Mula, aka: Mūlā, Mūla; 25 Definition(s)

Introduction

Mula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Mūla (मूल):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Mūla-nakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Mūla means “the root” and is associated with the deity known as Nirṛti (Goddess of destruction). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Ketu (south lunar node).

Indian zodiac: |0°| – |13°20' Dhanuṣa|
Dhanuṣa (धनुष, “bow”) corresponds with Sagittarius.

Western zodiac: |26° Sagittarius| – |9°20' Capricorn|
Sagittarius corresponds with Dhanuṣa (धनुष, “bow”) and Capricorn corresponds with Makara (मकर, “sea-monster”).

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Mūla (मूल).—1. Square root. 2. Base text (on which an expository commentary is written). Note: Mūla is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Mūlā (मूला):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Kanda, the fifth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Mūlā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

She is also known by the name Śūlā, according to the Śrīmatottaratantra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Mūla (मूल) is a Sanskrit word referring to the asterism Lambda Scorpii. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.42-43, the ceremony of “laying the foundation” of the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) should be performed during the auspicious part (muhūrta) of a good tithi under the asterism Mūlā.

2) Mūlā (मूला) is the Sanskrit name for an asterism (Lambda-Scorpionis). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.14-15, the master of the dramatic art (nāṭyācārya) should perform raṅgapūjā after offering pūjā to the Jarjara (Indra’s staff). Accordingly, “After proceeding thus according to rules and staying in the phayhouse for the night, he should begin pūjā as soon as it is morning. This pūjā connected with the stage should take place under the asterism Ārdrā, Maghā, Yāmyā, Pūrvaphalgunī, Pūrvāṣāḍhā, Pūrvabhādrapadā, Aśleṣā or Mūlā”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

1a) Mūla (मूल).—(also Mūlam) a nakṣatra; sacred to the worship of Piṭrs.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 23. 6; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 76; III. 18. 10; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 130; 66. 51; 82. 10.

1b) The hereditary force.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 240. 3.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Mūla (मूल) refers to the nineteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (eg., mūla) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

1) Mūla (मूल).—The root of the teeth given as the place of origin for the letter र् (r) in the Rk Tantra : cf. रेफस्तु दन्त्यो दन्तमूले वा (rephastu dantyo dantamūle vā). R. T. 8;

2) Mūla.—The main instrutment of the utterance of letters known as मूलकरण (mūlakaraṇa) or अनुप्रदान (anupradāna).

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Mūla (मूल) or Mūlasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (eg., Mūla-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Mūla (मूल) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Mūla] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Mūla (मूल, ‘root’) denote primarily λ and ν at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from ε to ν. Also known as Vicṛtau (‘the two releasers’) and Mūlabarhaṇī ‘uprooting’.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Literally, "root." The fundamental conditions in the mind that determine the moral quality - skillful (kusala) or unskillful (akusala) - of ones intentional actions (see kamma). The three unskillful roots are lobha (greed), dosa (aversion), and moha (delusion); the skillful roots are their opposites. See kilesa (defilements).Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

A minister of King Vattagamani. He built the Mulavokasa vihara. Mhv.xxxix.89; Dpv.xix. 18, 19.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

N (Origin, root).

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

s. Mūla (“anger”).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'roots', also called hetu (q.v.; s. paccaya, 1), are those conditions which through their presence determine the actual moral quality of a volitional state (cetanā), and the consciousness and mental factors associated therewith, in other words, the quality of karma.

There are 6 such roots, 3 karmically wholesome and 3 unwholesome roots, viz.,: greed, hate, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), and greedlessness, hatelessness, undeludedness (alobha, adosa, amoha).

In A.III.68 it is said that greed arises through unwise reflection on an attractive object, hate through unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Thus, greed (lobha or rāga) comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' towards an object from the faintest trace of a longing thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred (dosa) comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the faintest trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate and wrath.

The 3 wholesome (kusala) roots, greedlessness, etc., though expressed in negative terms, nevertheless possess a distinctly positive character, just as is also often the case with negative terms in other languages, for example, the negative term 'immorality', which has a decidedly positive character.

Thus, greedlessness (alobha) is a name for unselfishness, liberality, etc., hatelessness (adosa) for kindness or goodwill (mettā), undeludedness (amoha) for wisdom (paññā).

"The perception of impurity is to be developed in order to overcome greed (lust); loving-kindness in order to overcome hate; wisdom in order to overcome delusion" (A.VI.107).

"Killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, frivolous talk, covetousness, ill-will and wrong views (s. kammapatha), these things are due either to greed, or hate, or delusion" (A.X.174).

"Enraptured with lust (greed), enraged with hate, blinded by delusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. And he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought... And he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the welfare of others, nor the welfare of both. These things make him blind and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, are painful, and do not lead him to peace."

The presence or absence of the 3 unwholesome roots forms part of the mind contemplation in the Satipatthāna Sutta (M.10). They are also used for the classification of unwholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I).

See The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 251/253).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Mūla (मूल) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Mūla is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Wei, Tibetan Snrubs and modern Scorpionis.

Mūla is classified in the second group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the six following constellations (eg., Mūla), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as the Nāgas. Then there is no more rain, the rivers dry up, the year is bad for grain, the emperor (T’ien tseu) is cruel and the great ministers are unjust”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Mula (main text) refers to a category of Buddhist literature approved by the sixth Buddhist council.—Mula mostly comprises the Buddha’s and Arahants’ wisdom as shared during the First Buddhist Council. It is also known as the Tipitaka, literally the “Three Baskets”, and comprises of the Sutta Pitaka (the collection of the Buddha's discourses), the Vinaya Pitaka (the code of monastic discipline), and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the essential Teachings of the Buddha).

Source: archive.org: Tipitaka Studies Outside Myanmar

Mula means root.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Heart Released

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

1) Mūla (मूल, “root”).—One of the ten kinds of “plant-bodies” (vanaspati) a soul (jīva) can be reborn as due to karma. Mūla and other plant-bodies are within the animal world (tiryag-gati) which is one of the four divisions of saṃsāra where souls are reborn.

2) Mūla (मूल) refers to “radish”: a type of vegetable (śāka), according to The Vyākhyāprajñapti 7.3.276. Different kinds of vegetables were grown in the vegetable gardens (kaccha / kakṣa). The consumption of vegetables was considered essential for digesting food according to the Niśīthacūrṇi. The Jaina texts forbid the consumption of certain vegetables as it leads to killing of insects.

The Vyākhyāprajñapti, also known as the Bhagavatīsūtra contains a compilation of 36,000 questions answered by Mahāvīra and dates to at least the 1st century A.D. The Niśīthacūrṇi by Jinadāsa is a 7th century commentary on the Niśthasūtra and deals with Jain medical knowledge.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Mūla (मूल) in Prakrit or Mūlaka in Sanskrit refers to the plant radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.). This plant is classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to both Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246) and Hemacandra (in his Yogaśāstra 3.44-46). Those plants which are classifiedas ananta-kāyas (eg., mūla) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

mūla : (nt.) root; money; cash; foot; bottom; origin; cause; foundation; beginning.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Mūla, (nt.) (Vedic mūra & mūla. The root is given as mūl in 2 meanings, viz. lit. “rohane” Dhtm 859, and fig. “patiṭṭhāyaṃ” Dhtm 391) 1. (lit.) root A. II, 200= M. I, 233; DhA. I, 270; IV, 200 (opp. patti); Vism. 270 (rukkha°=rukkha-samīpaṃ); Pv. II, 96 (sa° with the root); PvA. 43 (rukkhassa mūle at the foot of).—2. foot, bottom Vin. II, 269 (patta°); PvA. 73 (pāda°), 76 (id.). rukkha° foot of a tree: see under rukkha for special meaning.—3. (appld) ground for, reason, cause, condition, defd as “hetu, nidāna, sambhava” etc. at Nd2 s. v.; Sn. 14=369 (akusalā mũlā n. pl. =ākāra or patiṭṭhā SnA 23); Pv. II, 333 (sa° with its cause); Dukp 272, 297, 312, 320; Miln. 12 (& khandha-yamaka, with ref. to the Yamaka). Very freq. in this sense as referring to the three lobha, dosa, moha as conditioning akusala (& absence of them=kusala), e.g. at D. III, 214, 275; A. I, 201; 203; Vbh. 106 sq. , 169, 361; Yam I. 1; Vism. 454; cp. Nd2 517; VbhA. 382.—4. origin, source, foundation, root (fig.) Vin. I, 231=D. II, 91 (dukkhassa); Vin. II, 304; Sn. 916, 968 (cp. Nd1 344, 490); Th. 1, 1027 (brahmacariyassa); Dh. 247, 337. Freq. in formula (may be taken to no. 1) (pahīna) ucchinna-mūla tālâvatthukata etc. with ref. to the origin of saṃsāra, e.g. at S. II, 62, 88; III, 10, 27, 161, 193; IV, 253, 292, 376. See Nd2 p. 205 s. v. pahīna, in extenso.—5. beginning, base, in mūladivasa the initial day DA. I, 311; also in phrase mūlakāraṇato right from the beginning VvA. 132 (cp. BSk. mūlaṃ kramataś ca id. Divy 491).—6. “substance, ” foundation, i.e. worth, money, capital, price, remuneration Miln. 334 (kamma°); DhA. I, 270 (?); PvA. 273; Mhvs 27, 23. amūla unpaid Mhvs 30, 17 (kamma labour).—iṇa° borrowed capital D. I, 71.

—kanda eatable tuber DhA. III, 130; IV, 78 (mūlaka°). See also kanda. —kammaṭṭhāna fundamental k. or k. of causes SnA 54. —ghacca radically extirpated Dh. 250, 263. —ṭṭha one who is the cause of something, an instigator Vin. III, 75. —dassāvin knowing the cause or reason Sn. 1043, cp. Nd2 517. —phala (eatable) fruit, consisting of roots; roots as fruit Sn. 239. —bandhana fundamental bond (?) or set of causes (?) Sn. 524 sq. , 530 sq. , cp. SnA 429—431. —bīja having seeds in roots, i.e. propagated by roots, one of the classes of plants enumd under bījagāma (q. v.). —rasa taste of roots, or juice made fr. roots VbhA. 69; see under rasa. (Page 539)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

muḷā (मुळा).—m (mūlaka S) A radish, Raphanus sativus. 2 A kind of shell-fish.

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mūla (मूल).—n (S) The root of a tree. 2 fig. The original, principle, basis; the first cause, ground, or occasion. 3 The first ancestor, founder of a race, progenitor. 4 Origin or commencement. 5 The original text; as opp. to the ṭīkā or comment. 6 Capital or principal. 7 m f n A child: also a son or daughter of, without advertence to age. 8 The nineteenth nakṣatra. 9 In arithmetic or algebra. The root of a quantity. 10 For compounds (as mūladravya, mūlapatra, mūlapīṭha, mūlapīṭhikā, mūlapuruṣa, mūlavāsa, mūlavyādhi, mūlasvabhāva &c.) see under the popular form mūḷa.

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mūḷa (मूळ).—n (mūla S) See mūla in all the significations but that of Child. 2 A person sent to summon a newly-married boy or girl to the parental mansion, to the house of the father-in-law &c.: also a person sent to summon the bridegroom to the wedding: also a messenger, more generally, sent to bring a person.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

muḷā (मुळा).—m A radish. A kind of shell-fish.

--- OR ---

mūla (मूल).—n A child. See mūḷa.

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mūḷa (मूळ).—n Root; origin. Principal. The principle. A messenger, more gene- rally, sent to bring a person. muḷāvara yēṇēṃ-basaṇēṃ Be the cause of destruction to. mūḷa khaṇaṇēṃ To destroy utterly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 367 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Mulaprakriti
Mūlaprakṛti (मूलप्रकृति).—f. the Prakṛti or Pradhāna of the Sāṅkhyas (q. v.); मूल- प्रकृतिरविकृ...
Dashamula
Daśamūla (दशमूल).—a tonic medicine prepared from the roots of ten plants; (Mar. sālavaṇa, piṭav...
Mulabandha
Mūlabandha (मूलबन्ध).—a particular position of the fingers. Derivable forms: mūlabandhaḥ (मूलबन...
Mulaguna
Mūlaguṇa (मूलगुण).—the co-efficient of a root. Derivable forms: mūlaguṇaḥ (मूलगुणः).Mūlaguṇa is...
Muladhara
Mūlādhāra (मूलाधार).—1) the navel. 2) a mystical circle above the organs of generation; मूलाधार...
Mulaja
Mūlaja (मूलज).—a. 1) radical. 2) growing at the roots of trees (as an ant-hill). 3) born under ...
Abhuktamula
Abhuktamūla (अभुक्तमूल).—the interval between the closing part of Jyeṣṭhā and the beginging of ...
Kushala-mula
Kuśalamūla (कुशलमूल) refers to the “three roots of wholesomeness” as defined in the Dharma-saṃg...
Kandamula
Kandamūla (कन्दमूल).—a radish. Derivable forms: kandamūlam (कन्दमूलम्).Kandamūla is a Sanskrit ...
Mulagrantha
Mūlagrantha (मूलग्रन्थ).—1) an original text. 2) the very words uttered by Śākyamuni. Derivable...
Muladhana
Mūladhana (मूलधन).—principal, stock, capital. Derivable forms: mūladhanam (मूलधनम्).Mūladhana i...
Tapomula
Tapomūla (तपोमूल).—a. founded on religious austerity; तपोमूलमिदं सर्वं दैवमानुषकं सुखम् (tapomū...
Muladeva
Mūladeva (मूलदेव) is the name of a master of magic arts (siddha-guru), as mentioned in the fift...
Nirmula
Nirmūla (निर्मूल).—a. 1) rootless (as a tree). 2) baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). ...
Pancamula
Pañcamūla (पञ्चमूल) is the name of a Gaṇa of Ambikā, who incarnated as Pañcaphuṭṭika, due to a ...

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