Ardra, Ārdrā, Ārdra: 31 definitions


Ardra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Ārdrānakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Ārdrā means “green” or “the moist one” and is associated with the deity known as Rudra (God of destruction). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Rahu (North lunar node).

Indian zodiac: |6°40'| – |20° Mithuna|
Mithuna (मिथुन, ‘twins’) corresponds with Gemini.

Western zodiac: |2°40'| – |16° Cancer|
Cancer corresponds with Karka (कर्क, “crab”).

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the 6th constellation, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “In the six lunar mansions beginning from Revatī (the 27th) the stars are towards the east; and in the twelve beginning from Ārdrā (the 6th) they are in the centre; and in the nine beginning from Jyeṣṭhā (the 18th) they are in the west of the several mansions; and the moon’s conjunction with the several lunar mansions is said to take place when the moon is in the middle of these mansions”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ārdra (आर्द्र) refers to “melting (with pity)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.51 (“The resuscitation of Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] On seeing her husband in the same form as before, wielding the bow and the arrows and smiling, Rati bowed to lord Śiva. She became contented. With her husband resuscitated and with palms joined in reverence she eulogised the lord, the bestower of her husband, frequently. On hearing the eulogy of Kāma and his wife, Śiva was delighted and he spoke with his heart melting with pity [karuṇa-ārdrakaruṇārdradhīḥ]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—The name of a constellation.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 3.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the Sanskrit name for an asterism (Alpha-Orionis). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.14-15, the master of the dramatic art (nāṭyācārya) should perform raṅgapūjā after offering pūjā to the Jarjara (Indra’s staff). Accordingly, “After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the phayhouse for the night, he should begin pūjā as soon as it is morning. This pūjā connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ārdrā, Maghā, Yāmyā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā, Pūrvabhādrapadā, Aśleṣā or Mūlā”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the sixth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (e.g., ārdrā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) [defined as उ.इ.इ.उ] of the Upajāti type as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—We find thirteen examples of Ārdrā variety of Upajāti metre in the Bhīṣmacarita. The example of it is verse IV.1. [...] The other examples are as follows: IV.26, X.4, X.5, X.6, X.7, X.13, X.18, X.26, XIV.5, XIV.6, XIV.7 and XIV.18.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Ārdra (आर्द्र):—Moist; Collection of herbal Materials in wet / fresh condition

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) (Nakṣatra) is considered negative for the recovery for a person to be bitten by snake, as taught in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The malignant asterisms and baneful lunar phases and astral combinations, with reference to snake-bite, are discussed in the tail-end of the fourth Adhyāya. [...] The Kāśyapasaṃhitā mentions the following details regarding the Nakṣatras:—The stars of a malignant nature that determine the virulence of the poison of the snake bite are [e.g., Ārdrā] (Cf. verse IV.108)

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Ārdra (आर्द्र) refers to “(being) soaked (with compassion)”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I seek refuge with the glorious goddess Sundarī, the benefactress of prosperity, the secret heart, whose heart is soaked with compassion (daya-ārdra-hṛdaya). She is blazing with an utmost tenacity steeped in joy, and consequently beaming with plenteous light that shimmers spontaneously. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा, ‘moist’) is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Ārdrās in the Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra and the Nakṣatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhū, in the Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Ārdrā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Chen, Tibetan Lag and modern Orionis.

Ārdrā is classified in the third group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the six following constellations (e.g., Ārdrā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse, this trembling extends as far as the Garuḍa. Then there is no more rain, the rivers dry up, the year is bad for grain, the emperor (T’ien tseu) is cruel and the great ministers are unjust”.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the name of a Nakṣatra mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Ārdrā] with a group of kingdoms for the sake of protection and prosperity.

The Ārdrānakṣatra comprises the following realms:

  1. A-che-p'o (Aśva?),
  2. Che-po-no (Śavana?),
  3. Mo-t'eou-lo (Mathurā),
  4. Yang-kia-tch'a-p'o (Aṅgaḍava?),
  5. Ma-t'eou-man-to (Madhumanta?),
  6. Kiu-tcheou-lo (Kujula?),
  7. Man-tchö (Maṃca?),
  8. P'o-k'ieou-mo (Vaguma?),
  9. Kiu-chö-p'o (Kujava?),
  10. Tchin-ts'ie (China?),
  11. Cheou-lo-si-no (Śurasena),
  12. A-na-meou-k'ia (Anamukha?),
  13. K'ia-lo-p'o-lo (Kharavara or Kharabhara?),
  14. Si-mo-so[p'o] (Semasa or Semava?),
  15. Na-neou-lo-p'o-po-t'o (Darduraparvata),
  16. Man-tch'e-lo-p'o (Maṇḍirava?),
  17. Hi-tcheou-kia (Hejuka?).
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to one of the various Nakṣatras mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ārdrā).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the sixth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Ārdrā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Ārdrā is given the colour yellow].

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Ardra (अर्द्र) refers to the “moistures (of pleasure)” (of wisdom and means), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...] [He should meditate on] moistures (ardra) of pleasure of wisdom and means in all junctures throughout the body. He should visualize [himself (Heruka)] being splendorous with fires, [which assume the shape of] various [forms of] Heruka. The vow-observer should give turbans to the heads of all [Herukas] . [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ārdra (आर्द्र) refers to “(being) succulent with (compassion)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Homage to that wishing tree that is the doctrine which is certainly succulent with compassion (dayā-ārdra), by which the world is made pure, indeed by which it is maintained. That very same doctrine is proclaimed by the Jinas as possessed of ten characteristics, having honoured even a part of which those who have subdued their senses obtain liberation”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ārdrā.—(SITI), Tamil ātrai; probably, the expenses for the ārdrā festival in the month of Mārgaḻi. Note: ārdrā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ārdra (आर्द्र).—a (S) Wet, moist, humid.

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ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f (S) The sixth of the twenty-seven nakṣatra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārdra (आर्द्र).—n Wet, moist, humid.

--- OR ---

ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f The 6th of the 27 nakṣatras.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—a. [ā-ard-rak dīrghaśca Uṇādi-sūtra 2.18]

1) Wet, moist, damp; तन्त्रीमार्द्रां नयनसलिलैः (tantrīmārdrāṃ nayanasalilaiḥ) Meghadūta 88.45; आर्द्राक्षतारोपणमन्वभूताम् (ārdrākṣatāropaṇamanvabhūtām) R.7.28.

2) Succulent, living, not dry, green, juicy; आर्द्रं द्रव्यं द्विधा प्रोक्तं सरसं नीरसं तथा (ārdraṃ dravyaṃ dvidhā proktaṃ sarasaṃ nīrasaṃ tathā)

3) Fresh, new; कामी- वार्द्रापराधः (kāmī- vārdrāparādhaḥ) Amaruśataka 2; कान्तमार्दापराधम् (kāntamārdāparādham) M.3.12; R.14.4. आर्द्रमञ्जरी (ārdramañjarī) a cluster of fresh blossoms.

4) Soft, tender; oft. used with words like स्नेह, दया, करुणा (sneha, dayā, karuṇā) in the sense of 'flowing with', 'moved', 'melted'; स्नेहार्द्रं हृदयम् (snehārdraṃ hṛdayam) a heart wet or melted with pity; करुणा°, दया° (karuṇā°, dayā°); प्रेमार्द्राः चेष्टाः (premārdrāḥ ceṣṭāḥ) Māl. 5.7.

5) Full of feeling, warm.

6) Loose, flaccid.

-rdrā Name of a constellation or the sixth lunar mansion so called (consisting of one star). [cf. Gr. ardo].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—mfn.

(-rdraḥ-rdrā-rdraṃ) 1. Wet, moist, damp. 2. Fresh, not dry. 3. Loose, flaccid. 4. Tender, soft. f.

(-rdrā) The sixth Nakshatra or lunar mansion. E. ad to go, rak Unadi affix, and the pen. lengthened.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—adj., f. . 1. Wet, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 87. 2. Fresh, [Amaruśataka, (ed. Calcutt.)] 2. 3. Mild, [Pañcatantra] 8, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—[adjective] wet, moist, succulent, fresh, new, soft, tender. [feminine] ā [Name] of a lunar mansion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ārdra (आर्द्र):—mf(ā)n. (√ard, [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 18]) wet, moist, damp, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti; Suśruta; Meghadūta] etc.

2) fresh, not dry, succulent, green (as a plant), living, [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) fresh, new, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) soft, tender, full of feeling, warm

5) loose, flaccid, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Meghadūta; Pañcatantra] etc.

6) m. Name of a grandson of Pṛthu, [Harivaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

7) Ārdrā (आर्द्रा):—[from ārdra] f. the fourth or sixth Nakṣatra or lunar mansion, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

8) Ārdra (आर्द्र):—n. fresh ginger, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]

9) dampness, moisture, [Harivaṃśa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र):—[(rdraḥ-rdrā-rdraṃ) a.] Wet; loose; soft. 1. f. The 6th lunar mansion.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ārdra (आर्द्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Adṛ, Addā, Udda, Ulla, Ullira.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ardra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र):—(a) wet; damp; humid; moist; tender; full of feeling; ~[] dampness; wetness; humidity; feeling of compassion or a compassionate mental state; ~[tāmāpī] hygrometer; ~[tāmiti] hygrometry; ~[tālekhī] hygrograph; ~[tā-vijñāna] hygrology.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ārdra (ಆರ್ದ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] suggestive of the presence of water; slightly wet; damp; moist.

2) [adjective] recently produced, obtained or arrived; newly made; fresh; new.

3) [adjective] not hard or harsh; soft.

4) [adjective] immersed in; absorbed in; deeply interested in.

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Ārdra (ಆರ್ದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the herb Zingiber officinale of Zingiberaceae family.

2) [noun] its aromatic rhizome used as a spice or perfume; common ginger.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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