The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes the vow of adityashayana which is chapter 25 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the twenty-fifth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 25 - The Vow of Ādityaśayana

Bhīṣma said:

1. Tell me about the vow that is desirable for one who is unable to observe fasts due to lack of practice or ill health.

Pulastya said:

2. Hear about that great vow in (the performance of) which meal at night is prescribed for those who are unable to observe fasts.

3. It is called Ādityaśayana in which Śaṅkara is to be properly worshipped. (Listen to) the conjunctions of constellations (and planets), which, those who are well-versed in the Purāṇas, prescribe.

4. That seventh day of the month which falls on Sunday with Hasta (rising on that day), and on which there is also the transition[1] of the Sun, is the one which satisfies all desires.

5. With (the utterance of) the names of the Sun, a man should worship Umā and Maheśvara; and hereafter he should worship both the Sun and the Phallus of Śiva.

6. Since no distinction is ever made between the lord of Umā (i.e. Śiva) and the Sun, therefore, O best of kings, he should worship the Sun at his house.

7. With (the appearance of) Hasta (in the sky he should worship the feet (of the image of the Sun, saying:) ‘My salutation to Sūrya.’ On (the appearance of) Citrā (in the sky, he should worship) the region of the ankles (of the Sun’s image, saying:) ‘My salutation to Arka’. On (the appearance of) Svāti (in the sky, he should worship) the shanks (of the Sun’s image, saying:) ‘My salutation to Puruṣottama’. On (the appearance of) the Viśākhā (in the sky, he should worship) the region of knees (of the Sun’s image, saying:) ‘My salutation to Dhātṛ.’

8. Then (on the appearance) of Anurādhā the couple of the thighs of (the image of) the Sun should be worshipped. On (the appearance of) Jyeṣṭhā (in the sky, he should worship) the organ of generation (of the image of the Sun saying:) ‘My salutation to Anaṅga’. On (the appearance of) Mūla (in the sky, he should worship) the waist of the image, saying:) ‘My saluation to the fearful Indra’.

9. On (the appearance of) the two viz. Pūrvā and Uttarā Āṣādhā (in the sky, he should worship) the navel (of the image saying:) ‘My salutation to Tvaṣṭṛ with seven horses’. On (the appearance of) Śravaṇa (in the sky, he should worship) the ears (of the image saying:) ‘My salutation to Tīkṣāṃśu’. On (the appearance of) Dhaniṣṭhā (in the sky, he should worship) the sides and the back (of the image saying:) ‘My salutation to Vikartana’.

10. On (the appearance of Śatatārakā (in the sky, he should worship) the chest (of the image, saying:) ‘My salutation to Dhvānta-vināśana (i.e. to the destroyer of darkness)’. On the appearance of the two, viz. Pūrvā and Uttarā Bhādrapadā (in the sky), he should worship the arms (of the image saying:) ‘My salutation to Caṇḍakara’.

11. O king, on (the appearance of) Revatī (in the sky), the couple of the hands (of the image) should be worshipped (saying:) ‘My salutation to Sāmnām Adhīśa (i.e. to the lord of the Sāmans)’. Similarly on (the appearance of) Aśvinī (in the sky), the nails (of the image) should be worshipped by a man (saying:) ‘My salutation to Saptāśvadhurandhara (i.e. having seven excellent horses).’

12. On (the appearance of) Bharaṇī (in the sky), the throat (of the image) should be worshipped (saying:) ‘My salutation to Divākara of severe lustre’. O you descendant of Bharata, on (the appearance of) Kṛttikā and Rohiṇī (in the sky, a man) should worship the lips (of the image).

13. On (the appearance of) Mṛga (in the sky), the tongue (of the image) of Purāri should be worshipped. On (the appearance of) Ārdrā (in the sky), (a man) should worship the teeth (of the image saying:) ‘My salutation to Hari’. On (the appearance of) Punarvasu (in the sky), the nose (of image) of Śiva, should be worshipped (saying:) ‘My salutation to Savitṛ’.

14. On (the appearance of) Puṣya (in the sky), the forehead (of the image should be worshipped saying:) ‘My salutation to Ambhoruha, and the hair (should be worshipped saying: ‘My salutation’ to Vedaśarīradhārin’. On (the appearance of) Āśleṣā (in the sky), (he should worship) the head (saying:) ‘My salutation to Vibudhapriya’. On (the appearance of) Maghā (in the sky), he should worship the ears (of the image).

15. On the appearance af Pūrvā (in the sky), he should properly worship the eyes of (the image of) Śambhu (saying:) ‘My salutation to Go-brāhmaṇa-nandana (i.e. to him who delights the cows and the brāhmaṇas).’ On (the appearance of) Uttarā-phālgunī (in the sky), he should worship the eye-brows of the image (saying:) My salutation to Viśveśvara’.

16. (He should also say:) ‘My salutation to the holder of the noose, the goad, the lotus, the trident, the skull, the serpent, the (crescent-) moon and the bow, and also to Śiva, the root (i.e. the cause) of the destruction of the demon Gaja and of Cupid, and (the demon) Andhaka etc.’

17. Thus having worshipped the various parts (ofthe body of the image), he should worship the head saying: ‘My salutation to Śiva’. Here (i.e. during this vow) also he should eat food free from oil and salt, should not eat flesh and food left over.

18-19. Thus, O king, having eaten only at night, he should, on the day of Punarvasu, present a measure of Śāli—rice, an udumbara fruit, ghee, along with gold, after having placed (these things) in a vessel, to a brāhmaṇa. On the seventh conclusion of the fast he should give a pair of garments or more (to a brāhmaṇa).

20. O you descendant of Bharata, when the conclusion of the fourteenth fast has come (i.e. at the time of the conclusion of the fourteenth fast) he should devoutly feed a brāhmaṇa with jaggery, (sweetened) milk, ghee etc.

21-25. Having fashioned a golden lotus with eight leaves and a pericarp, which should be pure, of the length of eight fingers and should have petals of rubies; having prepared an excellent bed, free from improper protuberances, with a pillow and a cushion, with a good carpet and a coverlet, along with wooden sandals, shoes, an umbrella, a chowrie, a seat, a mirror and ornaments, and also with fruits, garments; and having placed that (golden) lotus on it (i.e. on the bed), he should give it (and) a tawny cow of good qualities, giving profuse milk, having good habits, with her hoofs (adorned) with silver, horns decorated with gold, udders with bell-metal, along with her calf to a brāhmaṇa in the forenoon to the accompaniment of the sacred text (given below); he should not tarry (in this matter).

26-27. ‘O Āditya, as your body is always occupied by Kānti (lustre), Dhṛti (energy), Śrī (splendour) and Puṣṭi (nourishment), in the same way may I have prosperity. As the gods do not know anyone other than you as superior and innocent, so emancipate me from the entire painful ocean of the worldly existence.’

28. Then having gone round (the brāhmaṇa) he should allow (him) to go. He should take all that—the bed, the cow etc. to the house of the brāhmaṇa.

29. One should not disclose this vow of (Śiva) having the crescent-moon on his head, to a man of bad character, or a hypocrite or to those who are connected with impious acts with reference to cows, brāhmaṇas and gods or to him who very much indulges in calumny.

30. This secret (vow) which causes delight and which is auspicious, should be narrated to a restrained devotee. Those who are well-versed in the Vedas say that this (vow) destroys the sin of people (who are) great sinners.

31. A man, who observes this vow devoutly, is not separated from his relatives, sons, wealth, wives and gives delight to gods. He, and also a woman, who observe this vow devoutly do not meet with a disease, nor with grief or delusion.

32. This (vow of Śiva) was formerly observed by Vasiṣṭha, Arjuna, Kubera (and) Indra. Even by its narration all sins perish. There is no doubt about it.

33. He, who thus recites or listens to this (vow called) Ravi-śayana, would; become dear to Indra. He, who observes this (vow) brings (i.e. takes) to heaven even (those of) his manes who have fallen into hell.

34-35. The great sages have recommended aśvattha, vaṭa and the udumbara tree, and also the tree of nandīśa, of jambu and bilva; in each of the couple of months, beginning with Mārgaśīrṣa, he should use, one by one, (the wood of) each of these trees (for making a brush) to clean his teeth.

36-37. At the conclusion (of the vow), he should give food with curds, a cushion, a flag and a chowrie, and also five water-pitchers with gems to brāhmaṇas. He should not have vanity about his wealth; if he has, he gets blemishes.

Footnotes and references:


Saṅkrānti: Passage from one point to another, transition, the passage of the Sun or any planetary body from one zodiacal sign into another.

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