The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system

by Babu C. D | 2018 | 44,340 words

This thesis is called: The validity of Anumana (inference) in Nyaya system. It tries to establish the validity of Anumana through citing its application either consciously or unconsciously in every sphere of human life. Anumana in Nyaya system is the knowledge of any object not by direct observation but by means of the knowledge of a liṅga or sign ...

Chapter 4.2.3 - The Prakaranas (c): Tarkabhasa by Kesava Mishra

Kesava Mishra was a preceptor of Govardhana Mishra who wrote a commentary on Tarkabhasa titled, ‘Tarkabhasha Prakasha’. He is considered to be from Mithila, belonging to 13 A.D.[1] He is known for his prakarana type of work Tarkabhasha which deals in detail on the Nyaya theories. He also elaborates on the key doctrines of Vaisheshika system like atomic theory, the origin of the motion of duality, theory of paksha etc.

The outstanding work of Kesava Mishra- Tarkabhasha discusses the sixteen categories of Nyayasutra. He incorporates the Vaisheshika categories in Nyaya categories. According to him, the prameyas include; atma, sharira, indriya, artha, buddhi, manas, pravritti, dosha, pretyabhava, phala, duhkha and apavarga. The word ‘artha’ in the Nyayasutra signifies the five objects of senses, viz. gandha (smell) rasa (taste), rupa (colour), sparsha (touch) and shabda (sound). For Kesava Mishra ‘artha’ signifies dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha and samavaya. It should be noted here that although the sixteen categories of Nyaya and the six categories of Vaisheshika are dealt and stated as separate categories, the Vaisheshika categories are explained identically with artha.

According to him karana or instrument is a cause pivotal in bringing about a result. For example, the threads are the cause of a cloth. An effect or karya is defined as that necessary consequence which is not brought about by something else. For example cloth is an effect of threads. Cause is of three kinds; viz. samavayi karana-the cause in which an effect inheres as threads are cause of cloth;asamavayi karana-that which inheres in the material cause and whose efficiency is well known as the conjunction of the threads is non-material cause of cloth;and nimitta karana (instrumental cause) as the loom a cause of the cloth.

According to Kesava Mishra, anumana (inference) is a consideration from sign. A sign is that which indicates the predicate by the force of their invariable concomitance. For instance, smoke is a sign of fire in as much as there is an invariable concomitance of smoke with fire in the form “wherever there is smoke, there is fire.” Consideration (paramarsha) is the knowledge that the sign pervaded by the predicate abides in the subject. Inferential knowledge (Anumiti) is the knowledge which is derived through consideration. For instance, this hill has fire because it has smoke which is in invariable concomitance with fire. Invariable concomitance is the constant association of the sign with the predicate. For example, the co-presence of smoke with fire. The concomitance or co-presence must be natural and not conditional.

Ujjavala by Gopinatha, Tarkabhasha bhava by Roma Vilva Venkata Buddha, Nyaya samgraha by Rama Linga, Sarama Tijari by Madhava Deva, Paribhasha Darpana by Bhaskara Bhatta, Tarkabhasha-prakashika by Bala Candra, Yuktimuktavali by Nagesha Bhatta, Tarkabhasaprakashika by Cinna Bhatta, Tattva Prabodhini by Gangesa Dikshita, Tarkabhasa prakashika by Kaundinya Dikshila, Tarkadipika by Kesava Bhatta, Tarkabhasa Prakashika by Govardhana Mishra, Tarkabhasaprakashika by Gaurikanta Sarvabhauma and Nyayapradipa by Visvakarma are the prominent commentaries on Tarkabhasa.

Footnotes and references:


Karl. H. Potter, Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt., New Delhi, 1997, p.11

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