Ujjayini, aka: Ujjayinī; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Ujjayini means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Kavya (poetry)

[Ujjayini in Kavya glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Modern Ujjain, situated in Madhya Pradesh state.

(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Ujjayini in Shaivism glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी):—Sanskrit name for one of the twenty-four sacred sites of the Sūryamaṇḍala, the first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra, according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. It is also known as Ekāmraka, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasraṭippanī. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth and final cakra located just above the head. Each one of these holy sites (pītha) is presided over by a particular Khecarī (‘sky-goddess’). This Ujjayinī-pītha is connected with the goddess Mahāmāyā.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Ujjayini (उज्जयिनि) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Ujjayini) is named Mahākāla. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) to be assigned to eye-brows (bhrū) during the pīṭhavidhi (‘ritual of sacred sites’) according to the Tantrāloka chapter 29. This chapter of the Tantrāloka by Abhinavagupta expounds details regarding the Kula initiation ritual. Kula or Kaula is a specific tradition within Śaivism, closely related to Siddhānta and Śaktism. In the Jñānārṇava-tantra it is also mentioned as a pīṭha and is also called Kolvagiri.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Katha (narrative stories)

[Ujjayini in Katha glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी) is the name of an ancient city and dwelling-place of Śiva, situated in Avanti, as mentioned in the “story of king Vikramasiṃha and the two Brāhmans”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 27. Accordingly, “There is in Avanti a city named Ujjayinī, famous in the world, which is the dwelling-place of Śiva, and which gleams with its white palaces as if with the peaks of Kailāsa, come thither in the ardour of their devotion to the god. This vast city, profound as the sea, having a splendid emperor for its water, had hundreds of armies entering it, as hundreds of rivers flow into the sea, and was the refuge of allied kings, as the sea is of mountains that retain their wings”.

Ujjayinī is associated with the Kaliyuga, as mentioned in the ninth story of the Vetālapañcaviṃśati in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 83. Accordingly, “... there is in Avanti a city built by gods at the beginning of the world, which is limitless as the body of Śiva, and renowned for enjoyment and prosperity, even as his body is adorned with the snake’s hood and ashes. It was called Padmāvatī in the Kṛta Yuga, Bhogavatī in the Tretā Yuga, Hiraṇyavatī in the Dvāpara Yuga, and Ujjayinī in the Kali Yuga. And in it there lived an excellent king, named Vīradeva, and he had a queen named Padmarati”.

Ujjayinī is also mentioned in the eighteenth story of the Vetālapañcaviṃśati in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 92. Accordingly, “... there is a city called Ujjayinī, inferior only to Bhogavatī and Amarāvatī, which Śiva, who was won by the toilsome asceticism of Gaurī, being in love with the matchless preeminence of its excellence, himself selected as his habitation. It is full of various enjoyments, to be attained only by distinguished well-doing”.

Ujjayinī is also described in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 102. Accordingly, “... and after crossing the cemetery [Mahākāla], he beheld [Mṛgāṅkadatta] the city of Ujjayinī, a yuga old, ruled by King Karmasena. Its streets were watched by guards with various weapons, who were themselves begirt by many brave high-born Rājputs; it was surrounded with ramparts resembling the peaks of mighty mountains; it was crowded with elephants, horses and chariots, and hard for strangers to enter”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Ujjayinī, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Ujjayini in Hinduism glossaries]

Ujjayini (उज्‍जयिनि) or Ujjain (उज्जैन): is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh near which the ancient throne of Vikramaditya was discovered, one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, where the Kumbh Mela is held every twelve years. It is also home to Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines to the god Shiva.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[Ujjayini in Mahayana glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी), in Pāli Ujjenī, in Greek Ozene (Ptolemy, VII, i, v. 63; Periple of the Erythrean Sea, v. 48), capital of Avanti, situated at 77 degress E and 23 degrees N (Rh. D., Buddhist India, p. 40; CAGI, p. 560). Native city of several disciples of the Buddha, it was visited by Hiuan tsang (Beal, II, p. 270; Watters, Travels, II, p. 250).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

[Ujjayini in India history glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी) is another name for Ujeni.—Ujjayinī was the scene of activity of Kālidāsa. whose dramas were performed here on the occasion of the spring festival at the royal court. The Dīpavaṃśa ascribes its foundation to Accutagāmi. The importance of the city of Ujjayinī os a commercial link with the ports on western coasts is noted by the author of Periplus, and Ptolemy associates It with Caṣṭana.

(Source): archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Ujjayinī is an archaeologically important site dating to the Ganges civilization (1000 BCE).—Nearly a millennium after the Indus civilization had collapsed, the Ganges civilization arose in the first millennium BCE. But this urban development extended beyond the Ganges valley, as testified by, for example, Ujjayinī (Ujjain), in Madhya Pradesh.

(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Architecture (1): Early and Classical Architecture (h)
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Ujjayini in Sanskrit glossaries]

Ujjayinī (उज्जयिनी).—Name of a city, the modern Ujjain in Mālvā, the capital of Vikramāditya. It is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus (cf. avanti), and the first meridian of their geographers from which they calculate longitude; सौधोत्सङ्गप्रणयविमुखो मा स्म भूरुज्जयिन्याः (saudhotsaṅgapraṇayavimukho mā sma bhūrujjayinyāḥ) Me.27.

See also (synonyms): ujjayanī.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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