Samyoga, Saṃyoga: 30 definitions

Introduction:

Samyoga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sanyog.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Saṃyoga refers to the resulting connection of the combination of multiple substances; either permanent (nitya) or temporary (anitya).

Source: Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna

Sanyoga means combination or amalgamation. Co-incidence is at the core of this guna. In this guna things happen by chance, when you do expect anything. For instance, when you hear a good news when you least expect it; this situation would be the result of sanyoga.

Source: Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana

Samyoga-guna is a property which has been used by physicians and pharmacists in formulating the different yogas and on the basis of this property it is decided wh ich substances are to be combined or mixed with other substances.

Samyoga has been explained by Charaka in detail in Vimanasthana (first adhyaya):

  1. Ekakarmaja-samyoga - If one dravya is sakriya/kriyavan then it is called as Ekakarmaja-samyoga.
  2. Dvikarmaja-samyoga - If two dravyas are kriyavana in a Samyoga then it is called as Dvikarmaja-samyoga.
  3. Sarvakarmaja-samyoga - If there are more than two dravyas taking part in samyoga and all of them are sakriya then it is called as Sarvakarmaja-samyoga.
Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Saṃyoga (संयोग):—Combination; one of the 10 paradi gunas; Combination of two or more substances together is saṁyoga. This kind of process exhibits peculiarities which are not seen in case of individual substances. such as combination of honey &fish, fish & milk.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “contact”).—The relation between prakṛti and puruṣa is called a special kind of saṃyoga (contact) in Sāṃkhya. Saṃyoga is a type of relation. It is of different categories. At least two relata (saṃvandhi) are necessary to establish a relation (saṃvandha) of contact.

There are many types of contact (saṃyoga), such as

  1. anyatarakarmaja-saṃyoga (unilateral contact),
  2. ubhayakarmaja-saṃyoga (bilateral contact),
  3. saṃyogaja-saṃyoga (contact generated contact),
  4. svābhāvika-saṃyoga (natural contact),
  5. śaktinimitta-saṃyoga (contact for potency),
  6. yogyatālakṣaṇa-saṃyoga (capability defined contact),
  7. yādṛcchika-saṃyoga (accidental contact),
  8. viṣaya-viṣayīnimitta-saṃyoga (dependent-substratum based contact),
context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—Connection in general; the word is used as a technical term in the grammar of Panini, in the sense of two or more consonants coming closely together unseparated by any vowel; cf.हलोनन्तराः संयोगः (halonantarāḥ saṃyogaḥ) cf P. I. 1.7; cf also अनन्तरं संयोगः (anantaraṃ saṃyogaḥ) V. Pr. I. 48.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Saṃyoga (संयोग) or simply Yoga refers to a set of three rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the three saṃyogas:

  1. Guru-saṃyoga,
  2. Laghu-saṃyoga,
  3. Gurulaghu-saṃyoga,
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Samyoga in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”) refers to one of the six divisions of Sannikarṣa (“sense object contact”), according to the 17th century Tarkasaṃgraha. The ordinary perception (laukika),  one of the two types of pratyakṣa (perception), is caused by ordinary sannikarṣa or sense object contact. Conjunction (saṃyoga) is the contact, producing perception of the jar by the eye.

2) Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”) or Saṃyogaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas accept saṃyoga (conjunction) as the general quality (guṇa), which exists in all dravyas. According to Praśastapāda the cause of the notion of being conjoined is called saṃyoga—“saṃyogaḥ saṃyukta pratyayanimittam”. He also gives another definition of saṃyoga thus “aprāptayoḥ prāptiḥ saṃyogaḥ”. So conjunction is the contact of two things which were first separate. Viśvanātha also gives similar definition of saṃyoga. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines saṃyoga as the special cause of the usage that two things are conjoined. In the Dīpikā, we find that the word ‘special cause’ is used in this definition of saṃyoga (conjunction) to remove the defect of ativyāpti in case of space, time number etc. A detailed discussion of saṃyoga will be given in a separate chapter where different types of relation will be discussed. Here only an idea of saṃyoga as a quality is given.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”) refers to one of the thee forms of the supreme seed-syllable called Haṃsa, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “That supreme seed-syllable called Haṃsa is located in the heart. Without that there is no perception (upalabdhi) (of ultimate reality) and one knows nothing. O fair lady, it has three forms, Sound (nāda), Conjunction (saṃyoga) and Disjunction (viyoga). O fairhipped lady, one should pay attention to it with effort. Again, the threefold consciousness (caitanya) is present here, which is that of the Self (ātman), Power (śakti) and Śiva. The threefold consciousness abides in a state of invariable union. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to a “conjunction” (of planets), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “What eclipses the moon is bigger than the moon; what eclipses the sun is smaller than the sun. Hence in semi-lunar and semi-solar eclipses, the luminous horns are respectively blunt and sharp. [...] It is wrong to say that there can be no eclipse unless five planets are in conjunction [i.e., pañcagraha-saṃyoga] and it is equally wrong to suppose that on the previous Aṣṭamī (eighth lunar) day, the coming eclipse and its properties can be ascertained by examining the appearance of a drop of oil on the surface of water”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Samyoga in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to the “union (of body and soul)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite (saṃyoga) and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses?”.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to “union”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “[Question: The past and the future do not function with the nature of the present; the past functions with the nature of the past and the future with the nature of the future. That is why there is a [different] time for each nature separately (ekaika dharmalakṣaṇa)]—[Answer:]—[...]  [The Buddhist texts] do not speak about kāla but about samaya in order to dispel wrong views of this kind. We speak metaphorically about time with regard to birth, the elements and bases of consciousness, but there is no distinct time [existing as a separate substance]. Expressions such as ‘region’ (deśa), ‘time’ (kāla), ‘separation’ (viyoga), ‘union’ (saṃyoga), ‘singleness’ (ekatva), ‘multiplicity’ (nānātva), ‘length’ (dīrghatva), ‘smallness’ (hrasvatva), etc., come from convention. Fools (bāla) cling to them and say that these are real Dharmas (sadbhūta). That is why mundane conventional Dharmas of purely nominal existence must be excluded.”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to “combining” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the non-living beings (ajīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Saṃyoga is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—What is meant by combining (saṃyoga)? To combine many objects / materials is called combining (saṃyoga). It is of two types, namely:

  1. combining edible items (bhaktapāna),
  2. combining implements (upakaraṇa).
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to “connections” (with pleasing sense objects), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—He speaks about the perishability at any moment (kṣaṇakṣayitvam) of connections (saṃyogānāṃ)]—Connections (saṃyoga) with pleasing sense objects, whose impressions are full of deceit like dreams, perish immediately”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samyoga in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṃyoga : (m.) a bond; union; association; fetter; an euphonic combination.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃyōga (संयोग).—m (S) Union or junction; conjunction or contact; association or annexation; close connection generally. 2 Mingling, mixing, blending. 3 Copulation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃyōga (संयोग).—m Union; mingling.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—1 (a) Conjunction, union, combination, junction, association, intimate union; संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् (saṃyogo hi viyogasya saṃsūcayati saṃbhavam) Subhāṣ. (b) Endowment with, possesssion of.

2) Conjunction (as one of the 24 guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas).

3) Addition, annexation.

4) A set; आभरणसंयोगाः (ābharaṇasaṃyogāḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 6.

5) Alliance between two kings for a common object.

6) (In gram.) A conjunct consonant; हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः (halo'nantarāḥ saṃyogaḥ) P.I.1.7.

7) (In astr.) The conjunction of two heavenly bodies.

8) An epithet of Śiva.

9) (In phil.) Contact (direct material).

1) Carnal contact.

11) Matrimonial relation.

12) Agreement of opinion.

13) Sum, total amount.

Derivable forms: saṃyogaḥ (संयोगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—(m., = Pali id.), binding, attachment (in bad sense): (iyaṃ dṛṣṭiḥ saṃrāgāya saṃvartate nāsaṃ- rāgāya saṃdveṣāya) nāsaṃdveṣaya saṃmohāya nāsaṃ- mohāya saṃyogāya nāsaṃ° Avadāna-śataka ii.188.9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Intimate union or association. 2. Living with, being in company with. 3. Adherence, junction. 4. The conjunction of two heavenly bodies, (in astro.) 5. (In grammar,) A conjunc consonant. E. sam before yuj to join, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—i. e. sam-yuj + a, m. 1. Connexion, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 157; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 20; Chr. 38, 15 (saṃyogam enasā na prāpsyase, You will not incur guilt). 2. Junction, Bhāṣāp. 3; adherence, accession, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 146. 3. A kind of alliance where both parties unite only for one object, but attack with united power, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 115. 4. Union, being, living, with, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 85; 88.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—[masculine] conjunction, connection, coherence; contact (ph.); relation, friendship, alliance; matrimony sexual intercourse with (saha); a conjunct consonant ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃyoga (संयोग):—[=saṃ-yoga] [from saṃ-yuj] m. conjunction, combination, connection (ge or geṣu ifc. ‘in connection with, with regard to, concerning’), union or absorption with or in ([genitive case], or [instrumental case] with and without saha, or [locative case], or ifc.), [Āpastamba; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] contact ([especially] in [philosophy] ‘direct material contact’, as of sesamum seed with rice-grains [in contradistinction to contact by the fusion of particles, as of water with milk], enumerated among the 24 Guṇas of the Nyāya cf. under sam-bandha), [Yoga-sūtra; Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra; Bhāṣāpariccheda]

3) [v.s. ...] carnal contact, sexual union, [Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] matrimonial connection or relationship by marriage with or between ([genitive case], saha with [instrumental case], or [compound]), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of alliance or peace made between two kings with a common object, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Hitopadeśa]

6) [v.s. ...] agreement of opinion, consensus (opposed to bheda), [Rāmāyaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] applying one’s self closely to, being engaged in, undertaking (gaṃkṛ, ‘to undertake, set about, begin’; agnihotra-saṃyogamkṛ, ‘to undertake the maintenance of a sacred fire’), [Āpastamba; Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a conjunct consonant, combination of two or more consonants, [Prātiśākhya; Pāṇini] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] dependence of one case upon another, syntax, [Vopadeva]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) conjunction of two or more heavenly bodies, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] total amount, sum, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग):—[saṃ-yoga] (gaḥ) 1. m. Junction; intimate union or association.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃyoga (संयोग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃjoa, Saṃveha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samyoga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samyoga in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग) [Also spelled sanyog]:—(nm) coincidence, chance; accident; mixture; coalition, combination; conjunct consonant; communion, union; carnal contact; —[śrṛṃgāra] in poetics, one of the two kinds of [śrṛṃgāra rasa] wherein the lover and the beloved are united; —[se] by chance; —[se pā jānā] to blunder upon, to find by fluke.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃyōga (ಸಂಯೋಗ):—

1) [noun] a conjunction; a union; a combination.

2) [noun] connection of persons by blood, marriage, etc.; kinship; relation.

3) [noun] dealings or communication between individuals; association; intercourse.

4) [noun] a becoming one with (another, as with a god).

5) [noun] sexual intercourse.

6) [noun] (math.) the process of finding the sum of two or more numbers by adding; addition.

7) [noun] a covenant between two kings, monarchs for a common purpose.

8) [noun] (phil.) separateness with conjunction (a term applied to express the separateness of what is optional from what is a necessary constituent of anything).

9) [noun] (astron.) a conjunction of two or more heavenly bodies.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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