Ardra, Ārdrā, Ārdra: 23 definitions
Ardra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Ārdrānakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Ārdrā means “green” or “the moist one” and is associated with the deity known as Rudra (God of destruction). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Rahu (North lunar node).
Indian zodiac: |6°40'| – |20° Mithuna|
Mithuna (मिथुन, ‘twins’) corresponds with Gemini.
Western zodiac: |2°40'| – |16° Cancer|
Cancer corresponds with Karka (कर्क, “crab”).
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ārdra (आर्द्र) is another name for Śṛṅgavera, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Zingiber officinale (fresh ginger). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.24-28), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Ārdra (आर्द्र):—Moist; Collection of herbal Materials in wet / fresh condition
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—The name of a constellation.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 3.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the Sanskrit name for an asterism (Alpha-Orionis). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.14-15, the master of the dramatic art (nāṭyācārya) should perform raṅgapūjā after offering pūjā to the Jarjara (Indra’s staff). Accordingly, “After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the phayhouse for the night, he should begin pūjā as soon as it is morning. This pūjā connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ārdrā, Maghā, Yāmyā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā, Pūrvabhādrapadā, Aśleṣā or Mūlā”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the sixth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (e.g., ārdrā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) [defined as उ.इ.इ.उ] of the Upajāti type as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—We find thirteen examples of Ārdrā variety of Upajāti metre in the Bhīṣmacarita. The example of it is verse IV.1. [...] The other examples are as follows: IV.26, X.4, X.5, X.6, X.7, X.13, X.18, X.26, XIV.5, XIV.6, XIV.7 and XIV.18.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा, ‘moist’) is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Ārdrās in the Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra and the Nakṣatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhū, in the Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Ārdrā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Chen, Tibetan Lag and modern Orionis.
Ārdrā is classified in the third group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the six following constellations (e.g., Ārdrā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse, this trembling extends as far as the Garuḍa. Then there is no more rain, the rivers dry up, the year is bad for grain, the emperor (T’ien tseu) is cruel and the great ministers are unjust”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to one of the various Nakṣatras mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ārdrā).Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the sixth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Ārdrā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Ārdrā is given the colour yellow].
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Ārdrā.—(SITI), Tamil ātrai; probably, the expenses for the ārdrā festival in the month of Mārgaḻi. Note: ārdrā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ārdra (आर्द्र).—a (S) Wet, moist, humid.
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ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f (S) The sixth of the twenty-seven nakṣatra.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ārdra (आर्द्र).—n Wet, moist, humid.
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ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f The 6th of the 27 nakṣatras.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Ārdra (आर्द्र).—a. [ā-ard-rak dīrghaśca Uṇ.2.18]
1) Wet, moist, damp; तन्त्रीमार्द्रां नयनसलिलैः (tantrīmārdrāṃ nayanasalilaiḥ) Me.88.45; आर्द्राक्षतारोपणमन्वभूताम् (ārdrākṣatāropaṇamanvabhūtām) R.7.28.
2) Succulent, living, not dry, green, juicy; आर्द्रं द्रव्यं द्विधा प्रोक्तं सरसं नीरसं तथा (ārdraṃ dravyaṃ dvidhā proktaṃ sarasaṃ nīrasaṃ tathā)
3) Fresh, new; कामी- वार्द्रापराधः (kāmī- vārdrāparādhaḥ) Amaru.2; कान्तमार्दापराधम् (kāntamārdāparādham) M.3.12; R.14.4. आर्द्रमञ्जरी (ārdramañjarī) a cluster of fresh blossoms.
4) Soft, tender; oft. used with words like स्नेह, दया, करुणा (sneha, dayā, karuṇā) in the sense of 'flowing with', 'moved', 'melted'; स्नेहार्द्रं हृदयम् (snehārdraṃ hṛdayam) a heart wet or melted with pity; करुणा°, दया° (karuṇā°, dayā°); प्रेमार्द्राः चेष्टाः (premārdrāḥ ceṣṭāḥ) Māl. 5.7.
5) Full of feeling, warm.
6) Loose, flaccid.
-rdrā Name of a constellation or the sixth lunar mansion so called (consisting of one star). [cf. Gr. ardo].Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rdraḥ-rdrā-rdraṃ) 1. Wet, moist, damp. 2. Fresh, not dry. 3. Loose, flaccid. 4. Tender, soft. f.
(-rdrā) The sixth Nakshatra or lunar mansion. E. ad to go, rak Unadi affix, and the pen. lengthened.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ārdra (आर्द्र).—adj., f. rā. 1. Wet, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 87. 2. Fresh, [Amaruśataka, (ed. Calcutt.)] 2. 3. Mild, [Pañcatantra] 8, 19.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ārdra (आर्द्र).—[adjective] wet, moist, succulent, fresh, new, soft, tender. [feminine] ā [Name] of a lunar mansion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ārdra (आर्द्र):—mf(ā)n. (√ard, [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 18]) wet, moist, damp, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti; Suśruta; Meghadūta] etc.
2) fresh, not dry, succulent, green (as a plant), living, [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) fresh, new, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
4) soft, tender, full of feeling, warm
5) loose, flaccid, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Meghadūta; Pañcatantra] etc.
6) m. Name of a grandson of Pṛthu, [Harivaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
7) Ārdrā (आर्द्रा):—[from ārdra] f. the fourth or sixth Nakṣatra or lunar mansion, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
8) Ārdra (आर्द्र):—n. fresh ginger, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]
9) dampness, moisture, [Harivaṃśa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ārdra (आर्द्र):—[(rdraḥ-rdrā-rdraṃ) a.] Wet; loose; soft. 1. f. The 6th lunar mansion.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Ārdra (आर्द्र):—[Die Uṇādi-Affixe 2, 19.]
1) adj. f. ā; ārdram kann mit kar zusammenges. werden gaṇa sākṣādādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 4, 74.] a) feucht, nass (Gegens. śuṣka) [Amarakoṣa 3, 2, 55.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 1, 8.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1492.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 7.] sa.u.rasya.dhanvannā.drasya pā.e [Ṛgveda 1, 116, 4.] ā.drādā śuṣkam [2, 13, 6.] [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 6, 2, 11, 2. 4, 1, 5.] yadyapi śuṣkāṇyagrāṇi bhavantyārdrāṇyeva mūlāni bhavanti [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 3, 3, 4. 6, 3, 23. 41. 3, 2, 3, 10. 8, 5, 10.] u. s. w. atha yatkiṃcedamārdraṃ tadretaso sṛjata [14, 4, 2, 13.] ārdrapāda [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 76.] ārdrapadī gaṇa kumbhapadyādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 4, 139.] vāsas [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 23.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 52.] vraṇa [Mahābhārata 14, 53.] laktaka [Suśruta 1, 36, 5. 105, 5.] [Śākuntala 8, 14. 69.] śuṣkārdre aśanī [Viśvāmitra’s Kampf 6, 9.] tantrīrārdrā nayanasalilaiḥ [Meghadūta 84.] [Bhartṛhari 1, 38.] svārdra [26.] skhalati caraṇaṃ bhūmau nyastaṃ na cārdratamā mahī [Mṛcchakaṭikā 143, 25.] ārdrabhāva Feuchtigkeit [Kumārasaṃbhava 7, 14.] himārdra [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 22, 23.] jalārdra [Hiḍimbavadha 4, 55.] [Śākuntala 31.] [Meghadūta 44.] = ārdravastra [Hārāvalī 196.] toyārdra [Prabodhacandrodaja 80, 1.] (śaraḥ) rudhirārdrakṛtacchaviḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 92, 59.] — b) frisch; von Pflanzen, Holz, Gliedern u. s. w. saftig, grün, lebendig: yadrodasī.rejamāne.bhūmiśca ni.atakṣatam . ā.draṃ tada.ya sarva.ā samu.rasyeva sro.yāḥ [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 1, 32, 3.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 3, 4, 1. 9, 2, 2, 3. 7.] ārdraḥ samāṃsaḥ pratyagraḥ kṣiptaḥ kāyaḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 9, 94.] ārdraṃ śuṣkaṃ tathā māṃsam [2, 84, 17.] ārdraśarīraḥ [Suśruta 1, 118, 18.] pippalī [217, 9.] kustumburī [218, 4. 2, 36, 20. 276, 21.] [ĀŚV. GṚHY. 1, 11.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 12, 101.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 38.] [Mahābhārata 14, 671.] ārdraidhāgni mit grünem Holz genährtes Feuer [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 5, 4, 10. 7, 3, 11] [?= Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad 2, 4, 10. 4, 5, 11.] ārdravṛkṣīya adj. von ārdravṛkṣa gaṇa utkarādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 90.] — c) frisch, neu: ārdrāparādha [Amaruśataka 2.] śoka [Kathāsaritsāgara 21, 113.] [?ad Meghadūta 112.] ārdrasya śokaprahārasya [Prabodhacandrodaja 94, 8. 10.] — d) sanft, weich, gefühlvoll, warm: ārdrahṛdaya [Pañcatantra 101, 24.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 22, 65.] ārdrāntarātman [Meghadūta 91.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 194.] snehārdrahṛdaya [Pañcatantra 8, 19.] bhāvardramasyā manaḥ [Vikramorvaśī 72.] dayārdradhī [Kathāsaritsāgara 9, 63.] dayārdrabhāva [Raghuvaṃśa 2, 11.] premārdramānasā [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 124.] premārdrārdraiḥ -īkṣaṇaiḥ [Amaruśataka 4.] sadbhāvārdraḥ phalati nacireṇopakāro mahatsu ad [Meghadūta 18.] —
2) m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 4, 31.] Wohl gleichdeutend mit ārdraka . —
3) m. Nomen proprium ein Grossohn Pṛthus [Harivaṃśa 669. fg.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 361.] —
4) f. ārdrā das vierte Nakṣatra [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 19, 7, 2.] ā.drā nakṣatraṃ ru.ro de.atā [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 4, 4, 10, 1.] [Taittirīyabrāhmaṇa 3, 1, 1, 4.] das sechste [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 110.] [Colebrooke II, 332.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 226, Nalopākhyāna 21.] nakṣatrabhede [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 7.] ārdranakṣatrasaptame (Kürze!) [Vetālapañcaviṃśati 16, 19.] — Vgl. sārdra, wo ārdra als nom. abstr. (Feuchtigkeit) aufzufassen ist.
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1) c) adv.: cchinnanāsikā [Kathāsaritsāgara 77, 77.] — d) [Spr. 4746.] Vgl. klinna . —
2) m. pl. wohl frischer Ingwer [Harivaṃśa 8445.] Lies gleichbedeutend st. gleichdeutend. —
4) [WEBER, Jyotiṣa 37. fg. 95. Nakṣ. 1, 310. 2, 300. 303. 315] [?(pl.). 323. 370. Mahābhārata 13, 3259. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 9, 12. 26. 10, 1. 11, 55 (pl.).]
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Ārdra (आर्द्र):—Feuchtigkeit, feuchte Masse: haritālārdrapīta [Harivaṃśa 4083]; vgl. [Kumārasaṃbhava 7, 23.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) feucht , nass. — b) saftig , vollsaftig , frisch. — c) frisch , neu. cchinna von Kurzem. — d) sanft , weich , gefühlvoll , warm [252,3.] Am Ende eines Comp. überfliessend von. —
2) m. — a) frischer Ingwer. — b) Nomen proprium eines Enkels des Pṛthu. —
3) f. ā Sg. und Pl. das vierte (sechste) Mondhaus. —
4) n. Feuchtigkeit , feuchte Masse.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Ārdra (आर्द्र):—(a) wet; damp; humid; moist; tender; full of feeling; ~[tā] dampness; wetness; humidity; feeling of compassion or a compassionate mental state; ~[tāmāpī] hygrometer; ~[tāmiti] hygrometry; ~[tālekhī] hygrograph; ~[tā-vijñāna] hygrology.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+34): Ardra-haridra, Ardra-kaccura, Ardra-musta, Ardrabhava, Ardracanaka, Ardracarman, Ardracharman, Ardradanu, Ardrahasta, Ardraidhagni, Ardraja, Ardraka, Ardrakachchura, Ardrakaghrita, Ardrakakvatha, Ardrakapolita, Ardrakashtha, Ardrakavata, Ardrakhya, Ardralubdhaka.
Full-text (+82): Ardraka, Ardrashaka, Ardramasha, Ardrakashtha, Ardralubdhaka, Pratyardra, Raudrapada, Ardranayana, Ardrata, Ardrabhava, Kulakulanakshatra, Sardra, Shushkardra, Gajavithi, Ardradanu, Ardrapavitra, Shivadaiva, Karunardra, Voda, Ardraidhagni.
Search found 35 books and stories containing Ardra, Ārdrā, Ārdra; (plurals include: Ardras, Ārdrās, Ārdras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.4.187 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.2.50 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.4.101 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Sankhayana-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter LIX - Discourses on Astrology < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter CXXXVIII - Genealogy of royal princes (solar race) < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
Chapter CLXXXI - The Nidanam of poisons < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)