Sparsha, aka: Sparśa; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Sparsha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Sparśa can be transliterated into English as Sparsa or Sparsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Sparsha in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

1a) Sparśa (स्पर्श).—A Tuṣita.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 19; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 18.

1b) The guṇa of Vāyu devoured by Ākāśa when Vāyu cools down.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 15.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “touch”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “touch”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by slightly narrowing down the eyes, raising the eyebrows in the like manner as well as by touching (sparśa) the shoulder and the cheek, the wise one should represent the form”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Sparśa (स्पर्श).—A contact consonant; a term used in connection with the consonants of the five classes, verily because the karana or the tip of the tongue touches the place of utterance in the mouth in their pronunciation; cf. कादयो भावसानाः स्पर्शाः (kādayo bhāvasānāḥ sparśāḥ) S.K. Samjnaprakarana on P. VIII. 2.1; cf. also आद्याः स्पर्शाः पञ्च ते पञ्चवर्गाः (ādyāḥ sparśāḥ pañca te pañcavargāḥ) R.Pr. I.78: cf. also T.Pr.I.7.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Sparśa (स्पर्श).—First contact of an eclipse. Note: Sparśa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Sparsha in Nyaya glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “touch”) or Sparśaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Sparśa is the fourth guṇa. It is a special guṇa. It can be apprehended through the organ of skin. Praśastapāda gives the definition of sparśa as sparśa is perceived by skin. Śivāditya states that touch is that quality which is apprehended by skin only and which possesses the generic attribute sparśatva. Viśvanātha also gives the similar definition of touch that sparśa is perceived by the sense of touch. Annaṃbhaṭṭa gives similar definition. He says “tvagindriyamātragrāhyo guṇah sparśaḥ”. In this definition the word mātra is necessary to avoid saṃyoga, saṃkhyā etc. because these qualities are perceived by the sense of touch and by the eye also. The word guṇa is added in this definition to exclude the jāti sparśatva.

Sparśa (touch) is threefold–cool, hot and tepid. It subsists in earth, water, light and air. Of them cool touch resides in water, hot touch in light, tepid touch in earth and air. When this quality is in the earth, it is produced and it is non-eternal. But when this quality is in water, light and air etc., it is not produced by heat, it is natural. Sparśa becomes eternal things and it becomes non-eternal when it is found in noneternal things. This sparśaguṇa is mūrtaguṇa and it resides in one substance, therefore, it is known as ekadravyavṛtti. Moreover it is ekendriyagrāhya because it is apprehended by the one external sense only.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Sparśa (स्पर्श) refers to a type of dīkṣā (initiation) performed by a healthy Ādiśaiva as part of his essential priestly duties in the Śiva temple.—Dīkṣā is popularly understood as “dīyate kṣīyate iti dīkṣā”—“that which grants mokṣa, while destroying the karma of the initiate”. Sparśa-dīkṣā is the process by which the Guru invokes Śiva in his right hand and destroys the bonds of the śiṣya by touching him on the head with the energized hand.

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “contact”) (pali phassa) refers to the sixth of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. From nāmarūpa there arise the six sense organs, eye (cakṣus), etc. These are the ṣaḍāyatanas, the six inner bases of consciousness. The meeting (saṃnipāta) of organ (indriya), object (viṣaya) and a consciousness (vijñāna) is called sparśa, contact. From sparśa there arises vedanā, sensation.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “tangible”) or sparśāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., sparśa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Sparśa also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

Sparśa also refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30).

Sparśa also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).

Sparśa also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).

Sparśa also refers to the sixth of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42).

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Sparsha in Jainism glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “touch”) refers to the object of sparśana (touching), which represents one of the “five sense-organs” (pañcendriya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.19. Cognition which results by touching the object of knowledge is called touch (sparśa). How many kinds of touch are there? There are eight namely cold-hot, oily-dry or smooth-rough, soft-hard and heavy-light. What is the form of touch sense organ? There are innumerable forms of touch sense organ.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Sparśa (स्पर्श, “touch”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.23.—“The forms of matter (pudgala) are characterized by touch (sparśa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha) and colour (varṇa)”. What is the meaning of touch (sparśa)? What is touched or just touching alone is touch. How many types of touch are there? There are eight types of touch namely light and heavy, rough and smooth, hard and soft, cold and hot.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Sparśa (स्पर्श) refers to “touch karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is the touch (sparśa) body-making karma? The karmas rise of which gives the touch attribute to the body are called touch body-making karma.

How many types of touch (sparśa) body-making karma are there? These are of eight types, namely:

  1. smooth (kaṭhora), 
  2. dry (komala), 
  3. cold (guru), 
  4. hot (laghu), 
  5. soft (rūkṣa), 
  6. hard (snigdha), 
  7. light (śīta), 
  8. heavy (uṣṇa).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Sparsha in Marathi glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

sparśa (स्पर्श).—m (S) Touch, taction, contact. 2 The sense of touch. 3 That property of bodies which constitutes them objects of the sense of touch, tactility or tangibility. 4 A consonant of any of the first five classes of the alphabet; i. e. from ka, kha &c. to pa, pha, ba, bha, ma. 5 A gem or stone of which the touch turns iron into gold, the philosopher's stone. 6 (Figuratively of the sense Touch or contact.) A whit, jot, iota, tittle, bit, the merest tangible point. Ex. hṛdayānta dayēcā sparśa nāhīṃ; tyālā adattaśirōmaṇī hmaṇūna hmaṇāvēṃ udāratvācā kiṃvā nustyā snēhācā tyālā sparśa nāhīṃ. 7 S Air or wind.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sparśa (स्पर्श).—m Touch; the sense of touch. Tan- gibility. A little, a bit, as tyācyā anta:- karaṇāta dayēcā sparśahī nāhī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sparśa (स्पर्श).—1 [स्पर्श्, स्पृश् वा-घञ् (sparś, spṛś vā-ghañ)] Touch, contact (in all senses); स्पर्शान् कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः (sparśān kṛtvā bahirbāhyāṃścakṣuścaivāntare bhruvoḥ) Bg.5.27; तदिदं स्पर्शक्षमं रत्नम् (tadidaṃ sparśakṣamaṃ ratnam) Ś.1.28;2.7.

2) Contact (in astr.).

3) Conflict, encounter.

4) Feeling, sensation, the sense of touch.

5) The quality of touch or tangibility, touch, the object or विषय (viṣaya) of skin (tvac); स्पर्शगुणो वायुः (sparśaguṇo vāyuḥ) T. S.; स्पर्शनं स्पर्शती स्पर्शान् बुद्धिर्विक्रियतेऽसकृत् (sparśanaṃ sparśatī sparśān buddhirvikriyate'sakṛt) Mb.12.285.2.

6) That which affects or influences, affection, seizure.

7) Disease, illness, disorder, distemper.

8) A consonant of any of the five classes of letters (from k to m); कादयो मान्ताः स्पर्शाः (kādayo māntāḥ sparśāḥ); स्पर्शस्तस्याभवज्जीवः स्वरो देह उदाहृतः (sparśastasyābhavajjīvaḥ svaro deha udāhṛtaḥ) Bhāg.3.12.46.

9) A gift, donation, presentation.

1) Air, wind.

11) The sky.

12) Sexual union; स्त्रीपुंसयोः संप्रयोगे स्पर्शः कस्याधिको भवेत् (strīpuṃsayoḥ saṃprayoge sparśaḥ kasyādhiko bhavet) Mb.13.12.1.

13) A secret spy.

-rśā An unchaste woman.

Derivable forms: sparśaḥ (स्पर्शः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 142 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Sparshamani
Sparśamaṇi (स्पर्शमणि).—m. (-ṇiḥ) A stone, the philosopher’s stone, converting every thing it t...
Sparshavedya
Sparśavedya (स्पर्शवेद्य).—a. to be apprehended by the sense of touch. Sparśavedya is a Sanskr...
Atalasparsha
Atalasparśa (अतलस्पर्श).—a. [na. tale spṛśyate karmaṇi kvip; na talasya sparśo yatra] bottomles...
Sparshasyanda
Sparśasyanda (स्पर्शस्यन्द) or Sparśaspanda.—m. (-ndaḥ) A frog. E. sparśa the touch, spanda who...
Shuktisparsha
Śuktisparśa (शुक्तिस्पर्श).—m. (-rśaḥ) Dusky spots on a pearl, causing it to be of little value...
Sparshendriya
Sparśendriya (स्पर्शेन्द्रिय).—the organ or sense of touch. Derivable forms: sparśendriyam (स्प...
Sparshaspanda
Sparśaspanda (स्पर्शस्पन्द) or Sparśasyanda.—m. (-ndaḥ) A frog. E. sparśa the touch, spanda who...
Sparshananda
Sparśānandā (स्पर्शानन्दा).—f. (-ndā) One of the Apsarasas. E. sparśa touch, ānanda delighting.
Sparshalajja
Sparśalajjā (स्पर्शलज्जा).—f. (-jjā) A sensitive plant, (Mimosa pudica.) E. sparśa the touch, a...
Kakasparsha
Kākasparśa (काकस्पर्श).—1) The touching of a crow. 2) A ceremony performed on the tenth day aft...
Sparshasnana
Sparśasnāna (स्पर्शस्नान).—ablution at the entrance of a sun or moon into an eclipse. Derivable...
Sparshadhatu
Sparśadhātu (स्पर्शधातु) or simply sparśa refers to the “touch element” and represents one of t...
Sparsharupaskandha
Sparśarūpaskandha (स्पर्शरूपस्कन्ध) or simply sparśa refers to the “tangible form component” an...
Udakasparsha
Udakasparśa (उदकस्पर्श).—1) touching different parts of the body with water. 2) touching water ...
Sparshayatana
Sparśāyatana (स्पर्शायतन) or simply sparśa refers to the “sense sphere of the tangible” and rep...

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