Vritti, Vṛṭṭi, Vṛtti: 15 definitions
Vritti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Vṛṭṭi and Vṛtti can be transliterated into English as Vrtti or Vritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति) refers to “styles”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are four styles defined:
- the Verbal (bhāratī),
- the Grand (sāttvatī),
- the Graceful (kaiśikī)
- and the Energetic (ārabhaṭī)
2) Vṛtti (वृत्ति, “movement”) refers to “having a simple movement” and represents one of the three types of gativṛtti (styles of procedure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Gativṛtti gives quality to give quality to the instrumental music and songs and is influenced by tāla (time-measure), laya (tempo), gīti (rhythm), yati and grahamārga (way of beginning).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “in the vṛtti the Sambhāvitā is the gīti, the instrumental music is * *, the unit of time-measure is two kalās, the tempo (laya) is medium (madhya), the yati is Srotogatā, and the Sama graha-mārgas are preponderant”.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
To understand the technique of all the ten varieties of play (rūpa) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra, one must have knowledge of the Styles (vṛtti) of dramatic production.
These being four in number are as follows:
- the Verbal (bhāratī),
- the Grand (sāttvatī),
- the Energetic (ārabhaṭī)
- and the Graceful (kaiśikī)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Manblunder: Sri Rudram 4.1-6
Vṛtti means mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviour, moral conduct, etc. Different people follow different codes of conduct. Rudra pervades in everyone, who follow different codes of conduct and also He is the chief of different groups of people and salutations to Him.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: WikiPedia: Yoga
The concept of vritti is central to the main definition of yoga given in Sutra 1.2 of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: "yoga chitta vritti nirodha". I.K. Taimni translates this as: "Yoga is the silencing of the modifications of the mind". Central to the definition of yoga is the concept of vritti as a modification of the mind, which it is the intent of yogic practices to silence.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—Means of living by ṛta, amṛta, mṛta pramṛta and satyāmṛta or satyānṛta; never by śvavṛtti.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 11. 18-20.
1b) Transformation of Jayādevas in the seven epochs of Manu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 4. 12, 37.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—Treatment, practice of pronunciation;
2) Vṛtti.—Conversion of one phonetic element into another; cf. R.Pr.I.95;
3) Vṛtti.—Position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṃhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति (padavṛtti); आन्पदाः पदवृत्तयः (ānpadāḥ padavṛttayaḥ) R.Pr. IV.17;
4) Vṛtti.—Modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य (druta, madhya) and विलम्बित (vilambita) based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; cf. M. Bh. on P. I.4. 109, Vārt. 4; also I.1.69 Vārt.11;
5) Vṛtti.—Nature; cf. गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् (gurvakṣarāṇāṃ guruvṛtti sarvam) R.Pr.XVIII.33;
6) Vṛtti.—Interpretation of a word;
7) Vṛtti.—Verbal or nominal form of a root; cf. अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन (arthanityaḥ parīkṣeta kenacid vṛttisāmānyena) Nir.II.1;
8) Vṛtti.—Mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf. का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः । (kā punarvṛttiḥ | vṛttiḥ śāstrapravṛttiḥ |) M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेशः (vṛttisamavāyārtha upadeśaḥ) Vārttika 10;
9) Vṛtti.—Manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था (jahatsvārthā) and अजहत्स्वार्था (ajahatsvārthā), but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था (jahadajahatsvārthā);
10) Vṛtti.—A compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; cf. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धि-तसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः । वृत्त्यर्था-वबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः (parārthābhidhānaṃ vṛttiḥ | kṛttaddhi-tasamāsaikadeśadhāturūpāḥ pañca vṛttayaḥ | vṛttyarthā-vabodhakaṃ vākyaṃ vigrahaḥ) S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa;
11) Vṛtti.—Interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary; cf. वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु (vṛttau bhāṣye tathā nāmadhātupārāyaṇādiṣu); introductory stanza in the Kāśikā. Later on, when many commentary works were written, the word वृत्ति (vṛtti) was differentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका (bhāṣya, vārtika, ṭīkā, cūrṇi, niryukti, ṭippaṇī, pañjikā) and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; cf. तथा च वृत्तिकृत् (tathā ca vṛttikṛt) often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Vritti, literally "whirlpool", is a technical term in yoga meant to indicate that the contents of mental awareness are disturbances in the medium of consciousness. Vritti can be taken as a catch-all term for any content in consciousness, where consciousness is regarded as a medium or container for any possible mental content. The scope of the idea is very broad, referring not only to thoughts and perceptions experienced in a normal waking state, but also to all super-physical perceptions, such as dreams or in any altered state of consciousness.
In the context of Hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions. Hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. The expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes.
Modern science: According to some modern descriptions, a vritti triggers the glands associated with that particular propensity to secrete the corresponding hormones. Usually this is done subconsciously, although yogis endeavour to control and master the expression of their vritties, through the practice of asanas (postures) and sadhana (meditation), leading to the attainment of siddhis (occult powers), and giving clear passage for the kundalini to rise.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vṛtti.—(SITI), means; livelihood, occupation; grant of land for one's livelihood. (SII 3), land granted for service. (EI 17, 31; CITD), share; share in a village granted to a Brāhmaṇa as a free gift. Note: vṛtti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f (S) Course, conduct, procedure, practice. 2 A way, manner, line, course of acting or subsisting. 3 A profession, practice, occupation (as a means of subsistence); any office, situation, or business as a livelihood or maintenance. 4 Currency (as of a phrase or word in any particular sense); constant occurrence, application, or use. 5 A state or an affection of the mind; any particular working or modification of its being; as wrathful emotion, pitiful or tender yearnings, the excitation of lust or cupidity, the commotion or agitation under fear, hope, anxiety &c. Some compounds are udāsa -audārya -khinna -tāmasa -prasanna -glāna -śānta- śōka-santōṣa-saumya-harṣa-hāsya-vṛtti. 6 Dramatic representation or composition, considered to be of four sorts; viz. kauśikī, bhāratī, sātvatī, ārabhatī. 7 Gloss or comment: also explanation or exposition. See ṭīkā. 8 A circle; or the circumference of a circle.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f An affection of the mind. Con- duct. A profession.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—f. [vṛt-ktin]
1) Being, existence.
2) Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति (viruddhavṛtti, vipakṣavṛtti) &c.
3) State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् (trayīṃ tisro vṛttīstribhuvanamatho trīnapi surān) Śiva-mahimna 27.
4) Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः (śataistamakṣṇāmanimeṣavṛttibhiḥ) R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (utpakṣmaṇornayanayoruparuddhavṛttim) (bāṣpam) Ś.4. 15.
5) Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः (vinayavāritavṛttiḥ) Ś.2.12.
6) Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने (kuru priyasakhīvṛttaṃ sapatnījane) Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः (vaitasī vṛttiḥ, bakavṛttiḥ) &c.
7) Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः (āśramāṃśca yathāsaṃkhyamasṛjat sahavṛttibhiḥ) Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् (vārdhake munivṛttīnām) R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126.
3) Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; oft. in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः (siṃhatvamaṅkāgatasattvavṛttiḥ) R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता (svayaṃ- viśīrṇadrumaparṇavṛttitā) Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.)
9) Wages, hire.
10) Cause of activity.
11) Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः (brahmacāriṇaḥ)... आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः (ācārye prāṇāntikī ca vṛttiḥ) Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् (triṣvapramādyanneteṣu trīllaṃोkāṃśca vijeṣyasi | pitṛvṛtyā tvimaṃ lokaṃ mātṛvṛttyā tathā param) || Mb.12.18.8.
12) Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना (sadvṛttiḥ sannibandhanā) Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः (kāśikāvṛttiḥ) &c.
13) Revolving, turning round.
14) The circumference of a wheel or circle.
15) (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation.
16) The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three abhidhā, lakṣaṇā and vyañjanā q. q. v. v.); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् (bhramayata bhāratī ta uruvṛttibhirukthajaḍān) Bhāg.1.87.36.
17) A style in composition (these are four; kau(kai)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती (śikī, bhāratī, sātvatī) and आरभटी (ārabhaṭī) q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः (śṛṅgāre kaiśikī vīre sātvatyārabhaṭī punaḥ | rase raudre ca bībhatse vṛttiḥ sarvatra bhāratī | catasro vṛttayo hyetāḥ sarvanāṭhyasya mātṛkāḥ) || S. D.
18) Customary allowance.
19) Manner of thinking.
Derivable forms: vṛttiḥ (वृत्तिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ttiḥ) 1. Livelihood, profession, means of acquiring subsistence. 2. Style or character of dramatic representation, or composition, considered to be of four sorts, viz:—Kausiki, which exhibits love or passion; Bharati, which appears to implies declamation especially; Satwati, of which the subject is virtue and heroism, and Arbhatti, which treats of magic, delusion, wrath and battle. 3. Style in general. 4. Gloss, comment, explanation, exposition. 5. Being, abiding, staying. 6. Seizing, stopping, withholding, restraining. 7. Circumference of a wheel or circle. 8. State, condition. 9. Behaviour, action, course of action, conduct. 10. Action, engagement, operation. 11. Respectful treatment. 12. Wages, hire. 13. Revolving, turning round. 14. A complex formation, (in gram.) 15. The connotative power of a word; (these are three, viz:—abhidhā, lakṣaṇā and vyaṃjanā .) E. vṛt to be, aff. ktin .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vṛtti (वृत्ति).—[vṛt + ti], f. 1. The circumference of a circle. 2. Staying, being, abiding. 3. State, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 18 (vaitasīṃ vṛttim ā car, To behave like a reed). 4. Livelihood, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 141; maintenance, 9, 74. 5. An agent of activity, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 11, 9; activity, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
1) Vṛtti (वृत्ति):—[from vṛt] f. rolling, rolling down (of tears), [Śakuntalā iv, 5; 14]
2) [v.s. ...] mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviour, ([especially]) moral conduct, kind or respectful behaviour or treatment (also [varia lectio] for vṛtta), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] general usage, common practice, rule, [Prātiśākhya]
4) [v.s. ...] mode of being, nature, kind, character, disposition, [ib.; Kāvya literature]
5) [v.s. ...] state, condition, [Tattvasamāsa]
6) [v.s. ...] being, existing, occurring or appearing in ([locative case] or [compound]), [Lāṭyāyana; Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature] etc.
7) [v.s. ...] practice, business, devotion or addiction to, occupation with (often ifc. ‘employed about’, ‘engaged in’, ‘practising’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] profession, maintenance, subsistence, livelihood (often ifc.; cf. uñcha-v; vṛttiṃ-√kṛ or √kḷp [Causal] with [instrumental case], ‘to live on or by’; with [genitive case], ‘to get or procure a maintenance for’; only certain means of subsistence are allowed to a Brāhman See, [Manu-smṛti iv, 4-6]), [???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] wages, hire, [Pañcav.]
10) [v.s. ...] working, activity, function, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Kapila; Vedāntasāra] etc.
11) [v.s. ...] mood (of the mind), [Vedāntasāra]
12) [v.s. ...] the use or occurrence of a word in a [particular] sense ([locative case]), its function or force, [Pāṇini; Sāhitya-darpaṇa [Scholiast or Commentator] on Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra] etc.
13) [v.s. ...] mode or measure of pronunciation and recitation (said to be threefold, viz. vilambitā, madhyamā, and drutā q.v.), [Prātiśākhya]
14) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a complex formation which requires explanation or separation into its parts (as distinguished from a simple or uncompounded form e.g. any word formed with Kṛt or Taddhita affixes, any compound and even duals and plurals which are regarded as Dvandva compounds, of which only one member is left, and all derivative verbs such as desideratives etc.)
15) [v.s. ...] style of composition ([especially] [dramatic language] style, said to be of four kinds, viz. 1. Kaiśikī, 2. Bhāratī 3. Sātvatī, 4. Ārabhaṭī, qq.vv.; the first three are described as suited to the Śṛṅgāra, Vīra, and Raudra Rasas respectively, the last as common to all), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa] etc.
16) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) alliteration, frequent repetition of the same consonant (five kinds enumerated, [scilicet] madhurā, prauḍhā, puruṣā, lalitā, and bhadrā), [Daśarūpa, [Introduction]]
17) [v.s. ...] final rhythm of a verse (= or [varia lectio] for vṛtta q.v.)
18) [v.s. ...] a commentary, comment, gloss, explanation ([especially] on a Sūtra)
19) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of a Rudra, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+38): Vrittibhaj, Vrittibhanga, Vrittica Vicaka, Vritticakra, Vritticandrapradipikanirukti, Vritticandrika, Vritticcheda, Vrittichakra, Vritticheda, Vrittichheda, Vrittida, Vrittidana, Vrittidatri, Vrittidipika, Vrittigrantha, Vrittihan, Vrittihantri, Vrittihetu, Vrittihrasa, Vrittika.
Ends with (+492): Abhinirvritti, Abhinivritti, Abhivritti, Abhuyahsamnivritti, Abhyavritti, Acala-pravritti, Adhanadarshapaurnamasavritti, Adhvaramimamsakutuhalavritti, Adhyayanasamvritti, Adhyayanavritti, Adinavritti, Agantukavritti, Aharavritti, Ajagaravritti, Ajahatsvarthavritti, Ajyeshthavritti, Akhyatavritti, Alambanaparikshavritti, Alamkaravritti, Amayikavritti.
Full-text (+2200): Samavritti, Unchavritti, Manovritti, Vrittita, Vrittihetu, Jahaddharmatva, Shvavritti, Shivadrishti, Vrittibhanga, Kuhakavritti, Adhyavasaya, Ananyavritti, Nivrittavritti, Vrittibhaj, Cangadasa, Vrittistha, Vaguravritti, Trivikrama, Nastikavritti, Kshatavritti.
Search found 53 books and stories containing Vritti, Vṛṭṭi, Vṛtti, Vrtti; (plurals include: Vrittis, Vṛṭṭis, Vṛttis, Vrttis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Religion and Philosophy of Tevaram (Thevaram) (by M. A. Dorai Rangaswamy)
The Pantaranka or Pantarankam dance < [Volume 2 - Nampi Arurar and Mythology]
Chapter 1 - The Tondar or Tontar (devotees) and their religion < [Volume 4.1.2 - The conception of Paramanaiye Paduvar]
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 7 - Works of Maṅkhaka < [Chapter I - Introduction]
Part 1 - Sanskrit kāvya and its definitions < [Chapter I - Introduction]
Part 7 - Flora and fauna (found in the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita) < [Chapter IV - Socio-cultural study of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 15 - Ātman, Jīva, Īśvara, Ekajīvavāda and Dṛṣṭisṛṣṭivāda < [Chapter X - The Śaṅkara School Of Vedānta]
Part 8 - The nature of the world-appearance, phenomena < [Chapter X - The Śaṅkara School Of Vedānta]
Part 10 - Knowledge, its value for us < [Chapter VI - The Jaina Philosophy]
Tejobindu Upanishad of Krishna-yajurveda (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 62 - The science of music < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 4 - Pronunciation of a curse on Jayas < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 3 - Description of the dissolution of the Universe (b) < [Section 4a - Upasaṃhāra-pāda]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 6 - Inference of ajñāna < [Chapter XXIX-XXX - Controversy Between the Dualists and the Monists]
Part 7 - The theory of Avidyā refuted < [Chapter XXIX-XXX - Controversy Between the Dualists and the Monists]
Part 4 - God’s Relation to His Devotees < [Chapter XXXIII - The Philosophy of Jiva Gosvāmī and Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇā]