Ardra, Ārdrā, Ārdra: 15 definitions


Ardra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Ārdrānakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Ārdrā means “green” or “the moist one” and is associated with the deity known as Rudra (God of destruction). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Rahu (North lunar node).

Indian zodiac: |6°40'| – |20° Mithuna|
Mithuna (मिथुन, ‘twins’) corresponds with Gemini.

Western zodiac: |2°40'| – |16° Cancer|
Cancer corresponds with Karka (कर्क, “crab”).

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Ārdra (आर्द्र) is another name for Śṛṅgavera, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Zingiber officinale (fresh ginger). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.24-28), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—The name of a constellation.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 3.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) is the Sanskrit name for an asterism (Alpha-Orionis). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.14-15, the master of the dramatic art (nāṭyācārya) should perform raṅgapūjā after offering pūjā to the Jarjara (Indra’s staff). Accordingly, “After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the phayhouse for the night, he should begin pūjā as soon as it is morning. This pūjā connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ārdrā, Maghā, Yāmyā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā, Pūrvabhādrapadā, Aśleṣā or Mūlā”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to the sixth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (eg., ārdrā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा, ‘moist’) is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Ārdrās in the Śāṅkhāyana Gṛhya Sūtra and the Nakṣatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhū, in the Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Ārdrā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Chen, Tibetan Lag and modern Orionis.

Ārdrā is classified in the third group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the six following constellations (eg., Ārdrā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse, this trembling extends as far as the Garuḍa. Then there is no more rain, the rivers dry up, the year is bad for grain, the emperor (T’ien tseu) is cruel and the great ministers are unjust”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ārdrā.—(SITI), Tamil ātrai; probably, the expenses for the ārdrā festival in the month of Mārgaḻi. Note: ārdrā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ārdra (आर्द्र).—a (S) Wet, moist, humid.

--- OR ---

ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f (S) The sixth of the twenty-seven nakṣatra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārdra (आर्द्र).—n Wet, moist, humid.

--- OR ---

ārdrā (आर्द्रा).—f The 6th of the 27 nakṣatras.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—a. [ā-ard-rak dīrghaśca Uṇ.2.18]

1) Wet, moist, damp; तन्त्रीमार्द्रां नयनसलिलैः (tantrīmārdrāṃ nayanasalilaiḥ) Me.88.45; आर्द्राक्षतारोपणमन्वभूताम् (ārdrākṣatāropaṇamanvabhūtām) R.7.28.

2) Succulent, living, not dry, green, juicy; आर्द्रं द्रव्यं द्विधा प्रोक्तं सरसं नीरसं तथा (ārdraṃ dravyaṃ dvidhā proktaṃ sarasaṃ nīrasaṃ tathā)

3) Fresh, new; कामी- वार्द्रापराधः (kāmī- vārdrāparādhaḥ) Amaru.2; कान्तमार्दापराधम् (kāntamārdāparādham) M.3.12; R.14.4. आर्द्रमञ्जरी (ārdramañjarī) a cluster of fresh blossoms.

4) Soft, tender; oft. used with words like स्नेह, दया, करुणा (sneha, dayā, karuṇā) in the sense of 'flowing with', 'moved', 'melted'; स्नेहार्द्रं हृदयम् (snehārdraṃ hṛdayam) a heart wet or melted with pity; करुणा°, दया° (karuṇā°, dayā°); प्रेमार्द्राः चेष्टाः (premārdrāḥ ceṣṭāḥ) Māl. 5.7.

5) Full of feeling, warm.

6) Loose, flaccid.

-rdrā Name of a constellation or the sixth lunar mansion so called (consisting of one star). [cf. Gr. ardo].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—mfn.

(-rdraḥ-rdrā-rdraṃ) 1. Wet, moist, damp. 2. Fresh, not dry. 3. Loose, flaccid. 4. Tender, soft. f.

(-rdrā) The sixth Nakshatra or lunar mansion. E. ad to go, rak Unadi affix, and the pen. lengthened.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—adj., f. . 1. Wet, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 87. 2. Fresh, [Amaruśataka, (ed. Calcutt.)] 2. 3. Mild, [Pañcatantra] 8, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārdra (आर्द्र).—[adjective] wet, moist, succulent, fresh, new, soft, tender. [feminine] ā [Name] of a lunar mansion.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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