 18. fg. 74, 14.] vipulā [Suśruta 2, 395, 12.] [KĀM. NĪTIS. 2, 19. 21.] yena sādhāraṇī vṛttiḥ sa śatruḥ [Spr. 4453.] vṛttyantarābhāvāt [Kathāsaritsāgara 20, 23.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 6, 34. 12, 35. 41.] vṛttyartham [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 141. 5, 22.] [Spr. 2889.] [Rāmāyaṇa] [Gorresio 2, 32, 22.] hetos [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 11.] ātmavṛttaye [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 29. 216.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 11, 7.] dine dine svarṇaśataṃ dīyate vṛttaye mama [Kathāsaritsāgara 53, 83.] tasya varṣaṃ prati vṛttaye (so ist zu lesen) karabhamekaṃ prayacchati [Pañcatantra 229, 6.] bhaikṣeṇa vratino vṛttiḥ [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 188.] phalaiḥ [Spr. 2959. 5374.] [Śākuntala 171.] rājño vṛttiḥ prajāgopturaviprādvā karādibhiḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 11, 14.] ato nyatamayā vṛttyā jīvan [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 13. 10, 83.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 39.] kayā vṛttyā vartitaṃ vaścaradbhiḥ kṣitimaṇḍalam [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 13, 8.] vṛttyā svabhāvakṛtayā vartamānaḥ [7, 11, 32.] śūdravṛttyāpi vartayet (vaiśyaḥ) [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 98.] liṅgiveṣeṇa yo vṛttimupajīvati [4, 200.] vṛttyupajīvin [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 14, 71.] mayi pañcatvamāpanne kāṃ vṛttiṃ vartayiṣyati [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 63, 30.] kṣatravṛttiṃ vartayet [LĀṬY. 8, 12, 1.] vṛttiṃ samāsthāya [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 2.] vaiśyavṛttimātiṣṭhanbrāhmaṇaḥ [10, 101.] puruṣo yayā vṛttiṃ prapadyate [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 6, 21.] jaghanyo nottamāṃ vṛttimanāpadi bhajennaraḥ [7, 11, 17.] mūlaphalairvṛttiṃ kuruṣva sein Leben unterhalten —, leben von [Spr. 4544.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 4, 126] [?(act.). 20, 143. 56, 75.] vittavatsu kṛpaṇāṃ vṛttiṃ vṛthā mā kṛthāḥ [Spr. 2386.] yaścāsya kurute vṛttim einen Lebensunterhalt gewähren [Mahābhārata 13, 3447.] kena vṛttiṃ kalpayasi wovon ernährst du dich [1, 700.] bhaikṣeṇa [701.] vṛttiṃ dharmyāṃ prakalpayet einen Lebensunterhalt anweisen [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 135. 10, 124. 11, 22.] strīṇāṃ preṣyajanasya ca . pratyahaṃ kalpayedvṛttim [7, 125. 11, 23.] vidhāya vṛttiṃ bhāryāyāḥ [9, 74. fg.] [Suśruta 2, 394, 17.] [Spr. 2504.] [Harivaṃśa 336.] vṛttīnāmeṣa (so die neuere Ausg.) vo dātā bhaviṣyati narādhipaḥ [335.] svadattāṃ paradattāṃ vā brahmavṛttiṃ harecca yaḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10, 64, 39.] dattvā divasavṛttiṃ ca teṣām [Kathāsaritsāgara 38, 32. 36, 80. 53, 84.] vṛttiṃ cāsya pradiṣṭavān [24, 129.] karṣita [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 24. 8, 411.] kālātikramaṇaṃ vṛtteryo na kurvīta bhūpatiḥ so v. a. Sold [Spr. (II) 1697.] vṛtternijāyāḥ kṣatiḥ [(I) 5373.] kṣīṇa [Mahābhārata 13, 3013.] vaikalya [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 85.] bhaṅga [Spr. 5380.] ccheda [KĀM. NĪTIS. 5, 43. 15, 4.] hrāsa [KUSUM. 24, 5.] hutāśa Lebensunterhalt mittels des Feuers, Schmiedehandwerk u. s. w.: jīvanti ye ca hutāśavṛttyā [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 35.] Am Ende eines adj. comp.: kṣīṇa [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 341.] kṣata [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 32, 28.] dharmopārjita [Pañcatantra 6, 5.] dyūta lebend von [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 160.] uñcha [8, 260.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 32, 34.] uñchaśila [KUSUM. 24, 3.] ayācita, kṛṣyādi, sevā 4. vāgurā [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 32.] śaṃstra [12, 45.] go [Harivaṃśa 4123.] mālya [4479.] vanya [Raghuvaṃśa 1, 88. 2, 38] (wo mit der ed. Calc. vṛttiḥ zu lesen ist). payoda [Spr. (II) 914.] ṣaḍaṃśa [(I) 2037.] vārttā [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 11, 15. 11, 23, 6.] dāsa als Knecht seinen Unterhalt findend [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 21, 7.] a Mangel an Mitteln zum Leben, Nahrungssorgen [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 223.] [Spr. (II) 701.fg.] karṣita [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 101.] [Mahābhārata 4, 229.] —

11) Wirkung, Thätigkeit, Function; = pravartana [Medinīkoṣa] = pariṇāma Comm. yathā nirindhano vahniḥ svayonā upaśāmyate . tathā vṛttikṣayāccittaṃ svayonā upaśāmyate .. [MAITRYUP. 6, 34.] [Kapila 2, 31.] indriya [32.] vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ [33.] nirodha [3, 31.] [SĀṂKHYAK. 12. fg. 28. fgg.] [Colebrooke I, 382.] mano navadvāraniṣiddhavṛtti [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 50.] indriyāṇām [73. 7, 64.] [Nīlakaṇṭha 45. 47. 55. 58. 169. 223. 238.] yāgaścittavṛttinirodhaḥ [Yogasūtra 1, 2. 5. 2, 11.] guṇa [15. 50.] dhīvṛttayaḥ [Bālabodhanī 1.] antaḥkaraṇa [11.] prāṇānām [] zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad] [?S. 66. Prabodhacandrodaja 41, 3. 97, 18. 98, 1. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 8, 27. 9, 31. 43. 3, 5, 6.] kāla [26. 6, 27. 9, 20. 12, 2. 26, 14. 22. 39. 29, 28. 4, 22, 14. 55. 29, 6. 5, 11, 8. 9.] buddherjāgaraṇaṃ svapnaḥ suṣuptiriti vṛttayaḥ [7, 7, 25.] viṣamā vāmā vidhervṛttayaḥ [Spr. (II) 2955.] bhāgyavṛttayaḥ [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 261.] vinayavārita (madana) [Śākuntala 44.] —

12) das Erscheinen —, Gebrauchtwerden eines Wortes in einer best. Bedeutung (loc.), die Function eines Wortes [Sāhityadarpana 23. 32. 267. 271.] dakṣiṇaśabdasya kāle vṛttirna bhavati [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 3, 28, Scholiast] dakṣiṇa . uttara . ityetābhyāṃ digdeśakālavṛttibhyām ebend. guruśabdaścātra mukhyayā vṛttyā pitari vartate so v. a. nach seiner Hauptbedeutung [Mitākṣarā] [?III,64,a,15. Sāhityadarpana 15,6.] mukhyārthāsaṃbhave ca gauṇī vṛttirāśrīyata eva [Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 6, 25. 4, 3, 25.] [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 336. 315.] tairovyañjanapādavṛttau tulyavṛttī werden auf gleiche Weise gebraucht, sind gleichbedeutend [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda Comm. 154.] —

13) Art und Weise der Aussprache, - Recitation: leśavṛttiradhisparśam (yavayoḥ) [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 2, 24.] drutā, madhyamā, vilambitā [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 13, 19.] [ŚIKṢĀ 22] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 4, 269.] —

14) im Drama Stil, Charakter, genre, deren vier angenommen werden: kaiśikī (hier und da fälschlich kauśikī), sāttvatī, ārabhaṭī (die drei arthavṛttayaḥ) und bhāratī (śabdavṛtti); die Audbhaṭa nehmen noch eine fünfte Vṛtti an, ohne ihren Namen zu nennen; als Unterabtheilungen erscheinen madhyamakaiśikī und madhyamārabhaṭī . [Amarakoṣa.3,4,14,75.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 285.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [BHARATA,] [NĀṬYAŚ. 18,4. fgg. 20,1. fgg.] [DAŚAR.2,44. 55. fgg.] [Sāhityadarpana 410fgg.] [PRATĀPAR. 10,a,7. 24,b,1.] [Oxforder Handschriften 86,b,51. 208,a, No. 489.] Hierher wohl [Kumārasaṃbhava.7,91.] —

15) Alliteration, häufige Wiederholung desselben Consonanten: rasaviṣayavyāpāravatī varṇaracanā vṛttiḥ [Sāhityadarpana 259, 3. 4.] fünf Arten aufgeführt: madhurā prauḍhā paruṣā lalitā bhadreti vṛttayaḥ pañca [HALL] in der Einl. zu [DAŚAR. S. 22.] —

16) = vṛtta Rhythmus des Versschlusses [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 84. 113. 150.] —

17) Wortart, Wortform: sāmānya [Yāska’s Nirukta 2, 1.] vṛttayaḥ pañca kṛt taddhita samāsa ekaśeṣa sanādyantadhātu ityetadrūpāḥ [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 3, Scholiast] tatra vṛttiścaturdhā samāsataddhitakṛtsanādyantadhātubhedāt [Oxforder Handschriften 178,a,8.fg.] —

18) Commentar (zu einem Sūtra) [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 1, 15.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] (vivṛtau zu lesen). [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 257. fg.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Vaijayantī a. a. O.] gaṇa ukthādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 60.] kathādi zu [4, 102.] [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 36, 45.] [Śiśupālavadha 2, 112.] mādhurī (māthurī) [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.4,3,108, Scholiast] [Colebrooke] [?I,331. Oxforder Handschriften 257,b,19.] sūtraṃ vṛttirvivṛtiḥ [SARVADARŚANAS. 90, 19.] — Vgl. a, ātma, ṛtu, ekaika, evaṃ, kṣiti, citta (auch [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 193], wo mit der ed. Calc. so zu lesen ist), tri, durvṛtti, deva, dhātu, nagna, parokṣa, prati, pratikūla, pratyakṣa, prayoga, prācīna, prācya, prāṇa, bahirvṛtti, brahma, bhāga, bhāva (unter bhāvavṛtta), bhāṣā, bhikṣā, bhinna, bhaikṣa, bhojana, madhyamaka, mano, yathā, yāma, raṇa, liṅga, vaṇigvṛtti, vākya, viśva, śarīra, śva, sva, hṛdaya, vārttika .

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Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—

10) [Sp. 1321, Z. 2 v. u.] lies sātvatī . —

13) vgl. Comm. zu [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 5, 20, 2.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of vritti or vrtti in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vṛtti (वृत्ति) [Also spelled vratti]:—(nf) instinct; mentality; profession, vocation; (conventional) function; stipend (as -[chātra vṛtti]); commentary (esp. on a sutra); ~[] stipend; -[kara] profession tax; ~[kāra] a commentator; ~[dātā] one who provides livelihood; supporter, affording maintenance; ~[bhogī] stipendiary.

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