Brahma Sutras (Critical Exposition)

author: B. N. K. Sharma
edition: 2008, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
pages: 1835
language: English
ISBN-10: 8121500354
ISBN-13: 9788121500357
Topic: Hindu-philosophy

Summary: This book contains the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana and a Critical Exposition of their principal Commentaries: exposing the interpretation of Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhva. The Brahmasutras (or Vedanta Sutras) represent an important treatise of Indian Philosophy and revolves around the Vedic teachings of the Upanishads.

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Introduction:

Brahmasutras and Their Principal Commentaries is a vigorous, animate and thought-provoking treatise on the interpretation of the Vedantasutras of Badarayana. Dr. Sharma has delved deeply into the three principal traditions of their interpretation established by acaryas: Sankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva.
This is the first work on the Sutras to give parity of treatment to all the three principal traditions of interpretation by placing them in their own milieu and bringing them into close thematic relation with one another, allowing full scope for each one to speak in its authentic voice. The exegetical, the expository and the analytic aspects of the interpretations have been given the fullest attention in a coordinated form, for the first time.
Besides the bhasyas of the acaryas, we are here treated to a sumptuous feast of the niceties and nuances of their exposition and reinforcement by their distinguished sub-commentators like Vacaspati Misra, Amalananda, Sudarsana Suri, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Vadiraja, Raghuttama, Raghunatha, Raghaendra Swamin, and others whose works are not available to us in English translations. The disquisitions from these unexplored classics of the Vedanta system are sure to regale the tarkarasikas among students of philosophy in the East, in the West, and in the Far East.
It is only such a thoroughgoing study of the Sutras and their classical commentaries that can help us in our voyage of discovery to where the Sutras of Badarayana intend to lead us.
Dr. B.N.K. Sharma was a distinguished Sanskrit scholar and retired as Professor and Head of the Department of Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi, Ruparel College, Mumbai. His other important works are: Madhva’s Teachings in His Own Worlds; Philosophy of Madhvacarya; and History of Dvaita School of Vedanta and its Literature.

Contents of this online book (index):

The full text of the Brahma Sutras (Critical Exposition) in English can be quickly summarized in the following table of contents. Becaue these pages are not available to read online, I would recommend you buy the book.

Importance and Scope of Brahmasutras [link]
Brahmasutras as Para Vidya [link]
Plan of the Sutras and Arrangement of their subject matter [link]
Pre-Madhva and Post-Madhva Commentators [link]
Nature, Scope and Purpose of Samanvaya [link]
Examination of Scheme of Padas of Adhyaya I adopted by Samkara and Ramanuja [link]
Samanvaya Expounded is Typical and Illustrative [link]
Samanvaya Illumines Brahman’s Gunapurnatva [link]
Restoration of Prakrti to Its Rightful Place in Vedanta [link]
Rapprochement of Vedanta and Vaisnavism in Madhva [link]
Madhva’s Improved Technique and New Philosophical Perspective in Interpreting the Sutras [link]
Text of Sutras of Samanvaya-Adhyaya [link]
Investigation of Brahman as Distinct from Jivatman [link]
Brahman Defined as the Source of all Cosmic Life [link]
Brahman’s Attributes known only thro’ Sastra [link]
How to Interpret and Integrate the Sastra? [link]
Brahman is Neither Unknowable nor Inexpressible [link]
Brahman is infinite Bliss, infinitely Blissful etc. [link]
The One Within [link]
Brahman is Unlimited [link]
Brahman is the Prime Mover [link]
The Light Within [link]
Bearer of Adhivedic Names [link]
The Cosmic Antaryami [link]
The Omnipresent Principle [link]
Brahman is the All-Eater [link]
Enjoyer of the Fruits of Good Karma of Jivas [link]
Brahman is Controller and Enjoyer Within [link]
The Indwelling Spirit [link]
Integration of Negative Attributes in Brahman [link]
Brahman is the All-Digesting Principle [link]
Brahman is the Support of the Cosmos [link]
Brahman is of the Nature of Infinite Bliss and All-transcending [link]
Brahman is the Highest Imperishable [link]
Brahman is the Primordial Sat [link]
Brahman is Within the small space in the Heart-lotus [link]
Brahman is the Most Desired and Desirable Value of Life [link]
Brahman is the Unaffected Witness of Our Dream etc. [link]
Brahman as the Supreme Unmanifest [link]
Brahman the subject-matter of Karmakanda also [link]
The Five Forms of Brahman [link]
Brahman the Proximate and the Ultimate Cause in Cosmic Creation [link]
The Grammar of Samanvaya [link]
Brahman is both the Male and the Female Principle in Creation [link]
Brahman Denoted by Negatives and Negations as well [link]
General Introduction to Adhyaya II [link]
Opposition of Non-Vedantic Smrtis Knocked Down [link]
Srutis and Vedantic-Smrt’s have a higher Status [link]
Concept of Presiding Deities over Insentient Principles [link]
Primordial Antecedent Negation is not the Author of the World [link]
Brahman’s Causality unimpaired by Supposed Ekibhava in Moksa [link]
Brahman is the One Independent World-Cause [link]
Jivas cannot be the World-Cause [link]
Does God Exert a Part or the whole of His Being in Creation [link]
Brahman’s Cosmic Activities are only for the Benefit of the Souls [link]
Concept of Brahman as Nirdosagunapurnam Upheld [link]
General Introduction to Pada 2 of Avirodha-Adhyaya [link]
Insentient Prakrti Incapable of Self-directed Activity [link]
Sesvara-Samkhya Refuted [link]
Carvaka Refuted (Carvaka Refuted) [link]
Purusopasarjana-Prakrtivada Untenable [link]
Prakrtyupasarjana-Purusavada Untenable [link]
Refutation of Vaisesika Doctrine [link]
Vaibhasika and Sautrantika Schools of Buddhism Refuted [link]
Refutation of Sunyavada [link]
Refutation of Vijnanavada [link]
Refutation of Jainism [link]
Pasupata School Examined [link]
Sakta School Examined [link]
Genesis of Avyakrtakasa [link]
Genesis of Mukhya-Prana [link]
Brahman is Absolutely Without Origination [link]
Fire and Water spring from Brahman [link]
No Contradiction among Link-Texts [link]
No Contradiction respecting Authorship of Laya [link]
Retraction of Tattvas in reverse order [link]
No Exception to Law of Retraction in Reverse Order [link]
Brahman is not subject to Laya [link]
Jivatman also has Genesis from Brahman [link]
Size of the Jivatman [link]
Yogi-Jivas have power to extend themselves thro’their Amsas [link]
Jiva is Different from Brahman [link]
Jiva’s Svarupopadhi is Everlasting [link]
Brahman’s Grace manifests Jiva’s obscured Svarupananda [link]
Jivatman is a real Agent [link]
Jiva is an Amsa of Brahman [link]
Jivas as Pratibimbas of Brahman vary according to their Svarupopadhis [link]
Genesis of the Senses and their Abhimanidevatias [link]
Genesis of the Mind [link]
Genesis of Speech-Sense [link]
Number of Senses [link]
Senses are minute [link]
Genesis of Adhyatma-Mukhya-Prana [link]
Status of Mukhya-Prana [link]
Mukhya-Prana’s relation to the Five Pranas and their Deities [link]
Mukhya-Prana’s Parimana [link]
Senses are Jivatman’s instruments only under Brahman’s direction [link]
Mukhya-Prana is not one of the Senses [link]
Microcosm of the Body and its organs are also fashioned by Brahman [link]
Elements of which the physical body is composed [link]
Text of Sutras of Vairagya Pada [link]
Jivas not completely isolated from the Elements at Death [link]
Place and role of karma among Sadhanas Defined [link]
Jivas return with residual Karma [link]
The Returning Route [link]
The Outgoing and Incoming of Jivas due to effect of Karma [link]
Disabilities of Anistadikarins [link]
Impermanent and Permanent Hells [link]
Anistadikarins’ sufferings in Hell [link]
Freedom of Adhikarins is limited to Sadhanas only [link]
Absolute Misery of Andhatamasa [link]
Vicissitudes of Returning Jivas [link]
Returning Karmins are born soon after [link]
Returning Jivas do not own corn etc. as their own bodies [link]
Returning Jivas enter the body of the Impregnator [link]
Normal and exceptional modes of genesis of Jivas [link]
Dream Objects are real and are Created by God [link]
Brahman the Withdrawer of Dreams [link]
Conscious Living in Waking State Dependent on B. [link]
In Susupti Jiva rests in B. Present in Susumnanadi [link]
Jiva’s Waking from Susupti is only threo’ B.’s Impulsion [link]
All states of All Jivas Dependent on B. for all time [link]
B. attained by Jiva in Part in Swoon [link]
Brahman Equally Perfect in all Its Forms [link]
Brahman’s Form is Trans-empirical [link]
Bhedabhedavada Refuted in the interests of Bhakti [link]
Only Clinging Love of God can manifest Bliss of Selfhood [link]
Well-Defined Gradation of Bhakti Among gods and the human Souls Necessary [link]
B. the Protector and Nourisher of all Beings [link]
B.’s Nature Essentially Unmanifest [link]
B. is both Possessor of Attributes and the very Essence of those Attributes [link]
B.’s Attribute are all Trans-empirical in character [link]
Variations in Intrinsic attributes of Jivas Explained without entailing variations in B.’s attributes [link]
Brahman transcends mental constructs of meditation [link]
B. the Sole Author of Cosmic Dispensations for all time and place [link]
Brahman the Bestower of the fruits of Karma [link]
B. to be known thro’ conclusions of Entire Vedic lore [link]
B. to be meditated upon by combining all attributes and absence of imperfections [link]
Upasamhara and Anupasamhara of Attributes according to fitness of Adhikarins [link]
Upasamhara of more attributes according to Yogyata of Adhikarins [link]
Four Principal attributes to be meditated upon by all Mumuksus [link]
Attributes like Priyasirastva Not to be meditated upon by all Mumuksus [link]
Devas and Rsis eligible for Upasana of ‘Madhyamagunas’ [link]
Possibility of Upasamhara and Anupasamhara Shown [link]
Atmatva embraces all other attributes also in its connotation for Upasamhara [link]
Power of Atmatva to connote other attributes regulated by ‘Yogyata of Upasakas [link]
Why Brahman’s attributes are to be meditated upon as trans-empirical [link]
Accord of Upasana and fruits in the case of Brahma and His Consort and among other Devas [link]
Upasamhara and Anupasamhara of Attributes connoted by ‘Atman’ regulated by Adhikarayogyata [link]
Only Devas Fit to Meditate on Sambhrti, Dyuvyapti and other attributes [link]
All Adhikarins have to collect gunas for meditation according to Yogyata [link]
Ascetics not eligible for Upasana of some attributes [link]
Upasana continues in Moksa too [link]
Muktas engage in Karmas only at their pleasure [link]
All Aparoksajnanins attain Moksa [link]
Taratamya in Moksa proves difference of Yogyata in Upasana [link]
Gradation of Adhikarins ends with Prana [link]
Pranativadin distinguished from Brahmativadin [link]
Vijnana, Mati, Sraddha etc., same as Satya Brahman [link]
Why Sritattva not listed among Adhikarins [link]
Sravana, Manana etc., to be inclusively carried out [link]
Place and Importance of Guru [link]
Guru’s grace in relation to personal effort [link]
Change of Guru-When permitted? [link]
Aparoksajnana-not Karma the direct means of Moksa [link]
Primacy of Jnana over Karma not contradicted by Smrti [link]
Bhakti essential Itikartavyata [link]
Direct vision of Brahman differs according to Adhikarins [link]
Bimbaparoksa Indispensable [link]
Only Grace helps Bhakti to reach Brahman [link]
Abhinnamasas derive Yogyata from their Amsins [link]
Upasana of Parivara Devatas [link]
Infinitude of all attributes to be incorporated in meditations [link]
Comprehension of range of infinitude according to Yogyata [link]
Additional Upasana of special Forms [link]
Optional Upasanas of Brahman [link]
Angadevatopasana for Devas [link]
Angadevatopasanas are open only to Devas [link]
Wide powers of Aparoksajnana [link]
Fitness for Aparoksa defined [link]
Fitness for Aparoksa varies among Sadhakas [link]
Jnanin’s conformity to ethical standards [link]
Only Eligibles attain Aparoksa [link]
Ambitions beyond deserts to be eschewed by Jnanins [link]
Fruits of Aparoksa accruing to Tattvabhimanins [link]
Tattvabhimanins observe duties of all Varnasramas [link]
Paroksajnana not to be indiscriminately publicized [link]
Aparoksa may be attained in subsequent lives also [link]
Fruits of Aparoksa may be attained in another life also [link]
Repeated performance of Sravana; Manana, etc. necessary [link]
Brahman to be contemplated as One’s Ruler [link]
Brahman to be contemplated Only as being present in the Pratikas [link]
Brahman to be contemplated as Ever-Perfect [link]
Devas should meditate on Brahman’s limbs as places of their origin [link]
Importance of Asanas in Meditation [link]
Jnanin shall carry on Upasana till Moksa is attained [link]
Liquidation of past and future Karmas of Aparoksajnanins in one or more lives [link]
Merger of Deities of Speech and Mind [link]
Merger of Deities of Speech and Mind [link]
Prana-Hiranyagarbha merges in supreme Brahman [link]
Merger of other Deities in Agni and elsewhere [link]
Merger of other Deities in Agni and elsewhere [link]
Sritattva has no bodily merger [link]
Laya of Hiranyagarbha in Para-Brahman [link]
Devas do not become independent after Laya [link]
Jnanin’s death and Utkranti differ from the ordinary mortal’s [link]
Remembrance of Gati at death essential [link]
Route of Devayana begins with Arcis only [link]
Ativahika-Vayu is the second stage [link]
After Lightning Varuna is the next stage [link]
Vayu given in second place is Ativahika-Vayu and not Mukhya-Prana [link]
Purusa-Manava (Mukhya-Prana) leads to Brahman [link]
The Goal of the Jnanin [link]
No Going beyond Brahman [link]
Full-Fledged Mukta is Enjoyer of Bhogas [link]
Paramjyoti attained by Mukta is Para-Brahman [link]
Bhogas enjoyed in Sayujya are an iota of Brahman’s [link]
How Muktas enjoy Sayujyamukti [link]
Muktas’ enjoyments are effortless [link]
Have Muktas any Masters in Release ? [link]
Muktabhogas with or without bodies [link]
Limitation of Powers of Muktas [link]
Quantum of Svarupananda of Muktas remains constant [link]
Journey’s End-The Land of No-Return [link]

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