Mula, Mūlā, Mūla: 49 definitions
- Image gallery
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
- See also
Mula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Mool.
Images (photo gallery)
(+2 more images available)
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Mūla (मूल):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Mūla-nakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Mūla means “the root” and is associated with the deity known as Nirṛti (Goddess of destruction). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Ketu (south lunar node).
Indian zodiac: |0°| – |13°20' Dhanuṣa|
Dhanuṣa (धनुष, “bow”) corresponds with Sagittarius.
Western zodiac: |26° Sagittarius| – |9°20' Capricorn|
Sagittarius corresponds with Dhanuṣa (धनुष, “bow”) and Capricorn corresponds with Makara (मकर, “sea-monster”).
Mūla (मूल) refers to the 19th constellation, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the moon should pass to the south of Jyeṣṭha (the 18th constellation) [i.e., aindra], Mūla (the 19th constellation) and the two Āṣāḍhas (20th and 21st constellations) she destroys seeds, creatures in water and forests; and there will also be fear from fire. If the moon should pass to the south of Viśākhā (the 16th constellation) and Anurādhā (the 17th constellation) she will bring on evil. If she should pass through the middle of Maghā (the 10th constellation) or of Viśākhā (the 16th constellation) she will bring on prosperity”.Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Mūla (मूल) refers to the “base” (of a vessel), according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus it has has been said in the third Skandha of the sacred Bhāgavata. Its meaning is [as follows]. Eighty guñjas make one karṣa. The same has the designation of suvarṇa. Four karṣas are one pala. Thus, a vessel should be made of six palas of copper; it should be pierced at the base [i.e., mūla] by means of a needle made of twenty guñjas’ weight of gold and four aṅgulas in length. Through this perforation, by the time a prastha measure of water enters, that bowl sinks in the water, because of the prastha measure of water that filled it. Then that vessel becomes the standard measure for the period of one ghaṭī. There the unit of one prastha contains sixteen palas. [...]”.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Mūla (मूल).—1. Square root. 2. Base text (on which an expository commentary is written). Note: Mūla is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Mūlā (मूला):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Kanda, the fifth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Mūlā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).
She is also known by the name Śūlā, according to the Śrīmatottaratantra.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Mūla (मूल) is a Sanskrit word referring to the asterism Lambda Scorpii. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.42-43, the ceremony of “laying the foundation” of the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) should be performed during the auspicious part (muhūrta) of a good tithi under the asterism Mūlā.
2) Mūlā (मूला) is the Sanskrit name for an asterism (Lambda-Scorpionis). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.14-15, the master of the dramatic art (nāṭyācārya) should perform raṅgapūjā after offering pūjā to the Jarjara (Indra’s staff). Accordingly, “After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the phayhouse for the night, he should begin pūjā as soon as it is morning. This pūjā connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ārdrā, Maghā, Yāmyā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā, Pūrvabhādrapadā, Aśleṣā or Mūlā”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Mūla (मूल) refers to the “root”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, used in an analogy of worshipping Śiva:—“[...] or it is enough if Śiva alone is worshipped. The root (mūla) is the most important. When the root is watered, O gods, the branches are well-cared for. O excellent sages, if the branches are taken care of, it does not necessarily mean that the root is cared for. When the deities are propitiated, the same analogy holds good”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Mūla (मूल).—(also Mūlam) a nakṣatra; sacred to the worship of Piṭrs.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 23. 6; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 76; III. 18. 10; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 130; 66. 51; 82. 10.
1b) The hereditary force.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 240. 3.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Mūla (मूल) refers to the nineteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (e.g., mūla) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Mūla (मूल) refers to “abutment (of a stone) § 2.11.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Mūla (मूल).—The root of the teeth given as the place of origin for the letter र् (r) in the Rk Tantra : cf. रेफस्तु दन्त्यो दन्तमूले वा (rephastu dantyo dantamūle vā). R. T. 8;
2) Mūla.—The main instrutment of the utterance of letters known as मूलकरण (mūlakaraṇa) or अनुप्रदान (anupradāna).
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Mūla (मूल) or Mūlasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (e.g., Mūla-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Mūla (मूल) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Mūla] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Mūla (मूल) refers to “roots”, representing a type of common food commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The roots (mūla) and fruits (phala) seems to be a common food in śrautasūtra literature. Pāṇini uses the terms bhāji and śrāṇa as the synonyms for cooked vegetables. He mentions the term upadaṃśa which stands for a dish which is prepared by edible roots such as radish and ginger. Āpastamaba states that garlic and onions should be avoided by noble persons.
Mūla or “roots” (part of a plant) represents a type of vegetable (śāka) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts [like roots (mūla), etc.]. Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Mūla (मूल):—Root
2) [mūlam] RootSource: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Mūla (मूल) is another name for Pippalīmūla—(Cf. Pippalī), according to verse 6.21-23 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Mūla and Pippalīmūla, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Mūla (मूल, “root”) refers to one of the seventeen stages of the rise of kuṇḍalinī, according to Abhinavagupta as drawn from the Devyāyāmala.—Cf. The seventeen syllables [i.e., saptadaśākṣara] of Mantramātā.—[...] These seventeen units [are] to be arranged in as many locations along the axis of the subtle body, [as was] clearly known to Abhinava. Thus he presents an ascending series marking the stages of the rise of Kuṇḍalinī, the highest stage of which is that of the ‘Pure Self’ heralded by the Transmental just below it. In this set-up, drawn by Abhinavagupta from the Devyāyāmala, there are seventeen stages. These are [e.g., the Root (mūla), ...].
Jayaratha quotes this [Devyāyāmala] Tantra as a source of [Kālasaṃkarṣiṇī’s] Vidyā consisting of seventeen syllables. As the Devyāyāmala tells us that these places are related to the recitation of mantra, we may conclude that the seventeen syllables are contemplated in these seventeen places [e.g., Root (mūla)]. Accordingly, the Wheel of the Self can be said to be at the end of (i.e. after) the sixteen [i.e., ṣoḍaśānta].
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Mūla (मूल, ‘root’) denote primarily λ and ν at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from ε to ν. Also known as Vicṛtau (‘the two releasers’) and Mūlabarhaṇī ‘uprooting’.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsLiterally, "root." The fundamental conditions in the mind that determine the moral quality - skillful (kusala) or unskillful (akusala) - of ones intentional actions (see kamma). The three unskillful roots are lobha (greed), dosa (aversion), and moha (delusion); the skillful roots are their opposites. See kilesa (defilements).Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A minister of King Vattagamani. He built the Mulavokasa vihara. Mhv.xxxix.89; Dpv.xix. 18, 19.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
N (Origin, root).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
s. Mūla (“anger”).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'roots', also called hetu (q.v.; s. paccaya, 1), are those conditions which through their presence determine the actual moral quality of a volitional state (cetanā), and the consciousness and mental factors associated therewith, in other words, the quality of karma.
There are 6 such roots, 3 karmically wholesome and 3 unwholesome roots, viz.,: greed, hate, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), and greedlessness, hatelessness, undeludedness (alobha, adosa, amoha).
In A.III.68 it is said that greed arises through unwise reflection on an attractive object, hate through unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Thus, greed (lobha or rāga) comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' towards an object from the faintest trace of a longing thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred (dosa) comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the faintest trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate and wrath.
The 3 wholesome (kusala) roots, greedlessness, etc., though expressed in negative terms, nevertheless possess a distinctly positive character, just as is also often the case with negative terms in other languages, for example, the negative term 'immorality', which has a decidedly positive character.
Thus, greedlessness (alobha) is a name for unselfishness, liberality, etc., hatelessness (adosa) for kindness or goodwill (mettā), undeludedness (amoha) for wisdom (paññā).
"The perception of impurity is to be developed in order to overcome greed (lust); loving-kindness in order to overcome hate; wisdom in order to overcome delusion" (A.VI.107).
"Killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, frivolous talk, covetousness, ill-will and wrong views (s. kammapatha), these things are due either to greed, or hate, or delusion" (A.X.174).
"Enraptured with lust (greed), enraged with hate, blinded by delusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. And he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought... And he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the welfare of others, nor the welfare of both. These things make him blind and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, are painful, and do not lead him to peace."
The presence or absence of the 3 unwholesome roots forms part of the mind contemplation in the Satipatthāna Sutta (M.10). They are also used for the classification of unwholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I).
See The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 251/253).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mūla (मूल) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Mūla is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Wei, Tibetan Snrubs and modern Scorpionis.
Mūla is classified in the second group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the six following constellations (e.g., Mūla), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as the Nāgas. Then there is no more rain, the rivers dry up, the year is bad for grain, the emperor (T’ien tseu) is cruel and the great ministers are unjust”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Mūlā (मूला) refers to one of the various Nakṣatras mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Mūlā).Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Mūlā (मूला) refers to the nineteenth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Mūlā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Mūlā is given the colour yellow].
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: archive.org: Tipitaka Studies Outside Myanmar
Mula (main text) refers to a category of Buddhist literature approved by the sixth Buddhist council.—Mula mostly comprises the Buddha’s and Arahants’ wisdom as shared during the First Buddhist Council. It is also known as the Tipitaka, literally the “Three Baskets”, and comprises of the Sutta Pitaka (the collection of the Buddha's discourses), the Vinaya Pitaka (the code of monastic discipline), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the essential Teachings of the Buddha).Source: Buddhist Information: A Heart Released
Mula means root.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Mūla (मूल, “root”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Mūla and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.
2) Mūla (मूल) refers to “radish”: a type of vegetable (śāka), according to The Vyākhyāprajñapti 7.3.276. Different kinds of vegetables were grown in the vegetable gardens (kaccha / kakṣa). The consumption of vegetables was considered essential for digesting food according to the Niśīthacūrṇi. The Jaina texts forbid the consumption of certain vegetables as it leads to killing of insects.
The Vyākhyāprajñapti, also known as the Bhagavatīsūtra contains a compilation of 36,000 questions answered by Mahāvīra and dates to at least the 1st century A.D. The Niśīthacūrṇi by Jinadāsa is a 7th century commentary on the Niśthasūtra and deals with Jain medical knowledge.Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Mūla (मूल) in Prakrit or Mūlaka in Sanskrit refers to the plant radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.). This plant is classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to both Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246) and Hemacandra (in his Yogaśāstra 3.44-46). Those plants which are classified as ananta-kāyas (e.g., mūla) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Mūla (मूल) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [... the Mūlas, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Mūla.—(SITI), original; a document regarding a title to the property or right. (HRS), investment of capital which is one of the seven sources of revenue specified in the Arthaśāstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., p. 26. (Sel. Ins., p. 163), seedling. Cf. sa-mūla (EI 13), a tree. Note: mūla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
mūla : (nt.) root; money; cash; foot; bottom; origin; cause; foundation; beginning.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Mūla, (nt.) (Vedic mūra & mūla. The root is given as mūl in 2 meanings, viz. lit. “rohane” Dhtm 859, and fig. “patiṭṭhāyaṃ” Dhtm 391) 1. (lit.) root A. II, 200= M. I, 233; DhA. I, 270; IV, 200 (opp. patti); Vism. 270 (rukkha°=rukkha-samīpaṃ); Pv. II, 96 (sa° with the root); PvA. 43 (rukkhassa mūle at the foot of).—2. foot, bottom Vin. II, 269 (patta°); PvA. 73 (pāda°), 76 (id.). rukkha° foot of a tree: see under rukkha for special meaning.—3. (applied) ground for, reason, cause, condition, defd as “hetu, nidāna, sambhava” etc. at Nd2 s. v.; Sn. 14=369 (akusalā mũlā n. pl. =ākāra or patiṭṭhā SnA 23); Pv. II, 333 (sa° with its cause); Dukp 272, 297, 312, 320; Miln. 12 (& khandha-yamaka, with ref. to the Yamaka). Very frequent in this sense as referring to the three lobha, dosa, moha as conditioning akusala (& absence of them=kusala), e.g. at D. III, 214, 275; A. I, 201; 203; Vbh. 106 sq. , 169, 361; Yam I. 1; Vism. 454; cp. Nd2 517; VbhA. 382.—4. origin, source, foundation, root (fig.) Vin. I, 231=D. II, 91 (dukkhassa); Vin. II, 304; Sn. 916, 968 (cp. Nd1 344, 490); Th. 1, 1027 (brahmacariyassa); Dh. 247, 337. frequent in formula (may be taken to no. 1) (pahīna) ucchinna-mūla tālâvatthukata etc. with ref. to the origin of saṃsāra, e.g. at S. II, 62, 88; III, 10, 27, 161, 193; IV, 253, 292, 376. See Nd2 p. 205 s. v. pahīna, in extenso.—5. beginning, base, in mūladivasa the initial day DA. I, 311; also in phrase mūlakāraṇato right from the beginning VvA. 132 (cp. BSk. mūlaṃ kramataś ca id. Divy 491).—6. “substance, ” foundation, i.e. worth, money, capital, price, remuneration Miln. 334 (kamma°); DhA. I, 270 (?); PvA. 273; Mhvs 27, 23. amūla unpaid Mhvs 30, 17 (kamma labour).—iṇa° borrowed capital D. I, 71.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
muḷā (मुळा).—m (mūlaka S) A radish, Raphanus sativus. 2 A kind of shell-fish.
--- OR ---
mūla (मूल).—n (S) The root of a tree. 2 fig. The original, principle, basis; the first cause, ground, or occasion. 3 The first ancestor, founder of a race, progenitor. 4 Origin or commencement. 5 The original text; as opp. to the ṭīkā or comment. 6 Capital or principal. 7 m f n A child: also a son or daughter of, without advertence to age. 8 The nineteenth nakṣatra. 9 In arithmetic or algebra. The root of a quantity. 10 For compounds (as mūladravya, mūlapatra, mūlapīṭha, mūlapīṭhikā, mūlapuruṣa, mūlavāsa, mūlavyādhi, mūlasvabhāva &c.) see under the popular form mūḷa.
--- OR ---
mūḷa (मूळ).—n (mūla S) See mūla in all the significations but that of Child. 2 A person sent to summon a newly-married boy or girl to the parental mansion, to the house of the father-in-law &c.: also a person sent to summon the bridegroom to the wedding: also a messenger, more generally, sent to bring a person.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
muḷā (मुळा).—m A radish. A kind of shell-fish.
--- OR ---
mūla (मूल).—n A child. See mūḷa.
--- OR ---
mūḷa (मूळ).—n Root; origin. Principal. The principle. A messenger, more gene- rally, sent to bring a person. muḷāvara yēṇēṃ-basaṇēṃ Be the cause of destruction to. mūḷa khaṇaṇēṃ To destroy utterly.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A root (fig also); तरुमूलानि गृहीभवन्ति तेषाम् (tarumūlāni gṛhībhavanti teṣām) Ś.7.2; or शिखिनो धौतमूलाः (śikhino dhautamūlāḥ) 1.15; मूलं बन्ध् (mūlaṃ bandh) to take or strike root; बद्धमूलस्य मूलं हि महद्वैरतरोः स्त्रियः (baddhamūlasya mūlaṃ hi mahadvairataroḥ striyaḥ) Śi.2.38.
2) The root, lowest edge or extremity of anything; कस्याश्चिदासीद्रशना तदानीमङ्गुष्ठमूलार्पितसूत्रशेषा (kasyāścidāsīdraśanā tadānīmaṅguṣṭhamūlārpitasūtraśeṣā) R.7.1; so प्राचीमूले (prācīmūle) Me.91.
3) The lower part or end, base, the end of anything by which it is joined to something else; बाह्वोर्मूलम् (bāhvormūlam) Śi.7.32; so पादमूलम्, कर्णमूलम्, ऊरुमूलम् (pādamūlam, karṇamūlam, ūrumūlam) &c.
4) Beginning, commencement; आमूलाच्छ्रोतुमिच्छामि (āmūlācchrotumicchāmi) Ś.1.
5) Basis, foundation, source, origin, cause; सर्वे गार्हस्थ्यमूलकाः (sarve gārhasthyamūlakāḥ) Mb.; रक्षोगृहे स्थितिर्मूलम् (rakṣogṛhe sthitirmūlam) U.1.6; इति केना- प्युक्तं तत्र मूलं मृग्यम् (iti kenā- pyuktaṃ tatra mūlaṃ mṛgyam) 'the source or authority should be found out'; पुष्पं पुष्पं विचिन्वीत मूलच्छेदं न कारयेत् (puṣpaṃ puṣpaṃ vicinvīta mūlacchedaṃ na kārayet) Mb.5.34. 18; समूलघातमघ्नन्तः परान्नोद्यन्ति मानवाः (samūlaghātamaghnantaḥ parānnodyanti mānavāḥ) Śi.2.33.
6) The foot or bottom of anything; पर्वतमूलम्, गिरिमूलम् (parvatamūlam, girimūlam) &c.
7) The text, or original passage (as distinguished from the commentary or gloss).
8) Vicinity, neighbourhood; सा कन्दुकेनारमतास्य मूले विभज्यमाना फलिता लतेव (sā kandukenāramatāsya mūle vibhajyamānā phalitā lateva) Mb.3.112.16.
9) Capital, principal, stock; मूलं भागो व्याजी परिघः क्लृप्तं रूपिकमत्ययश्चायमुखम् (mūlaṃ bhāgo vyājī parighaḥ klṛptaṃ rūpikamatyayaścāyamukham) Kau. A.2.6.24.
1) A hereditary servant.
11) A square root.
12) A king's own territory; स गुप्तमूलमत्यन्तम् (sa guptamūlamatyantam) R.4.26; Ms.7.184.
13) A vendor who is not the true owner; Ms.8.22 (asvāmivikretā Kull.).
14) The nineteenth lunar mansion containing 11 stars.
15) A thicket, copse.
6) The root of long pepper.
17) A particular position of the fingers.
18) A chief or capital city.
19) An aboriginal inhabitant.
2) A bower, an arbour (nikuñja).
21) Name of several roots पिप्पली, पुष्कर, शूरण (pippalī, puṣkara, śūraṇa) &c.
22) A tail; मूलो मूलवता स्पृष्टो धूप्यते धूमकेतुना (mūlo mūlavatā spṛṣṭo dhūpyate dhūmaketunā) Rām.6.4.51. (In comp. mūla may be translated by 'first, prime, original, chief, principal' e. g. mūlakāraṇam 'prime cause', &c. &c.)
Derivable forms: mūlam (मूलम्).
--- OR ---
1) Name of a plant.
2) The asterism Mūla.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mūla (मूल).—(1) m. (in Sanskrit only nt.), root: mūlān bhak-ṣayato dhārayati (edible roots, for a horse) Divyāvadāna 513.14, 23, holds roots for (the horse) as he eats; (2) nt. (Sanskrit id.) root = foundation; peculiar use in Divyāvadāna 491.6, śakṣyasi tvaṃ…bhikṣūṇām upānahān mūlāc ca puñchitum (mss.), can you clean the monks' sandals thoroughly (from the ground up)? and 11, sa bhikṣūṇām upānahān mūlaṃ kramataś ca ponchate, he cleaned the monks' sandals thoroughly (lit., going to the very foundation?); (3) nt. (Sanskrit id.), root, be- ginning; in names of penances for monks, mūla-parivāsa (see parivāsa), probation starting over from the beginning because the original offense was repeated while parivāsa was in force (see antar-āpatti): Mahāvyutpatti 8650; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.207.15; iii.35.6 ff. (explained); mūla-pārivāsika, one undergoing this penance, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.37.15 etc.; mūlāpakarṣa-parivāsa, probation starting a second time from the beginning because the offense was repeated while mūla-parivāsa was in force (see praty-antarāpatti), Mahāvyutpatti 8651; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.207.15; this is abbreviated to mūlāpakarṣa, m., Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.38.11 etc., 41.13; in Pali, instead of mūlaparivāsa and mūlāpakarṣa- (parivāsa), there seems to be a single category, samo- dhāna-parivāsa, often qualified by mūlāya paṭikassantā (Vin. ii.7.20) or the like (N. Dutt, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii Introd. iv f. makes Pali mūlāya paṭikassanā and samodhāna-parivāsa separate penances corresp. to the above two in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit], [Page437-a+ 71] but this seems hardly supported by Pali evidence; possibly Vin. ii.62.6—12 may imply it, but it is not very clear). There is also mention of mūla-mānāpya and mūlāpa- karṣa-mān°, which are analogous to mūla-parivāsa and mūlāpakarṣa-p°, except that according to Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.77.2 and 5 the repeated faults are concealed (altho the fault leading to the original mānāpya was, of course, uncon- cealed, 76.20—21; otherwise parivāsa, not mānāpya, would have been the penalty); in a similar case iii.81.16 ff. the original and repeated faults are all unconcealed, leading to mūla-mānāpya 82.9 and mūlāpakarṣa-m° 83.2; (4) nt. (= Sanskrit Lex. and Prakrit id., [Paia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo]; Sanskrit and Pali mūlaka), radish (Tibetan la phug); Mahāvyutpatti 5767 bāla-mūlam, young radish, and 5768 mahā-m°, old radish; (5) m., name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu iii.236.10. See mūlaṃ, mūlāto, mūle.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-laṃ) 1. A root, the root of a tree, &c. 2. Origin, commencement. 3. Capital, principal. 4. Near, proximate. 5. Own, peculiar, proper. 6. The root of the Arum campanulatum. 7. The original text of any work, as opposed to the Tika or comment. 8. The root or bottom of any thing. 9. The end of any thing by which it is joined to something else. 10. Authority, source, origin. 11. Vicinity. 12. Basis, foundation. 13. A heriditary servant. 14. Capital, stock. 15. Square root, (in math.) 16. A king’s own territory. 17. A thicket. 18. A vender who is not a true owner. mn.
(-laḥ-laṃ) The nineteenth lunar asterism, containing eleven stars, which appear to be the same as those in the Scorpion'S tail. f. (-lī) A small house-lizard. E. mūl to stand, to be rooted or firm, aff. ka; or mū to bind, Unadi aff. kta.
--- OR ---
(-lā) 1. The name of a plant. “śatamūlyām” 2. The asterism Mula.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mūla (मूल).— (vb. mah), I. n. 1. The root of a tree, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 41; root (figuratively), [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 23. 2. An eatable root, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 33, 8. 3. The lowest part, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 77. 4. Origin. 5. Cause, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 5, 1. 6. The vendor, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 202. 7. Commencement; ā mūlāt, From its beginning, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 22, 98. 8. Capital, principal. 9. The original text of any work, as opposed to its comment. 10. Own. 11. One's own kingdom, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 184. 12. Near, proximate. 13. The root of the Arum campanulatum. Ii. m. and n. The nineteenth lunar asterism, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 16, 18. Iii. f. lī (cf. muśalī, s. v. muśala), A small house-lizard.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mūla (मूल).—[neuter] (adj. —° [feminine] ā & ī) root (lit. & [figuratively]), foot, basis, foundation, ground, bottom, immediate neighbourhoud; origin, source commencement, cause; the chief person or thing, e.[grammar] text ([opposed] commentary), capital ([opposed] interest), also capital = chief city, holder ([opposed] owner); [Name] of a lunar mansion (also [masculine]).
— mūlaṃ kṛ or bandh take root; mūla (—°) sprung from, rooted in, resting on; (°—) original, chief, first, also = (±ā) mūlāt or mūlatas & mūlādārabhya from the bottom or the beginning.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mūla (मूल):—[from mūl] n. (or m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā or ī). ; [probably] for 3. mūra See above) ‘firmly fixed’, a root (of any plant or tree; but also [figuratively] the foot or lowest part or bottom of anything), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (mūlaṃ √kṛ or bandh, to take or strike root)
2) [v.s. ...] a radish or the root of various other plants ([especially] of Arum Campanulatum, of long pepper, and of Costus Speciosus or Arabicus), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) [v.s. ...] the edge (of the horizon), [Meghadūta]
4) [v.s. ...] immediate neighbourhood (mama mūtam = to my side), [Rāmāyaṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] basis, foundation, cause, origin, commencement, beginning (mūlād ārabhya or ā mūlāt, from the beg°; mūlāt, from the bottom, thoroughly; mūlaṃ kramataś ca, right through from beginning, [Divyāvadāna]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. ([in the beginning of a compound]= chief principal cf. below; ifc. = rooted in, based upon, derived from)
6) [v.s. ...] a chief or principal city, [ib.]
7) [v.s. ...] capital (as opp. to ‘interest’), [Sāma-vidhāna-brāhmaṇa; Prabodha-candrodaya]
8) [v.s. ...] an original text (as opp. to the commentary or gloss), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Suśruta]
9) [v.s. ...] a king’s original or proper territory, [Manu-smṛti vii, 184]
10) [v.s. ...] a temporary (as opp. to the rightful) owner, [Manu-smṛti viii, 202]
11) [v.s. ...] an old or hereditary servant, a native inhabitant, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
12) [v.s. ...] the square root, [Sūryasiddhānta]
13) [v.s. ...] a [particular] position of the fingers (= mūta-bandha), [Pañcarātra]
14) [v.s. ...] a copse, thicket, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] n. also m. and f(ā). Name of the 17th (or 19th) lunar mansion, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
16) [v.s. ...] m. herbs for horses, food, [Divyāvadāna]
17) [v.s. ...] Name of Sadā-śiva, [Catalogue(s)]
18) Mūlā (मूला):—[from mūla > mūl] f. Asparagus Racemosus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) Mūla (मूल):—[from mūl] mfn. original, first, [Catalogue(s)]
20) [v.s. ...] = nija, own, proper, peculiar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mūla (मूल):—(laṃ) 1. n. A root, origin; text. f. (lī) House lizard. m. n. 19th lunar asterism, tail of Scorpio.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Mūla (मूल) [Also spelled mool]:—(nm) root; an edible tuber/root; principal (sum); origin, source; the nineteenth [nakṣatra]; the original text (of a book etc.); (a) radical; original; essential, fundamental; basic; principal, chief; parent; —[artha] the principal/chief meaning; —[kāraṇa] the root cause; •[honā] to be at the bottom of; to be the root cause of; —[graṃtha] original book/work; source book/work; —[graha] primary planet; ~[ccheda] uprooting, eradication; hence ~[cchedana; ~taḥ] basically, fundamentally, primarily; essentially; —[tattva] the essential/basic/main element; —[tvacā] epiblema; —[dravya] the principal; ~[dhana] the principal; —[patraka] master sheet; master copy; —[pāṭha] text, original text; —[puruṣa] the progenitor (of a race/family); —[prakṛti] essential/fundamental/basic nature; ~[bhūta] fundamental, essential, basic; original; —[maṃtra] the keynote; essence, essential element; —[rūpa] prototype, archetype; —[vaṃśa] racial origin; —[vyādhi] the real malady; —[siddhāṃta] fundamental/essential/basic principle; —[sthāna] the key-point; source point; original home/abode; —[strota] main source, original source; —[gaṃvānā] to lose even the capital; —[se byāja pyārā hotā hai] the lure of interest is more compelling than that of the principal itself.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Mūla (मूल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Mūla.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the part of a plant that is usu. below the ground which supports and nourishes the plant; the root.
2) [noun] the tuberlike roots of certain plants used as vegetable.
3) [noun] the lower portion of a tree, that between the ground and the lowest branch.
4) [noun] that from which something comes into existence, develops or derives; a source; an origin.
5) [noun] anything producing an effect or result; a cause.
6) [noun] a starting or commencing; a beginning.
7) [noun] the original manuscript of a literary work.
8) [noun] the wealth, as money, property, etc. invested by a promoter of a business; capital.
9) [noun] nearness; proximity.
10) [noun] a place where public or private funds are officially kept, received, and disbursed.
11) [noun] that which a person has a just claim to; a right.
12) [noun] a root-like extension that grows from the branch of a tree (e.g., of banian), take root in the ground, later becomes an additional trunk; an aerial root.
13) [noun] a bush; a shrubby plant.
14) [noun] the Eternal Being.
15) [noun] (gram.) a word in its original form, without any termination or morpheme.
16) [noun] (math.) a quantity that, multiplied by itself a specified number of times, produces a given quantity; the root.
17) [noun] name of a bright star in the constellation Scorpius; Shaula.
18) [noun] (fig.) a source of trouble, annoyance etc.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] the plant Drypetes venusta ( = Hemicyclia venusta) of Euphorbiaceae family.
2) [noun] its fruit.
--- OR ---
1) [adjective] torn; pulled apart; rent.
2) [adjective] mean; of low quality or importance.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] a man with torn ear or a he who does not have external part of the ear.
2) [noun] a man lacking normal intelligence; a stupid, senseless fellow.
3) [noun] a physically disabled man; a handicapped man.
4) [noun] lack; deficiency; absence.
5) [noun] a man of little or no importance.
--- OR ---
Mūḻa (ಮೂೞ):—[adjective] = ಮೂಳ [mula]1.
--- OR ---
Mūḻa (ಮೂೞ):—[noun] = ಮೂಳ [mula]2.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+301): Mula -Kana -Kana -Kara, Mula Acara, Mula-gabharo, Mula-muhurti, Mula-nayaka, Mula-parishad, Mula-sangha, Mula-visa, Mulaakshara, Mulabagal, Mulabala, Mulabandha, Mulabandhana, Mulabandhasana, Mulabarhana, Mulabera, Mulabha, Mulabhadra, Mulabhaga, Mulabhara.
Ends with (+295): Abaddhamula, Abhidhamula, Abhuktamula, Adharamula, Adimula, Adomula, Ajamula, Akushalamula, Alicem Mula, Alpamula, Amgushthamula, Amsamula, Amtamula, Amula, Anantamula, Angavaracem Mula, Angavaracem-mula, Angulimula, Angushthamula, Anirvrittamula.
Full-text (+2186): Ekamula, Mulakhanaka, Granthimula, Mulakarika, Mulakamula, Anantamula, Mulakarman, Gudamula, Mulabandha, Dharmamula, Shvetamula, Muladhana, Mulasthana, Mulasrotas, Amula, Mulabarhana, Arkamula, Mulanikrintana, Gulmamula, Velamula.
Search found 112 books and stories containing Mula, Mulā, Muḷā, Mūlā, Mūla, Mūḷa, Mūḻa; (plurals include: Mulas, Mulās, Muḷās, Mūlās, Mūlas, Mūḷas, Mūḻas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Mandukya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Karika verse 2.5 < [Chapter 2 - Second Khanda]
Karika verse 2.3 < [Chapter 2 - Second Khanda]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 1 - On the description of Prakṛti < [Book 9]
Chapter 8 - On the greatness of Kali < [Book 9]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter LIX - Discourses on Astrology < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter LXI - Influences of the moon in her different mansions < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter XCV - Duties of house holders < [Agastya Samhita]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Bahur < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Devakoshta < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Gramam (Mudiyur) < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)