Samyoga, aka: Saṃyoga; 13 Definition(s)


Samyoga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Saṃyoga refers to the resulting connection of the combination of multiple substances; either permanent (nitya) or temporary (anitya).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sanyoga means combination or amalgamation. Co-incidence is at the core of this guna. In this guna things happen by chance, when you do expect anything. For instance, when you hear a good news when you least expect it; this situation would be the result of sanyoga.

(Source): Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna

Samyoga-guna is a property which has been used by physicians and pharmacists in formulating the different yogas and on the basis of this property it is decided wh ich substances are to be combined or mixed with other substances.

Samyoga has been explained by Charaka in detail in Vimanasthana (first adhyaya):

  1. Ekakarmaja-samyoga - If one dravya is sakriya/kriyavan then it is called as Ekakarmaja-samyoga.
  2. Dvikarmaja-samyoga - If two dravyas are kriyavana in a Samyoga then it is called as Dvikarmaja-samyoga.
  3. Sarvakarmaja-samyoga - If there are more than two dravyas taking part in samyoga and all of them are sakriya then it is called as Sarvakarmaja-samyoga.
(Source): Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “conjunction”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Saṃyoga (संयोग, “contact”).—The relation between prakṛti and puruṣa is called a special kind of saṃyoga (contact) in Sāṃkhya. Saṃyoga is a type of relation. It is of different categories. At least two relata (saṃvandhi) are necessary to establish a relation (saṃvandha) of contact.

There are many types of contact (saṃyoga), such as

  1. anyatarakarmaja-saṃyoga (unilateral contact),
  2. ubhayakarmaja-saṃyoga (bilateral contact),
  3. saṃyogaja-saṃyoga (contact generated contact),
  4. svābhāvika-saṃyoga (natural contact),
  5. śaktinimitta-saṃyoga (contact for potency),
  6. yogyatālakṣaṇa-saṃyoga (capability defined contact),
  7. yādṛcchika-saṃyoga (accidental contact),
  8. viṣaya-viṣayīnimitta-saṃyoga (dependent-substratum based contact),
(Source): Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—Connection in general; the word is used as a technical term in the grammar of Panini, in the sense of two or more consonants coming closely together unseparated by any vowel; cf.हलोनन्तराः संयोगः (halonantarāḥ saṃyogaḥ) cf P. I. 1.7; cf also अनन्तरं संयोगः (anantaraṃ saṃyogaḥ) V. Pr. I. 48.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Saṃyoga (संयोग) or simply Yoga refers to a set of three rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the three saṃyogas:

  1. Guru-saṃyoga,
  2. Laghu-saṃyoga,
  3. Gurulaghu-saṃyoga,
(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Saṃyoga (संयोग) refers to “combining” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the non-living beings (ajīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Saṃyoga is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—What is meant by combining (saṃyoga)? To combine many objects / materials is called combining (saṃyoga). It is of two types, namely:

  1. combining edible items (bhaktapāna),
  2. combining implements (upakaraṇa).
(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

saṃyoga : (m.) a bond; union; association; fetter; an euphonic combination.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

saṃyōga (संयोग).—m (S) Union or junction; conjunction or contact; association or annexation; close connection generally. 2 Mingling, mixing, blending. 3 Copulation.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃyōga (संयोग).—m Union; mingling.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃyoga (संयोग).—1 (a) Conjunction, union, combination, junction, association, intimate union; संयोगो हि वियोगस्य संसूचयति संभवम् (saṃyogo hi viyogasya saṃsūcayati saṃbhavam) Subhāṣ. (b) Endowment with, possesssion of.

2) Conjunction (as one of the 24 guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas).

3) Addition, annexation.

4) A set; आभरणसंयोगाः (ābharaṇasaṃyogāḥ) Māl.6.

5) Alliance between two kings for a common object.

6) (In gram.) A conjunct consonant; हलोऽनन्तराः संयोगः (halo'nantarāḥ saṃyogaḥ) P.I.1.7.

7) (In astr.) The conjunction of two heavenly bodies.

8) An epithet of Śiva.

9) (In phil.) Contact (direct material).

1) Carnal contact.

11) Matrimonial relation.

12) Agreement of opinion.

13) Sum, total amount.

Derivable forms: saṃyogaḥ (संयोगः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

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